Business park

A business park or office park is an area of land in which many office buildings are grouped together. All of the work that goes on is commercial, not large-scale industrial nor residential. The first office park opened in Mountain Brook, Alabama, in the early 1950s to avoid racial tension in city centers.

These are popular in many suburban locations, where development is cheaper because of the lower land costs and the lower building costs for building wider, not necessarily higher. Some businesses prefer the larger floorplates as more efficient, reducing time lost moving between floors. They are also often located near motorways or main roads for easy access.

To the commercial areas include business parks in the narrow sense ( operating construction areas without excessive environmental impacts, such as impairment through noise or odors, such as handicraft businesses). Partly also industrial areas and special areas (such as companies that require a special job security as hospitals, waste disposal, explosives store u. V. A. M.) Expected to as well as pure business development areas (for on office or retail embossed areas such as retail parks ). There are also mixed areas (commercial and residential use, usually a maximum of small to medium-sizedSettlement). Business parks that are specifically created for this purpose and often managed by just one operator are also known as business parks.

As a rule, the designation of business parks leads to an increase in traffic, because jobs can only be accessed with the help of individual (eg cars) or collective (eg bus) transport, which includes factory traffic such as customer and employee traffic, The establishment of commercial areas was originally designed to avoid disturbing effects of businesses (noise, smell, dangers) on apartments. Later, the desired separation of living and working meant that non-disruptive businesses (such as administrative buildings) were spatially separated from residential areas.

The deliberate separation of residential areas and commercial areas is seen differently. On the one hand, the separation is politically promoted in order to preserve pure housing estates that are largely free of trade and therefore free of commercial traffic. Counterpositions attempt a mixed planning, in which only particularly disturbing enterprises in industrial areas are outsourced, while work and living are to be brought closer together.

Originally developed from the traditional industrial park model, they have evolved to a higher density. Some are zoned for light industrial purposes and others strictly for research or business offices.

The creation of office parks tends to address the problem of urban sprawl by allowing commuters to work outside congested and hard-to-reach city centers, but their presence only reinforces sprawl. Public transport radiates from the center and is virtually non-existent between the suburbs. Since in modern households both spouses work, choosing a home is complex when both work in the suburbs.

In the United States, office parks are being blamed for the proliferation of the distant suburbs known as exurbs, creating a new way of life where new-generation urban dwellers no longer have contact with urban life.

The impact of these areas on the urban fabric has been criticized:
Spaces escape the control of the built realm: voids between fragments of unconnected residential schemes, gaps between urbanized zones, abandoned farmland, etc. A new approach to spacial organization arises with the ease that characterizes any new consumer good, an approach which questions the conventional references of urbanism: the so-called ‘commercial, industrial, business and theme park’.
The urbanized park originally sprang from the hybridization of the garden-city and Anglo-Saxon university campus models. It adopted the former’s low-rise buildings and attention to free spaces as a way of shaping the environment, and the latter’s autonomous constructions. In sum, parks are thematic precincts of autonomous architectural set pieces arranged around parking lots and communal services, and are situated at the most accessible points of the metropolitan road network.
(José María Ezquiaga (November–December 1998). “The City: Folds and Pieces”. AV Monographs. 74: 4–11.)

List of major business parks

Algiers Medina, Algiers
Bahia Center, Oran

Catalinas Norte, Buenos Aires

Norwest Business Park, Bella Vista, New South Wales
Eastlink Business Park, Carrum Downs, Victoria
Sydney Corporate Park, Alexandria, New South Wales

Direta Estratégia e Engenharia

Business Park Sofia, Sofia
Business Park Varna

Kanata Research Park
Burnside Park

Shanghai China Fengpu Industrial Park, Shanghai

INCUBA Science Park
Symbion Science Park

TECOM Investments
Dubai Internet City
Dubai Media City
Dubai Knowledge Village
Dubai Studio City
Dubai Biotechnology & Research Park
Dubai Outsource Zone
International Media Production Zone
Dubai International Academic City
Energy & Environment
Dubai Healthcare City
Dubai Industrial City

Capital Business Park
Smart Village

Ülemiste City

Central America
Altia Business Park, San Pedro Sula, Honduras
Miramar Free Zone, San Salvador, El Salvador

