A Buddha statue is the mostly fully plastic, made of a stone and idealized image of the historical Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama), the founder of Buddhism. Aniconic representations of Buddha probably existed very early (4th or 3rd century BC); However, portraits of the person himself are not documented until the 1st or 2nd century AD. Since then a great variety of art and forms has developed.
The history and history
Originally in the Indian society at the time Buddha went on to rise, Brahmanism is the mainstream, and in Brahmanism it is said that he did not make a statue centered on rituals. Besides Buddhism at the time in India at the time there were also various teachers such as Six-Master outgoing road, but none of us had wished to build a statue and worship. Therefore, primitive Buddhism was also under the influence of this social background.
Primitive Buddhism was also a religious aspect, but there are also reasons that the philosophical aspect of seeing natural provision of four or twelve factors was stronger. Furthermore, Buddha himself did not think that he himself was the subject of fundamental belief, from the basic idea that “Buddha light, Law moment” (depends on himself and taking the law as department). Therefore, there was no Buddha statue in early Buddhism.
However, when Buddha goes into era and goes through the era, it will be drawing into drawings to convey the teachings of Buddha.
It was thought that the figure of the great Buddha who became a Buddha can no longer be represented by human hands. As a result, people are stupas (stolen women, those who worshiped the remains of Buddha) as a symbol of Buddha, Falun Gong (a circle expressing how the teachings of Buddha widens)), Futoshi Ishizuka (stone carved by Buddha’s footsteps) , Bodhi tree etc etc. In early Buddhist art in India there are many Buddha figures (such as embossing expressing the life of Buddha), but the appearance of Buddha was not represented, but its existence was only implied by footprints, lindas, pedestals and the like.
The birth of a Buddha statue
Before the Buddha statue was built, the existence of Sakyamuni (Shakamuni) was symbolically expressed by Falun, Bodhidhi, Futoshi Ishiro and others.
However, when Buddhism is transmitted to the Gandhara region in northwestern India and the Matura region in northern India (currently in Pakistan), since the Buddhist image has been actively developed, the origins of Buddha statues are required in these two regions . There has been controversy over how long the Buddha statue was created in both Gandhara and Mathura, and we have not seen settlement.
In Gandhara, based on Indian culture, under the influence of Hellenistic culture, a Buddha image with Greek appearance was created. Bodhisattva statues such as the crown bodhisattva showing the Buddha’s practice era gradually and the Sakuhatsu Bodhisattva showing the Miroku Bodhisattva will be born and various Buddha statues will appear.
Characteristic of Buddha statue of Gandhara are forehead· There is a white raku (eyebrows) in the glabella, and the back of the light like a round disk is attached behind.
Also, in Gandhara, Buddhas (Buddha) that rests the Buddha statue around the pagoda will be made, but as Buddhism is transmitted to the Central Asia and the passage of time, a shrine dedicated to the pagoda and Buddha statue be born. Then in the end, Buddhist worship is more prosperous than pagoda worship.
Gandhara ‘s Buddhist art, along with the pagoda and cave temples, was transmitted from Gandhara to East Asia via Central Asia.
The era of Gandhara Buddhist art
Around 330 BC, the expedition army of Alexander the 3 (Great) exercised over Persia, brought Greek culture to Northern India. Even then, in the 2nd century BC, the inflow of Western culture continued, such as under the rule of the Greek people of Greco-Bactrian kingdom. In other words, Gandhara’s Buddhist art was the result of the fusion of Greek art and Buddhism into Persian culture.
Originally the Buddha statue was restricted to the statue of Buddha, but various statues were born according to the development of Buddhism, Hinoko is seen as influence of Persian culture, Buddhism is influenced by the influence of Greek culture, idol worship character It began to have. In Gandhara, examples clearly showing that it is Maimori Bodhisattva, Amitabha Nyorai, Kannon Bodhisattva etc. are confirmed from the inscription. For details, please refer to Osamu Takada ‘Origin of Buddha’ (Iwanami Shoten, first edition 1967, rebuilt 1994, etc.) “Birth of Buddha statue” (Iwanami Shoten 1987), Akira Miyaji “Mystery of Gandhara Buddha” (Kodansha Mecume Mechier, 1996) .
