Agriculture in Azerbaijan

The primary crops produced in Azerbaijan are agricultural cash crops, grapes, cotton, tobacco, citrus fruits, and vegetables. The first three crops account for over half of all production, and the last two together account for an additional 30 percent. Livestock, dairy products, and wine and spirits are also important farm products.

In the early 1990s, Azerbaijan’s agricultural sector required substantial restructuring if it was to realize its vast potential. Prices for agricultural products did not rise as fast as the cost of inputs; the Soviet-era collective farm system discouraged private initiative; equipment in general and the irrigation system in particular were outdated; modern technology had not been introduced widely; and administration of agricultural programs was ineffective.

Most of Azerbaijan’s cultivated lands, which total over 1 million hectares, are irrigated by more than 40,000 kilometers of canals and pipelines. The varied climate allows cultivation of a wide variety of crops, ranging from peaches to almonds and from rice to cotton. In the early 1990s, agricultural production contributed about 30 to 40 percent of Azerbaijan’s net material product, while directly employing about one third of the labor force and providing a livelihood to about half the country’s population. In the early postwar decades, Azerbaijan’s major cash crops were cotton and tobacco, but in the 1970s grapes became the most productive crop. An anti-alcohol campaign by Moscow in the mid-1980s contributed to a sharp decline in grape production in the late 1980s. In 1991 grapes accounted for over 20 percent of agricultural production, followed closely by cotton.

Production of virtually all crops declined in the early 1990s. In 1990 work stoppages and anti-Soviet demonstrations contributed to declines in agricultural production. The conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, the site of about one-third of Azerbaijan’s croplands, substantially reduced agricultural production beginning in 1989. In 1992 agriculture’s contribution to NMP declined by 22 percent. This drop was attributed mainly to cool weather, which reduced cotton and grape harvests, and to the continuation of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The conflict induced blockade of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic also disrupted agriculture there.

An estimated 1,200 state and cooperative farms are in operation in Azerbaijan, with little actual difference between the rights and privileges of state and cooperative holdings. Small private garden plots, constituting only a fraction of total cultivated land, contribute as much as 20 percent of agricultural production and more than half of livestock production. Private landholders do not have equal access, however, to the inputs, services, and financing that would maximize their output.

The Ministry of Agriculture of Azerbaijan runs procurement centers dispersed throughout the country for government purchase of most of the tobacco, cotton, tea, silk, and grapes that are produced. The Ministry of Grain and Bread Products runs similar operations that buy a major portion of grain production. Remaining crops are sold in the private sector.

Labor practices
In a 2013 U.S. Department of Labor report on Azerbaijan’s labor conditions, research showed that children “are engaged in child labor in agriculture and street work.” In fact, evidence of child labor has been observed in the agricultural sector as far as the production of cotton, tea and tobacco is concerned. In 2014, the Bureau of International Labor Affairs issued a List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor and Azerbaijan was listed among the countries resorting to child labor when it comes to cotton production.

Production statistics of agriculture industry for 2015-2016
The overall agricultural products value with general prices was estimated to be 3290.4 million manat in January–July 2016. The production of January–July in agricultural industry was 51% and 49% and related to cattle-breeding industry and plant-growing industry respectively.

The production from cattle-breeding and plant-growing industries were increased in respect to the same period of previous year. However, the overall production from agricultural industry was decrease by 6.3% in relation to the previous year.

In 2016, the majority of products of agricultural industry was increased in production capacity in comparison to the previous year, but the capacity of vegetables and vegetable garden production was decreased.


It is considered as one of the traditional agricultural areas of Azerbaijan. According to 1909-13 years, the volume of grain production in Azerbaijan per capita was 2.5 times higher than the world average (233 kg), 1.3 times higher than that of developed countries – Germany, France and Sweden (455 kg). At present, the State Seed Fund operates in order to promote food security in the country.

Tobacco production
In 2016, 2,500 hectares of tobacco were planted in Azerbaijan, including 1,700 hectares of “Virginya” and the rest were local varieties.. In the same year, crops were harvested from 2360 hectares by 3585 tons, 15.2 centners per hectare.


Potato production
In the USSR, potato growing was one of the poorly developed agricultural areas in the republic and the demand for this product was mainly paid off from Belarus, the Baltic republics and Russia. During the first years of independence, imports had a large share in meeting the country’s potato requirements, and now more than 50,000 tons of potatoes are exported annually. According to statistical data, in 1990, 185.2 thousand tons of potatoes were produced in the country, in 2015 it reached 839.8 thousand tons. The increase in production has been achieved not only by expanding one area, but also as a result of increased productivity. So, in the case of potatoes per capita of 90 centners per hectare in 1990, in 2014, it reached 152 centners

In 1913, the third of the 47100 hectares to 33 thousand tons (7 metric centners per hectare), 1928 in the 50100 ha to 102 thousand tons (20.4 tons), 1967 in 7100 to 11.9 ha tons (16.1 tons), In 2010, 1500 hectares of 8,000 tons (50 centners) of grain were produced. In 2012, the planted area was 1685 hectares.

Tea production
The tea plant was first brought to Azerbaijan’s Lankaran region in 1912 and planted there for the first time in 1937 in Lankaran. After that, mass production of tea began in Azerbaijan.

In the 1970s and 1980s, 36,000 hectares of tea were cultivated and 34,000 tons of tea were produced in Azerbaijan. According to the Statistics Committee, 474.2 tons of tea leaves were produced in the country in 2014. This figure is about 20 percent less than in 2013. 567.5 tons of tea leaves were produced in the same year

Grape production
The total area of vineyards in Azerbaijan was raised to 280,000 hectares in 1984, with 2.1 million tons of grapes harvested for the first time in the year and yields 100 centners per hectare. According to the State Statistical Committee, as of September 1, 2014, 37.1 thousand tons of grapes were harvested from the fields (5.2 thousand tons more than in 2013).

