Azerbaijani modern literature

Modern Azerbaijani literature is almost exclusively produced in the Republic of Azerbaijan and despite being widely spoken in Iranian Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani is not formally taught in schools nor are publications in Azerbaijani easily available.

Modern literature
From writers of modern Azerbaijan, the most famous were the screenwriter Rustam Ibragimbekov and the author of the detective novels Chingiz Abdullayev, who wrote exclusively in Russian.

Poetry is represented by famous poets Nariman Hasanzade, Khalil Rza, Sabir Novruz, Vagif Samadoglu, Nusrat Kesemenli, Ramiz Rovshan, Hamlet Isakhanli, Zalimkhan Yagub, etc. Among modern Azerbaijani playwrights, F. Goja, Elchin, K. Abdullah, A. Masud, G. Miralamov, E. Huseynbeyli, A. Ragimov, R. Akber, A. Amirley, and others.

The framework of the new Azerbaijani prose is expanded by elements of the detective, fiction, anti-utopia, Turkic mythology, eastern surrealism. Among the writers working in this genre one can name such writers as Anar, M. Suleymanly, N. Rasulzade, R. Rahmanoglu. The new Azerbaijani realism began to gain momentum when young prose writers began to turn increasingly to national history and ethnic memory. In this regard, it is worth noting the historical and synthetic novel “The Thirteenth Apostle, or One Hundred Forty-First Don Juan” by Elchin Huseynbeyli and the historical novels “Shah Abbas” and “Nadir Shah” by Yunus Oguz.

After gaining independence in Azerbaijan, an important role was played by the liberation of the occupied territories, love of the Motherland and justice. One of the most famous books about Karabakh are: “Karabakh – mountains call us” Elbrus Orujev, “Azerbaijan Diary: A Rogue Reporter’s Adventures in an Oil-Rich, War-Torn, Post-Soviet Republic” Thomas Goltz “History of Azerbaijan on documents and Ziya Bunyatov. The Karabakh war left its misprint in the modern Azerbaijani literature: such writers as G. Anargizy, M. Suleymanly, A. Rahimov, S. Ahmedli, V. Babally, K. Nezirli, A. Kuliev, A. Abbas, M. Bekirli turned to the themes of the fate of refugees, longing for the lost Shusha, Khojaly massacre, cruelty of war, etc.

To support young writers in 2009, the “Ali and Nino” publishing house established the National Book Award of Azerbaijan, which annually monitors novelties of literature, and awards awards to the most successful samples of literature and works released over the past year. The jury of the award includes well-known Azerbaijani writers, cultural figures.

The literature of the period of the national-democratic movement (1890-1937-years)
With the history and theory of literature, Hasan bey Zardabi, Firidun bey Köçarli, Nariman Narimanov, Mohammad Tagi Sidqi, Mir Mohsun Nawab were also engaged. They have expressed and put forward many views and ideas about their literary and artistic creation in their publicistic and artistic works. Some of the dramatic pieces of the 1890s featured Najaf bey Vezirov’s painting “A home-made image”, “The value of a stone thrown from the field”, “The next regret does not benefit”, Asgar Agha Goranin’s “Quilt in the Elderly”, Eynali bey Sultanov’s “Turkish girl”,Rashid bey Afandiyev’s “Blood Donor ” and Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev’s comedy “Yeysner gas, seeing taste” depicted a number of features of family life, created a number of interesting satirical art figures representing the realm of darkness, old traditions, social shortcomings such as homosexuality, family despotism, forced marriages of young girls, theft and robbery have been criticized and enlightened ideas have been confirmed. The second part of the drama works written in these years – N.Vezirov’s “We went down from the rain, we went down to rain”, “Pahlavanani-zamana” comedy and “Mushibasi-Fakhraddin” tragedy, N.Narimanov’s “Insight”, ” The tragedy of A.Hagverdiyev, “The Scattered Tifak” and “The Unhappily Young” tragedies, consist of plays, which are characterized by high ideological and artistic features, raising the realist literature of Azerbaijan and the enlightenment of democratic ideas to a new stage.

Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, a prominent representative of Azerbaijani literature and public opinion, in his 1894 narrative entitled “The stories of the Danabash village” (1894) revealed the features of the Azerbaijani rural life, the true and deep description of the truths of life, the sharp and ruthless criticism of the feudal style, the depth of artistic summarization, the excellence of the composition, the fuzzy natural vivid style and the language are the main features of this work by C.Mammadguluzadeh. “Danabash village’s stories” is one of the most outstanding examples of critical realist literature in Azerbaijan. Nariman Narimanov’s novel “Bahadur and Sona”, written in 1896, was a remarkable event in the history of Azerbaijan’s artistic prose and enriched it with new ideas and artistic traits.

The best examples of the novel genre in the Azerbaijani prose were created in the twentieth century. In the first half of the century, Mammad Said Ordubadi’s “Smoky Tabriz”, “Hidden Baku”, “Warrior City”, “Sword and Pen”, Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli’s “Two Flames”, “Girls Spring”, Abulfasan Alakbarzade’s ” Suleyman Rahimov’s “Shamo”, “Hair”, Mahdi Hussein’s “Sabah”, Ali Valiyev’s “Gahraman” and other novels are on the historical theme.

At the beginning of the twentieth century Azerbaijani literature was quite diverse. A very important event in the literature of this era was that the critical realism became the leading direction in the literature in the light of the desire of the masses of the people, the strengthening of the revolutionary movement, the powerful awakening of the national consciousness. The main trend in this direction was to expose the existing state structure of the constitution and to disseminate advanced public ideas.

In the realist Azerbaijani literature, the subject of publicity was central. The realists are trying to illuminate the lives of the workers, creating the image of the best of the people, reflecting their patriotic and heroic traditions, calling the people to struggle for freedom. Realistic literature is a problem of family, women’s lawlessness, propaganda of education, ignorance, criticism of fanaticism, and so on. paying great attention to issues and considering them in an important public-political context.

The realism of the early XX century was based on advanced traditions of classical literature of Azerbaijan and oral folk creativity. The realist writers of the twentieth century creatively appealed to the heritage of Khagani and Nizami, Fuzuli, Vagif and MFAkhundov, who accepted the positive and advanced ideas that classics brought to literature. They also studied Eastern, Russian and Western European literature, and addressed the work of Homerin, Firdovsi, Omer Khayyam, Sadi Shirazi, Hafiz Shirazi, William Shakespeare, Alexander Pushkin and Nikolai Gogol. But in the literature, the trends emerged from the influence of Russian literature, were more vividly embodied.

Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, one of the luminaries of Azerbaijan’s realistic realism, continued his realist traditions MFAkhundov, along with his publicist activity, created a number of brilliant works. Mammadguluzadeh is one of the founders of realist story in Azerbaijani literature. His “Master Zeynal”, “Mailbox”, “Gurbanali bey”, “Era in Iran” and other psychological stories and novels refer to the classics of Azerbaijani literature. The main works of the writer awakened public dissatisfaction with arbitrariness and lawlessness and reinforced the hope for a just future. Mammadguluzadeh could sell the most sharp weapon against the old world, the Tsarist rule, the Western imperialism, and the East despotism. His philosophers were always distinguished not only in Azerbaijan, but also beyond the borders of Russia and beyond, and always distinguished themselves with their political acumen, theme relevance and compositions.

The great role of the great folk poet Mirza Alekper Sabir in the development of the realistic direction in the 20th century Azerbaijani literature has been made. His poems are the people’s poetry that glorifies the desires and desires of the masses and the ideas of freedom. The Novator poet, Sabir’s realism, was in the ideas of humanism and freedom. Bakikhanov, a great artist who continued his traditions in Zakir and Shirvani, raised satirical poetry in Azerbaijan to new heights. Researchers note the unity of the Sabir satire with Saltykov-Shedrin, Nekrasov, Beranje, Heyne. At the beginning of the twentieth century N. Narimamov’s literary creativity was mostly publicist. He opposed the absolute inviolability of his articles and feletons, the most fierce enemy of Russian laborers. One of his works, which was a product of N.Narimanov’s pencil and took a special place in literary literature, was “Pir” povesti. In 1915, he published a story “The Adventure of a Village”, which talked about the hard lives of ordinary people. The works of A.Hagverdiyev also played a great role in the development of realism in the 20th century Azerbaijani literature. After completing the play “Peri witch” in 1901, Hagverdiyev, one of his greatest works in 1907 – “Agha Mohammed Shah Gajar” In his work, he created a masterpiece of cruel masterpiece with great skill, the despotic structure in Iran has been criticized. This work has long dropped out of the Azerbaijan theater scene and gained great reputation.