It is almost an accepted fact that the Buddha statue became popular in the days of the Kushana morning that ruled India from around the 1st century AD. King Kanishka in the morning of Kushana touched Buddha’s teachings and became a guardian of Buddhism. The King engraved the name of Buddha statue and Buddha on the currency of his country. Also from the ruins of Purushapura (current Pakistan, Peshawar) that was the capital of the time, a shrine container of the Buddha that the Buddha settles over the king of Kushan (also known as Kanishka king but there are also huge stories) has also been discovered.
The Buddha statue of Mathura was powerful with shoulder shoulder, and mass-rich Buddha statue was created. This was further refined and was taken over to the completed Buddha statue of the Gupta dynasty era.
Types of Buddha
The Buddha statue is divided into four groups (divisions) of Tathagata, Bodhisattva, Meiwa, and the heaven. In addition to this, the statue including Raohan and the statue of the ancestor is widely called the Buddha statue.
Tathagata is a honorific name of Buddha (one of the French Ten). It means “abbreviated Tathagata” or “Tathagata Ruzasa”, that means “they are leaving to the world of Maki and come from the world of Masaki”, meaning that they have completed their studies and opened the truth, .
Because Tathagata is told that it possesses characteristics of the body called the thirtieth phase eight hundred species, the Tathagata statue also expresses this. The head is swollen (meat strokes), the head is swirling in the right hand (spiral hair), white hair about the length extending from the eyebrow swirls in the right hand (white 毫), The body is gold, decorative items are not worn on. However, it does not necessarily express all of the 80th kind of Mt.
Normally, clothes are only wearing clothes and clothes. Only Dainichi Nyori is an exception, dressed like a bodhisattva. In addition, Tathagata has signs of impression such as impersonation, application, sign, indictor, and tactile sign. I do not have any belongings, but only Yakushi Yakushi has a medicinal pot (Yakko).
Both head hair of Tathagata in Japan are shaped as a spiral like aggregate saying helix. Although it was not in the early stage such as Gandhara Buddha, the statue of Buddha after the 3 rd century began to have a spiral hair. Professor Osaka University Professor Takashi Mizuzuki said that India’s great and outstanding person appears in this world with a unique peculiarity from that of ordinary people, one of which appears as a special hair.
Buddha Buddha represents Buddha who is a real person who only realized enlightenment in this world. The form with side by side samurai on the left and right is called Shaka Sanzumi. There are many Buddhist Bodhisattvas and Female Bodhisattvas as Buddha Samurai, Brahma and Emperor Temple, or Ten Great Pupils, Awa and Mika Buddha.
It is a Buddha who is said to live in Lotus Hakodate world, sitting on Lotus Lotus seat. As modeling, it is not very different from Buddha Buddha, but the point that a lotus wrapping pattern is drawn on lotus is its unique feature. Todaiji Temple Rojos Statue (Buddha of Nara) is famous.
Yakuji Yakushi became a Tathagata by establishing twelve wishful wishes in the Bodhisattva era. It is believed to live in the Ruri light Pure Land in the east and has received the faith of sickening healing.
The statue has a medicinal pot (Yakko) in her hand. In the case of Sansaku style, it is always Nikko Bodhisattva (Oppose Right) and Moonlight Bodhisattva (Left) as side samurai. Separate from the side samurai, the twelve gods who follow the philosopher Nyorai and also guard those who believe in the pharmacist Nyorai may follow.
Amida Nyorai, the legendary Bodhisattva has made a forty-eight great petition and has become a tusky tree and is doing preaching in the western paradise. Although Byodoin Phoenix Hall is only one Amitabha Nyorai, it is often enshrined in the form of Samurai Amida who followed Kannon Bodhisattva, Fudo Bodhisattva as a side samurai.
Dainichi Nyorai is a Tathagata that is considered to be the universe itself in Esoteric Buddhism. Unlike the evangelical Tathagata, he has raised his head, got a crown, wearing ornamental items such as 瓔珞 (yokuraku), necklace, armor kushi, kushiku.