Fruit production
Fruit is one of the specialized fields of agriculture in Azerbaijan. Guba-Khachmaz on frogs in Azerbaijan, Shaki-Zagatala on leafy fruits (chestnut, nut, nuts), Nakhchivan AR on fruits (apricot, peach), Kur-Araz on dry subtropical fruits (pomegranates, quince), citrus fruits (tangerine, oranges, feijoa, lemon), Absheron Peninsula on southern plants (figs, olives, pistachios, almonds, etc.). The largest fruiting region of Azerbaijan is Guba. 2/3 of Guba-Khachmaz, 15% – Shaki-Zagatala and Daglich Shirvan economic regions. 95% of the fruit-bearing fruits are concentrated in the Shaki-Zagatala economic region. There are many mulberry trees in Kur-Araz and Upper Garabagh.

According to the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Azerbaijan, in 2011, the area of cultivation of fruit trees in our country was 130467 hectares. 765,818 tons of fruit (excluding grapes) were collected from the gardens, with a yield of 71.7 cents per hectare.


According to the data of October 1, 2016, the number of corpses in Azerbaijan was 2 million 526.5 thousand heads.

According to the data of 2016 in Azerbaijan, there are 8.7 million heads and goats. 70,000 tons of sheep and 17,000 tons of wool are produced annually. In 2014, 2.0 kg of wool was shaved on average per head.

Juice is the main ingredient for dairy and meat production in Azerbaijan. In Azerbaijan, the standard fat content of buckwheat is about 7.6%. It is possible to get a maximum of 2000-3000 kg of milk per year in Azerbaijan, which is grown in Azerbaijan. The maximum weight of females in breeding farms is 686 kg, and 720 kilograms in men. There are some who can get 900-1000 kg. At present, it is mainly stored in individual farms. In Azerbaijan, during the years of independence, interest in crawling has diminished. The decline in recent years is observed.

About 7.5% of the remains of the remains of the Alikööktepe monument in the present Jalilabad region of Azerbaijan in the second half of the 4th millennium were horse bones. However, it was determined that most of the horses in the monument were horses. Currently, the national horse breeds in Garabagh, Dilbaz, Guba, Shirvan and other native horses are grown in the Republic of Azerbaijan. According to 2016, there are 71.6 thousand horses in the country.

It was one of the most widely spread in Azerbaijan until the early twentieth century. This area has been forgotten mainly due to the development of rail and road transport. Currently, the meat is grown in Azerbaijan. Milk does not have a large sales market. There is currently a camel farm in the Shabran, Salyan, Goranboy regions of Azerbaijan. Mainly stored in individual farms. In future, this field is planned to be developed. The total number of camels in the country is between 0.2-0.3 thousand heads.

Beekeeping plays an important role in the national economy. This field is growing year after year. According to 2016, there are 238,000 bee families in the country. By 2020, the number of bee families throughout the country is projected to reach 310,000. Every year the country hosts Beekeeping Fair. At the fair held in Baku in November 2016, 453 beekeepers took part, and about 200 tons of beekeeping products were sold.

In 2014, 99.4 thousand tons of poultry and 1562.7 million eggs were produced throughout the country.

n 1913, 13 million pounds of fish and fish products and 40,000 poods of black caviar were produced in Azerbaijan.

Non-traditional economic sectors

Frog and
It is newly organized as one of the non-traditional areas for Azerbaijan. This area is the first company with “Azerifrog” in 2015 and was incorporated in the year 2016 and started production in summer. The products are mainly exported to France. In the future, the products are exported to countries such as France, Canada, Spain, China and Norway. Initially, 2,000 tons of products were exported in 2016.

Snail farming
It is a non-traditional area for Azerbaijan. The first company associated with this field is “Azdelikates-Alfa” LLC. It is expected that by the end of the summer season 2017 270-300 tons of crop will be harvested. It is planned to sell snails abroad in August 2017.

Nutrition safety

Plant-derived products projects
In period January–July 2016, the exported 628 agrochemical substance samples with 2512 quality indicators and 34 pesticide samples with 136 quality indicators, the imported and exported agricultural products of 2270 pesticide samples, 1271 samples of Nitrate and Nitrite residues, observed mycotoxin in the 286th sample and concentration of heavy metals in the 2657th sample were determined in Republic Toxicology and Quality Control Center laboratory of Governmental Fito-sanitary Control. 28588 appraisals by experts were held based on the 13098th sample of imported and exported plants and plant-growing products and 1624 protocols of appraisals by experts were created in Republic Quarantine Expertise Center’s laboratory. The 791239 m3 wooden material, objects and empty containers of 13863 tonnes technical load was neutralized by Republic Quarantine Expertise Center fumigation department. According to Republic Quarantine Expertise Center’s laboratory, the agricultural product samples analyzing let 1 held quarantine and 17 harmful organisms neutralization. 9.2 tonnes of nectarine was destroyed

due to being in quarantine for observed harmful organisms. In 2016, 23.3 tonnes of fruit and vegetable products were removed from the sales and destroyed due to not being within the limits of standards provided by Republic Quarantine Expertise Center.

Animals based products projects
In July 2016, in order to improve the quality of controlling the animals based products safety, general check up was held and consequently 3573 kg of meat (cow, sheep, ham and birds), 5038 kg of internal organs of small and big horned animals, 404 kg of fish, 1489 kg of milk and milk-based products and 3935 eggs were destroyed according to internal rules due to not being within the standards. Besides that, during the checkup regarding the safety of animals based products in July, 150 kg of unknown horse meat was identified and destroyed.

Source from Wikipedia