Among the realist writers were Mammad Said Ordubadi, who published a number of poems, philetones and articles in newspapers and magazines in 1904-1907. He was particularly active in the Molla Nasreddin magazine. Ordubadi’s poetry collection was published in 1907. In that year he published his “Bad Millionaire” and tested his pen to create a national novel. One of the school’s representatives was Ali Nezmi. Referring to many social and socio-political problems of the period, the poet performed satirical poems and feletons in the Molla Nasreddin magazine. Well-known writer-playwright Najaf bey Vazirov, who was a prominent representative of Azerbaijani literature, wrote a number of works in 1909-1912 and spoke about family and moral issues, and in his “In the past fugitives”, he hated the tsarist style and the local tradesmen. He promoted the friendship of peoples in publicity articles and feletons, created a spectacular view of the working conditions of the workers, cursed Iran’s despotism, and welcomed Sattarkhan ‘s national-liberation movement.

During the first years of his creative activity, Sultan Majid Ganizade reflected the painful lives of the workers and the struggle of the people for freedom in the works of “Allahu ta’ala”, “Qurban Bayram” written in the early 20th century. One of the prominent representatives of this literary movement was Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli. The stories he created at the beginning of his century were bright examples of the Azerbaijani literary prose. In these stories, the author gives the hard work of the working class, the fate of women, the student life, and the corruption of the Tsar’s officials. Ceyhun Hajibeyli’sliterary creativity, as well as in the newspaper “Kaspi” in 1909-1911, the realist traditions of Azerbaijani literature continued in the narrative.

One of those who spoke closely to the position of the Molla prostitutes was Seyyid Hussein Sadiq. He opposes reactionary forces in his stories and articles, fights for the freedom of women, language cleanliness, exposes social inequality, calls for development and enlightenment. The writer was advocating and promoting the theory of “art for life.” Other literary trends of this period were romanticism and its most prominent representative, Ali bey Huseynzade. The poets Agadadash Münir, Aliabas Muznib, Samad Mansour and others were in close positions with him. Historical past, religion, people’s struggle for freedom and independence were the main topics in the literary creativity of representatives of romants. The artistic heritage of the poet Mohammad Hadin had original creative traits. His poetry draws attention to the rebellious protest against freedom, human desires, fortitude, violence and injustice. He wrote a number of works that favored the struggle of the peoples under custody and the national-liberation movement.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, prominent representative of romance was poet and playwright Hussein Javid. The first collection of poems by Cavid was published in 1913. During this period, dramaturgia played an important role in Javid’s creative work. She is the author of the first drama in poetry in Azerbaijani literature. Javid laid the foundation for a new era in Azerbaijani drama and gave a powerful impetus to the development of national theater culture. In his dramaturgy, the major problems of universal importance were reflected. One of the talented representatives of Azerbaijani poetry was Abbas Sahhat. Her lyrical works have been touched upon with love for the homeland. Sahhet was a brilliant advocate of the nature of Homeland in Azerbaijan literature, as well as a skillful critic of public deficiencies.

Realistic and romantic tendencies are characteristic of Abdulla Shaig’s creativity. In his lyric poems, he feels unbalanced with the old world. This can be seen more clearly in the story “Let’s Grow”. Children’s literature emerged as an independent direction of literary activity at the beginning of the 20th century thanks to the works of A.Sahhat, A.Shaiq, M. Sabir, C. Mammadguluzadeh and SSAkhundov’s pens.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the press and literature reflected the socio-political and cultural life of Azerbaijan, under the influence of the revolutionary movement of 1905-1907, condemned the absolute, police system, the national-colonial tyranny of Tsarism, and remained indifferent to the hard working conditions and welfare of the hardworking masses. At the same time, representatives of the press and literature have been involved in important events in the socio-political life of the country (Manifesto of October 17, State Duma, etc.), aims and tasks of the Russian Workers’ Movement, the future state structure of Russia and etc. they were approaching different points of view. In the press and literature, the criticism of the Russian tsarism, the aggressive plans of Western states, and the constitution of Iran and Turkey were also widely used. During this period realistic literature was developing rapidly, romantic craftsmen grew up, and there were even those who joined the trends like symbolism and futurism.