Along the Dainichi Nyoro, Azyaku in the east, Tombus Tathagata in the south, Amida Nyorai in the west (Norimasa Kotoba), Togeto Goshiri together with the Northern Nonfree Completely Tathagata.
Bodhisattva is the meaning of those who pursue training as they seek the Buddha (as a Tathagata) trainee.
The general appearance is wearing a strand (upper part) in the upper body, wearing a shirt on the lower body, and drooping the Teni from both shoulders. We got ridge up and got a crown and we are doing accessories such as 瓔珞 (youtaru), 耳璫(hanken), 臂((kushiki), 足 (kokusen) . Jizo Bodhisattva alone can not show a crown with its head rolled up, it is represented by a monk.
Marks like Tathagata are not connected, and each has their belongings. Many are represented as figurines, except for Maitreya Bodhisattva.
Kannon Bodhisattva is characterized by putting a Buddha (mushroom) on the crown. Often you have a water bottle or lotus flower in hand.
Among them, the Kannon image of ordinary one-sided two-eyed god (“臂” (hand) means hand-gone).
On the contrary, it was the change mindedness of multifaceted multifacet (many faces and hands) made under the influence of esoteric faith. The eleven-sided Kannon has 10 faces facing east, west, south and north on the head, and it is eleven faces together with this face. By seeing all the directions, it means that it will save all people. Senju Kannon has hands of Senbon, each eye has one eye, which means that he will save people with a thousand hands and a thousand eyes. As an image, there are a lot of thousands of hands represented by forty-two hands, and they have holdings in their hands. Often it has eleven faces. Horse head sensation expresses rage and has a horse’s head at the top of the head. The non-empty-line Kannon has three lines of eyes (rope, a rope to grab and troublesome people’s troubles) in hands (with a third eye in the forehead). Wisconsin has sounds like “Nyonygae” and “Falun”. It has a unique way of sitting with the left leg bent, with the right leg as one knee and feet under both feet, with the right elbow and the hand on the cheek. There are many things of Six.. Quasi-sound is the thing which was regarded as a Buddha mother in India comes to Japan together with esoteric tyrison and became a Kannon, and many of the 18th round of the third are included.
The sacred sound and the above six change tone are collectively called seikanne.
Female Bodhisattva becomes a side samurai of Buddha Buddha along with Bunsei Bodhisattva, but it is also believed in Germanism. It is a bodhisattva that symbolizes the line of the Buddha. People who believe in the Lotus Sutra are believed to have female Bodhisattva with six fangs on white elephant, and since they clearly stated that women can also live with the Lotus Sutra, in the Heian era, women of nobility I gathered faith among them.
In the case of Buddhism, there are many things riding on the white elephant.
Bun Shu is a wise brother of Buddha and is said to be a real person. It becomes a side samurai of Buddha Buddha along with feminine bodhisattvas, but it is also believed in Germanism. It symbolizes Buddha’s wisdom and received faith in scholarship prayers.
Often riding on a blue lion, often having a sword in the right hand and a sword on the left hand.
Although Maitreya Bodhisattva has already finished his practice, it is now staying at helmer sky and appears as a Tathagata (Miroku Tathagata) in the future after 5.7 billion years from the death of Buddha, relieving all people It is said to be.
Maitreya Bodhisattva such as the Maitreya Bodhisattva statue of Hirokazu Temple was made much in the Asuka and Nara periods (the statue of Koryuji Temple has the Buddhist texts of Futenma and domestic production in Japan). However, it is not necessarily Miroku Bodhisattva. In the Heian period, the tower became a symbol of Maitreya Bodhisattva, an image such as putting a small tower in the hand which connects the sign and made it was made.
Ming Ou is a Buddha statue unique to Taoist beliefs.
It has been told that Ming Ou himself changed to Ming Ou even though Myeo won the life of Dainichi Nari to make her liberating sentient beings who still do not follow teachings devote even though they are full of power.
It is characterized by a terrible appearance and a fierce fury, but Peacock Ming is the only bodhisattva face that shows mercy.
