Isfahani style

The “Esfahani” or “Isfahani style” (شیوه معماری اصفهانی) is a style (sabk) of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in history. Landmarks of this style span through the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties starting from the 16th century to the early 20th century.

The Isfahani style is the last style of traditional Persian—Iranian architecture.

The Safavid dynasty were chiefly instrumental in the emergence of this style of architecture, which soon spread to India in what became known as Mughal architecture.

Safavid architecture bloomed in a relatively short period of time under Abbas I, refined the form of the mosque in the early stages, but after that it showed a tendency to cling to details skill and influence even modern Islamic architecture There was little new movement to give.

The reign of the Safavid dynasty in Iran led to the emergence of a state that Iran had not seen after the Sassanid dynasty. Religion ( Shi’a ) and its systematic organization led it to dominate all aspects of life. The peak of Shi’a rational life during this period, which was accompanied by the gathering of Shiite thinkers and thinkers in the major centers of those days, especially in Isfahan, and the exchange of votes and Their thoughts brought a new era in the wisdom and philosophy of Shi’a, 31 and established the manifestation of civilization in this country; and the government, according to tradition, organized, set up and built up the system and the equipment under consideration, deliberately. Indeed, these policies can be considered as a model of the Sassanid policies. What is clear is that the Safavid government is a summery of Iran’s history of several thousand years, which presented a school called Esfahani as a rigorous summing up of ancient philosophy, art, architecture, and urbanism, and presented it to the community with regard to the examples and concepts of its day.

Of the manifestations of this period and its glorious works still in the head of Iran, is one of the network of vertical paths, extending from the mountains into the deserts and saltwaves, and making large lobes and caravansaries and respectable stops, palaces And the beautiful and gazebo shackles that were at the distance between the roads where all kinds of comfort and welfare facilities were provided.

About the architecture of Isfahan, it is divided into periods that the first period that was during the Safavid rule was its period of flourishing and the second period, which began from the time of the rare revelation, and after Zandy with the Qajar dynasty, which is considered to be the period of the decline of the Safavid architecture. The arrival of European architecture at the time is one of the most important reasons for its degeneration.

Although it was not influenced by other Islamic countries, almost no Islamic architecture other than Safavid Morning remains in Iran and it is difficult to trace the structure of the Safavid Morning Building.

In Safavid architecture, the architecture of the mosque and the mausoleum are almost all, and the housing, commercial forces accommodation facilities, commercial facilities probably had little change from those before Safavid. In terms of architectural design, Persians were very conservative, but about creating a complex structure using calcined bricks shows superior talent over any Islamic countries of the same age, and that technology is It was made use of even in civil engineering work.

The architecture at Afsharih’s time due to successive archery and lack of internal issues in the country did not have significant effects. At the time of Zandieh, due to the concentration of power in Shiraz, most of its effects appeared in Shiraz, and during Qajar period due to technical issues And the lack of sufficient force to build the past slowly removed the country from the process of Iranian architecture. But about the features and achievements of Isfahan architecture, the following points can be mentioned: 34:

Simplifying designs that are in most buildings, spaces, or four-sided
Simple geometry and broken shapes and lines were used
In the buildings of the buildings, there was less and less likelihood, and making the corners of Leh at this time became more common.
Ponying and using the same organs and sizes
The simplicity of the design in the buildings was also revealed.
Of course, perhaps the greatest achievements of this period could be pursued in urban planning, as this period left significant city collections for the future.


Safavid Building Early period
In the Safavid dynasty, Ismailir I began to break the white sheep morning, occupying Tabriz, creating a national family tree with a fictitious family tree. However, the interest of the early era was mainly to invade the Shai Bahn morning and the Ottoman national land, or to defend the national land from both empires, and because the national affairs did not stabilize, textiles, ceramics, metalwork Art came to the height of the tough masbub I, but the developmental situation of architecture had to wait until the era of Abbas I.

Although Abbas I may call it the father of Safavid Middle School, Safavid architecture has finally begun in this era. Abbas I celebrated the Persian New Year in Isfahan in 1598, decided to build a new city here. As a new city of Islam, it is extremely rare that Esfahan has sufficient historic remains and historical materials, so it is possible to quite accurately restore the state of the city at the time. For this reason, it is no exaggeration to say that what is in this town is all about the architecture in the early Safavid dynasty.

Today it is 521 m × 159 m in size, which is registered as a World Heritage Site of the Maydane • Naxe Jahan (world portrait square), but around 1505 some of the western part was already developed by Ismail I It seemed to have been called the name of the garden of Samarkand and was called Nakushi Gahan. Abbas I rebuilt Maydan, placed a bazaar with shops on both sides on the four sides, and inside it another set of stores opened towards the courtyard. The store space facing the courtyard was separated from the open space in the middle of the square, and the center of the square was used for regular city, competition, public works and so on.

Masjid Isshah, which began to be built since 1611, was designed by architect Abule Carsim, a congregational mosque on the south side of Meidan. The entrance facing Meidan was completed in 1616 and is always in the shade because it is on the northern side, but the blue shining tile mosaic gives a strong impression even now. The main body did not complete until the year of 1638, but it can be called the highest masterpiece of the four-Ewan style mosque that has been built with Islam for almost 1000 years. As soon as entering the entrance the sanctuary that gathers a huge dome spreads out and on both sides there is a winter mosque covered with intersection vaults. Furthermore, it has an open courtyard on the outside.

Sheikh Rutuhler ‘s mosque was known to have been built from the inscription by the architect Muhammad Leh Bun Ustad Husain, and it seems that it was completed in 1618. It is presumed that this mosque was used for the emperor’s private worship service, which also confirms that there is no minaret. The entrance faces the courtyard opened in Meidan, and enters the worship room through a corridor arranged so as to wrap around the chapel. The inside of the dome, which is regarded as the ultimate form of a kiosk type mosque, is very beautiful.

Both Masjid y Shah and Sheikh Rutuhler’s mosque have a dome covered with colored tiles, but their beauty does not feel mass and it makes you feel the taste of Islamic art.

Late Safavid architecture
After the heyday, almost no progress is seen in Safavid architecture. Although few attention is drawn, Pol I ya Hajj (Haj bridge) constructed by Shah • Abbas II is a bridge, so it is rather civil engineering, but it is an excellent building. Pol Yi Haju has a function as a dam, and the wind cooled by the river passes through the vault and is a comfortable place.

Hasht Beheest, an important building for Islamic architecture, is a garden built in the garden, with four octagonal rooms centered on the octagonal room that will receive the dome and the second floor also Repeat the same configuration. Originally it was a pavilion built in the morning gardens, but smaller ones were built in Esfahan and further in the Mughal morning. However, the Mughal morning Hasht Bekhetto originated in the Timurid dynasty. Esfahan’s Hasht Beješt was built by Saphy II Sluman in 1669 and currently only remodeled remnants remain, but records of 1840 remain, according to which the center In the hall there is a fountain and from the arch in the north you can see the whole garden.

Source From Wikipedia