During the period of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Azerbaijani literature was formed under the influence of social environment. The prominent representatives of Romanticism (Mohammad Hadi, Abdulla Shaiq, and others), in this period of time, were more impressed by the impressions of moral freedom in the poetry that dominated the media and the propagation of ideas of Turkism, struggle, national spirit and turism. they were thinking of finding the expression in literature. In the early 20th century, realism and romance, promoting the development of literature, contributed to the parallel development of literary schools and the actual literary process of the era in the “Molla Nasreddin” and ” Fuzuzat ” Realist poets and writers around the”Molla Nasreddin” magazine (Jalil Mammadguluzadeh), “Fuyuzat” magazine (Ali bey Huseynzadeh) collected romance. Molla Nasreddinis claimed that literary language was based on the basis of the people’s spoken language, and the founder claimed the idea of forming a common Turkic language and “Turkish Turkish in this matter”.

Unlike the Soviet romanticism of Azerbaijan, writers of independent literature expressed modernist views of romance. The Huseyn Javid, Abbas creativity can be observed. While referring to the 1930s drama, this period shows that dramaturgics have compressed dramatic works in hybrid genres and, instead, show new dramatic trends. The author also emphasizes that the drama, which is based on socialist realism, is directed to “the description of socialist social existence.”

Azerbaijani literature of socialist realism period (1920-1960 years)
In the 1920s, the Azerbaijani Soviet literature developed in a sharp contrast to those who tried to reduce the artistic effect of classical Russian and Soviet literature. “Proletarianism”, which denied the role of all cultural heritage in the development of soviet literature in Azerbaijan, played a negative role.

The novels dating to the late 1920s and early 1930s were of interest in the subject matter and problematic. The epochal episodes and episodes of the episode cover three episodes from the novel’s theme and problematic. In these years, the political convergence of “Allies or enemies” turned into one of the main ideological slogans of society.

Ideological clashes between Azerbaijani Soviet literature and South Azerbaijan literature occur more often after the collapse of the National Government of Azerbaijan established on 12 December 1945. After the fall of the National Government of Azerbaijan, after the execution of the representatives of South Azerbaijan literature, Ali Fitrat, Jafar Kashif and others, the South Azerbaijan intellectuals emigrated to Soviet Azerbaijan. These immigrant writers (Balash Azaroglu, Medina Gülgün, Ismail Jafarpur, Ali Tudaand b.) called for the unity, freedom and independence of the people. This was a reminder of the Marxism-Leninism ideology. The process of “alienation” of the South Azerbaijan literature in the Soviet Azerbaijan literature also shows itself. The failure of the South Azerbaijani poet Mohammadhusseen Shahriyar to be disseminated in the Soviet Azerbaijan literature was the steps taken by the South American literature to “dissociate” itself.

At the time of the Second World War, when he touched upon Azerbaijan literature, this period was developed in the light of the admiration of a person who has been abused by the socialist realism method and adheres to the ethnographic views. The active engagement of the Azerbaijani Writers Union to the literary process was strengthened. Discussions focused on creative problems of prose, poetry and drama were held at the congresses and plenums of the organization, at special conferences.

Poetry, especially political lyrics, has gained an active position. Samad Vurgun, Suleyman Rustam, Mammad Rahim, Rasul Rza, Osman Sarvali, Mirvarid Dilbazi, Nigar Rafibeyli and others wrote lyrical and epic works reflecting the inner world of contemporaries. Poems of S.Vurghun’s “Mughan” and “Zhen’s Dreams”, R. Rza’s “Lenin”, M.Rahim’s “In the Sky of Leningrad”, S.Rustam’s “Heart of Gafur” were written. The scope of the Azerbaijani novel has also expanded, and new works dedicated to contemporary life and the past have been delivered to the readers. During the war Sevastopolparticipant of the city defense, Abulhasan Alekberzade, published the first part of the novel “War” after the victory. Suleyman Rahimov graduated from the novel “Hairy”, which began on the eve of the war. Mehdi Hussein’s “Absheron”, Manaf Suleymanov’s “The Secret of the World”, Mir Jalal ‘s “My Elder”, Ali Veliyev’s “Gülşen” works were published. Interest in the history of the people’s history and the struggle for freedom became stronger. The last part of the epic “Smoky Tabriz” by Mammad Said Ordubadi was published, and “Sword and pencil” was presented to readers.M.Huseyn completed the “Komissar” narrative and S. Rahman wrote the novel “Nina”. In the field of drama, interest in modernity also increased. Ilyas Afandiyev’s “Spring waters”, Imran Gasimov’s “Dawn on the Caspian”, “Great love” by Jabbar Majnunbeyov, ” Aydinlig ” by Sabit Rahman, “The East of the East” by Enver Mammadkhanli great interest in readers.