Fudo was not subject to faith in almost India and China, but in Japan the emphasis on the empty sea brought back esoteric religion as a symbol of the martial mandala, spreading faith among the people. Hang hair (Sakuhatsu) on the left, with a sword on the right and a rope on the left. Because it is always in the fire, there is Buddha Luo in flame.
There are many cases that are enshrined in the form of Sanjo (Fudo Satoru) who followed Shihoda Shidoji (left) on the left.
In Shingon Buddhism (Dong-dong), five of the Fudo Kyoiku, Sansui Mikuo, Military Buddhist Maiden, Daiei Wang Ming Wang, King Geelyang King Ming Wang are referred to as the Great Brewery. Many temples such as Toji, Daikakuji, Daigoji, and exclusion temples, are enshrined by the five Great Meiwa.
The heaven is a collective term for those who gods of religion of ancient India were taken into Buddhism and became a guardian goddess who guards Buddhism. Various figures such as a figure of a nobility wearing a public clothes, a figure of warrior clad in armor, a figure of a demon, etc.
Four heavenly kings
The four heavenly kings are the guardian gods who protect the Buddhism in all directions of SUZUYAMA. In ancient India, it was taken into Buddhism that it was regarded as a god to protect each direction. Originally you were a noble but in China you became a figure of warrior and it was transmitted to Japan. Wear an armor on the shoulder and chest, and step on the evil spirit. Kokutokuten is the guardian god of the east, protecting the territory and reassuring people. I often have swords or hoes. It is the guardian god of the south, and it controls the grain richness. Many things swing up swords or three sticks on the right hand. Widget is the guardian god of the west, observes the world with a special eye called Clear Sky eye (clairvoyance), guides and protects sentient beings. Many have a brush on the right hand and a winding (kun) on the left hand. Takayuten is the guardian guard of the north and governs treasure treasure. Often you have a treasure tower in one hand. Only Takagi Temple is enshrined as a German monk, in that case it is called Bishamonten.
The statue of the 4th Kingdom of Todaiji Temple is known as a masterpiece of the Tempyo era.
The Eight Parts are the followers of Buddha and are the heavens, the dragons, the Yasha (Yasha), the Dry Buddha (Kendenza), Asura, Buddha Rura (Karura), Tonara (Kina) (Masagarasa) is usually 8 people.
Among them, Ashura was originally a god of battle in India, and repeated fierce battle with Imperial Tian, but after having devoted himself to Buddhism, he was to be positioned as a guardian deity of Buddhism. I will control Shura way out of Rokubo. The Asura statue of the eight part of the Kofukuji Temple is particularly famous.
Rigid warrior was originally a one god named Goddess god who guards Buddhism in the vicinity of Buddha, taking Kim Jae pit, but became two in India. It is also called Niou (smell) because it is divided into two. Originally it was an armed figure, but naked form became common in China. It is made of two bodies, one with open mouth and one with closed mouth. Although it is often placed in the Niohon Gate, like the statues of Sanjusangendo and Kofukuji, some are made for the purpose of placing on the inside of the house (the outermost side of the Sutaya altar).
In Kishiten, the goddess of beauty and prosperity in Hinduism was incorporated into Buddhism. It was believed to remove all poverty and disaster, bring fertility and treasure, and in Japan it was particularly believed in ancient times. Many figures have clothes of the Chinese lady, holding innocentriss on the left hand and requiring the right hand as the request.
Rokuen Ten (Benzaiten)
Rokujiten is a goddess who deified the sacred river in India and was adopted by Buddhism. It has been believed as a goddess of science and knowledge and also as a god of treasure. Since the Kamakura period, gathered popularity on behalf of Kichijo-he. There are statues of Hakka and some with biwa in two ridges
The guardian deity of the twelve gods Yakushiro Yakushi. It is the gods who are in the twelve directions and protect Yakuji Yakujin.
Sweet home appliances
Materials and techniques
Structuring – a technique of shaping by raising clay.
Buddha – Baked relief shaped with clay.