Avantis, Aachen & Heerlen, the first cross-border German-Dutch business park
Businesspark Regensburg
black forest business park, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Achern

Hong Kong
Hong Kong Science Park

Altia Business Park

Talentis Business Park

Citywest, Dublin
East Point Business Park, Dublin
International Financial Services Centre, Dublin

Rajiv Gandhi Infotech Park, Pune
Technopark, Thiruvananthapuram
International Tech Park, Bangalore
Electronics City, Bangalore
HITEC City, Hyderabad
Infopark, Kochi
Tidel Park, Coimbatore
Tidel Park, Chennai

Solstice Park, Bandung

Har Hotzvim, Jerusalem

Milano 3 City, Milan

Osaka Business Park, Osaka

King Hussein Business Park (KHBP)

PRIME Business Park

Dominante Park, Riga

Cyberjaya, Petaling Jaya, Iskandar Malaysia

Smart City Malta

Canablanca Nearshore Park
Technopolis Park

Avantis, Aachen & Heerlen, the first cross-border German-Dutch business park
Chipshol Park Schipholrijk, Amsterdam

New Zealand
Sylvia Park, Auckland

Cebu Business Park, Cebu City
Cebu IT Park, Cebu City
Iloilo Business Park, Iloilo City
Philexcel Business Park, Clark Freeport

Kraków Business Park, Zabierzów
Długosza Business Park, Wrocław

Pipera Business Center
Baneasa Business Park
Bucharest Business Park
Brasov Business Park
ZIOS, Zona Industriala Ocna Sibiului, Jud. Sibiu

Country Park, Khimki

Airport City Belgrade

Changi Business Park
International Business Park

South Africa
Route 21 Corporate Park, Pretoria

South Korea
Digital Media City, Seoul
Samsung Town, Seoul
Teheran Valley, Seoul
Songdo International Business District, Songdo International City, Incheon
Centum City, Busan
Daedeok Science Town, Daejeon

Sant Cugat Business Park
Parque Tecnológico de Madrid, Tres Cantos, Madrid

Johanneberg Science Park, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg
Lindholmen Science Park, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg
Sahlgrenska Science Park, University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg

SCB Park Plaza

United Kingdom
Aztec West, Bristol
Birmingham Business Park, Solihull
Cambridge Business Park, Cambridge an integral part of Silicon Fen
Cardiff Gate International Business Park, Pontprennau, Cardiff
Cobalt Business Park, Newcastle upon Tyne
Cardiff Business Park, Llanishen, Cardiff
Doxford International Business Park, Sunderland
East Moors Business Park, Tremorfa, Cardiff
Edinburgh Park, Edinburgh
Green Park, Reading, Berkshire
Lingfield Point, Darlington, County Durham
Maxim Office Park, Glasgow
Milton Park, Oxfordshire
Omega, Warrington
Oxford Business Park, Oxford
Pera Business Park, Leicestershire
Pride Park, Derby
Quorum Business Park, Newcastle upon Tyne
Shrewsbury Business Park, Shrewsbury
Slough Trading Estate, Slough
Solent Business Park, Whiteley, Hampshire
Solstice Park, Wiltshire
Stockley Park, London
Swansea Enterprise Park, Swansea
Team Valley, Gateshead
Thames Valley Park, Reading, Berkshire
Thorpe Park, Leeds

United States
Arvida Park of Commerce, Boca Raton, Florida
Bishop Ranch, San Ramon, California
ConoverWest Business Park, Conover, North Carolina
Cummings Research Park, Huntsville, Alabama
Denver Tech Center, Denver, Colorado
Dundee Park, Andover, Massachusetts
Eastman Business Park, Rochester, New York
Great Valley Corporate Center, Malvern, Pennsylvania
Interstate 40 Business Park, Conover, North Carolina
MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, New York
Midtown Centre, Jacksonville, Florida
Newport Center, Newport Beach, California
Raritan Center, Edison, New Jersey
Hauppauge Industrial Park, New York
Rensselaer Technology Park, North Greenbush, New York
Research Triangle Park, Raleigh/Durham
University Research Park, Charlotte, North Carolina

Zonamerica Business & Technology Park

Source from Wikipedia