In the 1950s, writers who relied on rich material and artistic experience gained new literary achievements. In the poem “Aygun” by S.Vurghun, the power of labor and personal feelings of personality become subject of artistic analysis. In these years, the Azerbaijani proverbial spirit of S. Rahman’s “Great days”, M. Jalal’s “Our way is hayana”, A. Valiyev’s “Flower”, M. Huseyn’s “Sabah”, I.Gasimov and Hasan Seyidbeyli’s “Far on the shores “, in the” Agulag Mountains “by Rahimov. After the death of Stalin, many writers who have studied and appreciated the social processes that have taken place in the community have come up with new, contemporary works. “Great stab”, I. Shikhl ‘s “Separated Ways”, Ihsan Huseynov’s “Burning Heart”, B. Bayramov’s “Leaves”, I.Afandiyev’s “Soyudlu Arsh”, “Abulhasa’s” Grandfather’s Grandchildren “, H.Seyidbeyli’s” Telephone Girl ” and in the poetry series, as well as in the comedy “Shirvan goreli” by A.Mammadkhanli. Most of these works had a sharp critical attitude towards the shortcomings, the obstacles that hindered the development of society, the curves in their lives and psychology, and the slaughter. The drama of Azerbaijan has made artistic perfection, furthering the return to modernity. A number of literary texts were created in A.Mammadkhanli’s “In the Fire”, “Atayev’s Family” of I. Afandiyev, “Brothers”, I.Gasimov and H.Seyidbeyli, “The Sea Brave Love”, I.Safarli’s “Ophthalmologist”. Despite the achievements, dramaturgical creativity was clearly evident in terms of the content of the plays and the artistic form.

After the Second World War, the translation into Azerbaijani was one of the most important cultural events. The Russian translation of the literary heritage of classical and contemporary Azerbaijani artists has also expanded. Since the 1950’s, mutual interpreting has gained state significance.

Early in the literature of the new era and the transition period (1960-1995)
In the 1960s literary school “New Nasr” was formed. This school was characterized by a new aesthetic and political aspiration, with its moral problematic. His heroes were “strangers” who were strangers in their prehistoric stereotypes, who did not look like the heroes. There were works that presented deep contradictions in society, trampling on human rights, the onset of lawlessness, the deformity, fraud and other deformities of human and national values as a necessary consequence of the existing system of government. The various forms of publicity and major causes of contradictions in society, family, and generations are S. Rahman’s “Lie”, Jesus Mughannan ‘s “Burning Heart,” “Anar ‘s “Molla Nasreddin-66”, in the works of Elchin in “White camels”, “Sos”, Rustam and Maqsud Ibrahimbekov ‘s novels and novels were skillfully disclosed. The spiritual world, which is rich sources of the people, has mastered its poetic reflection in the works of Rasul Rzan, Osman Sarveli, Bakhtiyar Vahabzade, Mirvarid Dilbazi, Ahmed Jamil, Nabi Khazri, Huseyn Arif, Aliaga Kürchaylı, Islam Safarli, Gasim Gasimzade and others. Aliaga Vahid’s ghazals were widely spread.

The works of the Southern theme had special significance in stimulating national consciousness. Suleyman Rustam’s poetry poems he wrote about the South had great poetic and political influence. M. Ibrahimov’s “Future Day”, “Parvana”, P.Makulun’s “Sattarkhan” novels were met with interest. In the works of Balash Azaroglu, Ali Tudun, Sahr Tahir, Madina Gülgün, the homeland, separation, and longing were the main subjects. The creativity of Azerbaijani writers living abroad also contributed to the enrichment of Azerbaijani literature. Umbulbanu Mirza (Banin) in 1945He was known as a talented writer with the novel of the “Caucasian Days” published in Paris. In his later years, “Paris Days,” “Later,” “France,” “The Last Hope,” and so on. His works were also met with interest.