Deactivated dry lacquerware – A technique of laminating linen cloth on lacquer made from clay and shaping it, and then removing the inner clay.
Kofukuji Temple Eight Shrines
It is a feature of Japanese Buddha statues that heavily uses trees as a material. Looking at the tree type, exclusively Camphora was used in Asuka period. As an exception, there is a semi-statue of the Maitreya Bodhisattva in Kyoto · Koryuji temple using Akamatsu wood, but there are both theories of Japan and the Korean Peninsula about the place of production of this statue. In the Nara period, many copper statues, dry lacquer ware, and Buddha statues were produced, and rather few pure wood carvings with no dry lacquer are used. The wooden sculpture Buddha statue group that was settled in the auditorium of Toshodaiji temple in Nara is used for Kaya wood, and it is assumed that the workers around Kanzaki participate. Various materials such as wigs and zelkova were used when parasitic wooden houses became mainstream since the middle of the Heian period. Sometimes sacred trees such as Sacred Trees are used as wood used, and the influence of animism from ancient times is considered.
Technique to carve out the main part of Buddha’s head body from one wood. In the case of adding the hands, feet, loose parts of the heaven etc as well, if the main part of the head body is carved from one material it is called one wooden. One wooden Buddha image exists from the Asuka period, but in the early Heian period many Buddha statues larger than life size are carved from one tree (Jingo Temple Yakushigo Statue etc), it can be said to be a characteristic technique in this era . These wood carving methods are seen all over the world, and the Egyptian woodcarving god image and the Christ and saint statues in the medieval churches of Europe are similarly carving out the main part of the image from one material.
The nine-sided Kannon statue of Horyu-ji Temple is a statue of invitation from Tang, carving out the entire image from one piece of sandalwood, including fine accessories and free parts of Tenori, the surface of the image does not have coloring or gold leaf and beauty of the skin I make use of taste and aroma. Such an image of style and technique is called “a rabbit statue”. In Japan, a substitute dancer using Kaya wood was produced in place of rare sandalwood. Unlike plastic wood and lacquer ware, one wooden construction is impossible to correct once it is scraped off, there is a possibility that the breakdown of details can reach the whole. The tense relationship between the producer and the material brings deep spirituality and excellent shaping power to the Buddha statue. In case
Inner hollow (dorsal hollow)
A technique to remove the hollow inside and to make it easy to shrink when the material dries, in order to prevent cracks (called “cracks”) due to drying and shrinking of wood. In one wooden case, it is often said that it is a trunk because it peels off the back of the head and back. In the case of a statue, also embellish from the flat surface of the image bottom. It helps not only to prevent cracking but also to lighten the weight of the image and to speed up the drying of the timber during production.
Discretization (making a wearing bead)
The image to be engraved from a single tree is divided once in the middle of the process with the head body part left or right or front and back along the wood longitudinal edges and after having cleared enough of these cracked surfaces to drill a round boat, Technique to stitched with cracks. It can be said that it is an intermediate technique between single wooden and parquet. An old example is a medicinal statue of Katsumonji in Fukushima Prefecture, which is thought to be the image of the latter half of the nineteenth century. As a division method, after embossing the image, insert fleas vertically into the neck around the neck, disassemble the head and body part once, finish the details and stitcher again There is also a technique called “discount”. In case
Technique to assemble the main part of the head body from two or more materials. One wooden building is still prone to cracking even if it is hollowed out, and a big tree is inevitably necessary to wooden the main part of the image from one material, but one image is divided into several blocks, one of which By treating one piece from another material and arranging it so as to arrange the building blocks, it becomes easier to build a giant statue, especially without using large and large wood. In addition, it is easy to remove the wood core that causes cracking and to wooden it, furthermore it can also be hollowed out from a wide paddle surface of each material, and there are many advantages such as easy division of labor . It is thought that the parasitic ware was started from around the latter half of the 10th century, and the medicine Nagara aristocrat of the Rokka Waraji temple is the first example now known. In the eleventh century, it became more rationalized and refined, especially since the early morning, it was used extensively for the production of colossal figures such as Hokusei Buddha. Representative things include Todaiji Temple Namdaemun Kim godfire statue.
Clearing money – Decorative techniques using gold leaf which are transmitted from the Asuka period.
Technique to fit the crystal to show the statue’s eyes more real. For details, see Tamagotchi.
Types by position
Buddha statues are classified into types, such as statues, sitting, biological images, semi-imaginary images, nirvana images, depending on their posture.
The size of each part such as the height of a statue of Buddha, shoulder width, etc. is collectively called “law amount”.
(For more on the history, see: Buddhist art) The first portraits that represented the Master in his human form, emerged in the 1st or 2nd century AD at about the same time in Gandhara (now Afghanistan) and Mathura (North India) (see Bimaran reliquary or Kanischka reliquary). Ceylonese chronicles, on the other hand, suggest that the first iconic images of the Buddha were made as early as the third century BC; However, archaeological evidence for this assumption has so far remained. The already known symbols were still used in the presentation. Where the production of such portraits has begun is still unclear, but the majority of the early images found are from the Gandhara culture.
Immediately after its creation, the Buddha’s initially very few representations of rapidly growing numbers and regional diversity spread, even in reciprocal influence. It also developed associated art and teaching traditions and traditions, the certain forms of presentation or even individual sculptures as particularly true spend. A frequent topos is that an artist, on behalf of a king, directly looked at the Buddha and then created the image, interlocking secular and religious legitimacy.
There are standing, sedentary (loosely or ‘European seat’ (pralambapadasana)) and reclining, d. H. already dead, but freed from the cycle of reincarnation (samsara) Buddha-figures. Certain physical features mentioned in the Pali Canon have become typical of Buddha images over time; they differ in many respects from other religious images of the time (eg the Jain Tirthankaras):
Garment: The Buddha is always clothed – initially with a toga, later with an almost transparent robe.
Gender: The genitals are always hidden under the robe.
Eyes: The eyes of the Buddha are usually only half-opened as a sign of his world-turmoil.
Hand posture: Several characteristic hand postures (mudras) are known.
Fingers: The fingers of the enlightened are delicate and somewhat elongated.
Ushnisha: skull bulge or bun at the back of the head (sign of enlightenment)
Neck: Buddha’s neck usually consists of three rings.
Ear: The earlobes of the Buddha are regularly pierced and hang down – a sign of jewelry carrying, d. H. his royal descent.
Physique: The balance of body proportions is important (only in the early Gandhara art there are examples of ascetic Buddhas, in China and Japan are also known representations of obese Budais.)
A Buddha statue is not created as a decorative work of art or just to please the eye. The intent is rather to remind, instruct or even enlighten the viewer. The creation of a Buddha statue is considered a “good deed”, which is expected to have a positive impact on the next rebirth. Similar to the stupas, they were initially used to store relics, but in the course of time became a relic of remembrance.
Buddha statues today
Today, representations of the Buddha are firmly integrated not only in the religious life of almost all Buddhist schools and forms of popular religiosity. They also enjoy great popularity as fashion items for living rooms or gardens of well-to-do people worldwide, who want to grow a bit of spiritual chic and show their cosmopolitanism. Aniconic symbols, on the other hand, have lost their importance, although z. For example, the Dharma Wheel was included in the national flag of India. As in Christianity, so in BuddhismToday mostly forgotten that representations of the founder of religion, especially for worship purposes, were initially uncommon.
Destruction of Buddha statues
Even in areas where Buddhism eventually had to give way to other religions, Buddha images often remained and remain for centuries; In India, even during the time of Dominant Hinduism, no destruction of Buddha images is known among the Gupta rulers (4th / 5th century AD). Such things happened only in the course of the conquest of northern and central India by the anti-imagery Islam. The destruction of the giant Buddha statues of Bamiyan (Afghanistan) by the Islamist Taliban in 1998 and 2001 triggered worldwide outrage and had to oppose the resistance of the localHazara population are enforced. Also in the northern Pakistan Swat Valley, in the years 2007 to 2009, some smaller rock reliefs with Buddha images were damaged by the Taliban, who were in fact in power at the time.