Significant accomplishments were also made in the development of Azerbaijani literature in the 1970s and 1980s. People’s poet Mirvarid Dilbazy’s poem “The Violet Shine”, “Mother’s Wing”, “Mountain Blossom”, “Yasamen Chapter”, “Selected Poems” and the three volumes of love of Homeland, The beautiful landscapes of Azerbaijan, the spiritual wealth of Azerbaijani women, patriotism and freedom ideas were the main topics of poetry in the books of the national poet Nigar Rafibeyli, “I wanted youth from the sun” and “Spring is good for us”. Islamic Safarli’s “Flower Tale”, “Dan’s Star, I’m One”, “Literary Cradle”, Ali Karim’s ” Nabi Khazri’s “Daglar”, “Star Caravan”, “Stateless Monument”, “Inam”, four-volume selected works, and others. poems, poems, poems, poems, poems, poems, poems, poems, poems, poems. The poems of the People’s poet Rasul Rzan contained the universal feelings and thoughts. This was the subject of poems in the book “Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow”, “The South, the Lungs,” and “Ring Up”. The philosophical poetry of folk poet Bakhtiyar Vahabzade was very close to the people. His “Mugham”, “Ejected” and so on. poems were more typical in this regard. Cobain”Nasimi” poem and poems were one of the best examples of Azerbaijani poetry ever since.

In the 1970s and 1980s, the artistic prose of Azerbaijan was richly developed, and many novels and narratives were written that reflected different aspects of social life. Suleyman Rahimov’s “Mother Monument” (1967-1980), “Caucasian Eagle”, “Koshgar gizi”, Ilyas Afandiyev’s “Sarıköynek and Valeh’s Tale”, Aziza Jafarzadeh’s “I have a voice in the world”, “Baku 1501” The novels “Nasimi”, “The Man and the Fates” by Alavia Babayevan were met with great interest by the readers. Anar’s White Lime, Macal (1978), and “The Sixth Floor of the Five-storey House” have raised important moral and ethical problems. Elchin’s “Silver orange”, “Trains in this world”, “History of a meeting”, “Aquarius” and so on. stories and narratives, “Mahmud and Mary”, and “White camel” were the main topics of moral and ethical life.

The works written on South Azerbaijan had a special significance in promoting national consciousness. M. Ibrahimov’s novel “Parvana”, series “Southern Stories” was met with interest. Azerbaijani drama has achieved some success. Mirza Ibragimov’s “The Comedy of Bashar”, I.Gasimov’s “Tales of Wisdom”, “Expanding the circle”, and “Behind the Rain” by Bakhtiyar Vahabzade, moral and ethical problems. “The strange guy”, “The voice from the garden”, “The Crystal Palace”, “The Valentine’s Meetings in Hell”, “The Looking Back, the Elder”, and “The Triathlon” were the fine examples of the psychological drama that spoke about Elijah Efendiyev’s contemporary moral and ethical values. The plays of Anar’s “The City’s Summer Days”, “Man’s Man”, “Desert Dreams” and “I have spoken to you” were welcomed by the readers.

Bakhtiyar Vahabzade, Khalil Rza Uluturk and Mammad Araz peaked in the literature for independence and in the years to come. Halil Rzan’s “Continues 37” collection of poems, “Martyrs” by Bakhtiyar Vahabzade and “Goytürklar” play had great poetic and educational effect. Poems of Nabi Khazri, Fikret Qoca, Isa Ismayilzade, Sohrab Tahir, Jabir Novruz, Nariman Hasanzadeh, Vagif Samadoglu, Ramiz Rovshan, Fikret Sagan differed in their profound content and lyricism.

Young poetry was on the search path. His representatives created examples of “realistpublisist”, “mediocre”, sufism, “romantic”, “urbanist”, and “avant-garde” poetry patterns. Books on new subjects reflecting the changes in society, people’s morality, and in the context of the struggle for literature, the transition to new economic relations, the political instability in the first half of the 1990s, the struggle for power. Ismail Shikhli’s “My world is dead”, “The handle is ours”, Anar’s “Hotel room”, “The ruler and daughter of Ilyas Efendiyev”, Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh’s “Go to the world”, Elchin’s “Ah, Paris, Paris!”,Nariman Hasanzade’s “Pompey’s Caucasus Attack”, Vidadi Baban ‘s “Mom’s Revenge”, Afaq Mesud, Vagif Nasib and others were literary events of this period. The works of detective novelist Chingiz Abdullayev were met with great interest all over the world.

Historical novels by Anvar Mammadkhanli, Aziza Jafarzadeh and Aqil Abbas illuminate the heroic, illusory past of the people and have a great educational significance. “The Red Devil” by Ishi Melikzade, Agshin Babayev’s “The End of the World”, Arif Abdullazadeh’s “Bloody Memory”, Ali Amirli’s “Meydan”, ” Moving ” by Mammad Oruc reflected realist scenes of the people’s recent history.

Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on culture
Creative persons, winners of festival and competition who have special services in the development and promotion of culture, are awarded with honorary titles and awards in the form determined by the relevant executive authority.

Persons who have exceptional services in the development of Azerbaijani culture are awarded by orders and medals in accordance with Article 109.2 of the Constitution of Azerbaijan.

State support in the field of literature
The literary editions of the Union of Writers – ” Newspaper of Literature”, “Azerbaijan”, “Ulduz”, “Gobustan” and “Literaturniy Azerbaijan ” in Russian began to operate after the X congress of the Union of Writers of Azerbaijan, which was held in October 1997 with the participation of Heydar Aliyev. Also, Mingachevir, Aran, and Moscow departments of the Writers Union of Azerbaijan were created after that congress.

For the first time in 1995, the “Istiglal” order was given to Bakhtiyar Vahabzade by Heydar Aliyev, as well as Mammad Araz and Khalil Rza Uluturk were also awarded the “Istiglal” Order.

Literary activity of National writer – Anar Rzayev has been awarded the “Heydar Aliyev Prize” by Ilham Aliyev.

The book “Heydar Aliyev and Azerbaijan Literature”, prepared by the ANAS Institute of Literature in 2010, was awarded the State Prize in 2014. The publicist novel of “Heydar Aliyev: Personality and Time” with 6 volumes written by Elmira Akhundova and in 2016 Fikrat Goca’s Works – 10 volume were awarded that State Prize.

Sabir Rustamkhanli, Nariman Hasanzade and Zelimkhan Yaqub were awarded “National poets” by Ilham Aliyev in 2005. Maqsud and Rustam Ibrahimbeyov’s brothers, Movlud Suleymanli were awarded the title of “National Writer” by President. In general, there are 22 “National poets” and 25 “National writers” in the country. Chingiz Abdullayev was awarded both the honorary title “Glory” and the “National Writer” by the decree of the President in 2009 when he was 50 years old.

Ilham Aliyev signed a decree on holding 100th anniversary of S. Vurgun, S.Rustam, M. Jalal, M.Huseyn, A.Alekbarzade, M.Ibrahimov, R. Rza, Ilyas Afandiyev. As well as he signed a decree on holding 100th anniversary of Almas Yildirim on April 16, 2007, and Mikayil Mushfiq in 2008 who are the victims of repression. Ilham Aliyev signed decrees to hold the 125th, 130th and 135th anniversary of Hussein Javid.

S.Rahimov and M.Adadzadeh were celebrated the 110th anniversary, M. Rasulzadeh – the 130th anniversary, A.Huseynzade – 150th anniversary. The celebration of these writers’ anniversaries at the state level also serves to promote them throughout the world.

On November 10, 2008 Mehriban Aliyeva, President of the Heydar Aliyev Foundation, spoke at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of M.Pashayev.

Hundreds of books have been published based on the decree of the President dated 12 January 2004 on “The implementation of mass editions in the Azerbaijani language (Latin). In addition, 150 volumes of examples from World Literature Library has been translated.

Literature museums
President Ilham Aliyev attended the opening of the Literature Museum in Gazakh. The busts of 12 national heroes and famous writers from Qazakh were erected at the park, where the museum is located. The president signed an order on June 1, 2012, to allocate from the Presidential Reserve Fund AZN 5 million to construct this museum.

Source from Wikipedia