Hungary is home to the largest synagogue in Europe (Great Synagogue), the largest medicinal bath in Europe (Széchenyi Medicinal Bath), the third largest church in Europe (Esztergom Basilica), the second largest territorial abbey in the world (Pannonhalma Archabbey), the second largest Baroque castle in the world (Gödöllő), and the largest Myles Necropolis outside Italy (Pécs).
Notable architectural styles in Hungary include Historicism and Art Nouveau, or rather several variants of Art Nouveau. In contrast to Historicism, Hungarian Art Nouveau is based on the national architectural characteristics. Taking the eastern origins of the Hungarians into account, Ödön Lechner (1845–1914), the most important figure in Hungarian Art Nouveau, was initially inspired by Indian and Syrian architecture, and later by traditional Hungarian decorative designs. In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. By applying them to three-dimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Hungary.
In the Árpád Age
In Béla age
The established uniformity III. Béla was replaced by more complex art. During the reign of the Byzantine emperor, a significant French influence on Byzantine has to be considered. This was most evident in Esztergom, where he wanted to create a center like Constantinople in the unity of secular and ecclesiastical architecture. This is why the St. Adalbert Cathedral burned down in 1181 also gave reason. Job Archbishop raised a magnificent temple, south of the cathedral built a royal palace and a chapel. III. Although Bela did not realize his plan, the barely finished building was passed to the archbishop. However, the constructions at Székesfehérvár at that time continued to follow the Pécs pattern. The mixing style in Esztergom appeared in various aspects at the beginning of the 13th century. In particular, the gate type has become a favorite, as is shown by the southern gate of the Archbishopric Cathedral of Gyulafehérvár. The individual details were also spread like the vortex columnist in the church of Ócsa. The turning point of Esztergom is most evident in the Calvinist church in Kisbény.
Effect of Cysters
Following the French relations of Esztergom, the Cistercian order appeared in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Order brought a definite art program, prohibiting figurative carvings, mural paintings and the construction of towers, but used the Gothic style of the contemporary Burgundian age. The order settled in Egres was first settled in 1142. The Flower Age III. During the reign of Béla, they had the same privileges as those on the French soil. Only fragments of the abbey churches of Zirc and Pilis were formed, while the church of Bélapátfalva, completed after the Mongol invasion, remained almost completely intact. Cistercianism is also reflected in the altarpiece of the Pannonhalma Abbey, founded in the time of the Geza prince, and also in this style the castle of Óbuda was built.
Effect of premonites
The first monastery of the Prison Order in Hungary was traditionally founded in the 1130s on Váradhegyfok (near today’s Oradea), and their presence before 1135 is proved by documents. In the Árpád Age, 39 priests were created, including in Adony, Csornán, Hatvan, Kaposfő, Majkpusztán, Tyrrhenian, Rabbit Island (today’s Margit Island in Budapest) and Zsámbék, and female churches in Mórichida (St. James’s Apostolic Church) in Somlóvásárhely and operated in Szeged. The monks dealt with pastoral life and monastery activities, with the latter playing a major role in spreading literacy in Hungary. During the Turkish occupation, the operation of the Order of Preliminary Order was almost completely abolished. Their property was in the 18th century owned by the Austrians.
Impact of French Romance
In addition to the effects of the Cistercians, the results of French romance came to fruition in the first third of the 13th century. As a result, the usual layout system had changed, the cruise ship was expanded with a crossover, and the semicircular shrines were replaced by a French shrine. Thus, the Kalocsa church was built, which provided a crossover and chapel wreath (only known from excavation). The same or similar craftsman’s workshop built the Vicarage Benedictine abbey church with a crossover and polygonal sanctuary. Polygonal shrines are also connected to the Ócsa church. The richest solution is represented by the cathedral of Gyulafehérvár, where a two-story chapel was built with a four-tower tower.
Monasteries of the genus
The 13th-century, earth-lined layer of building was also intended to express its consciousness in construction. In the center of their property there were churches serving as burial place, and usually there was a small monastery. The first monastery of the monastery was founded in the 11th century, but the flowering age of the building was 13th century. Its basic shape is the three-yacht system built at the Pécs Cathedral, closing the semicircle of Apsis, but the positioning of the towers is variable. Boldva is an eastern-oriented tower pair, but in Ákos the eastern construction has been half- dismantled and built west. In the interior there is always a place for patronage. The most memorable monuments of the monasteries of the monasteries remained in Transdanubia, forming a school. Firstly, the Lébian Church was built from 1208, then the Abbey Church of Jáhina around 1220. Construction was abolished by the Tartar invasion, but it was only resumed in the fifties. The type is followed by the Tirasci, the Ócsai, the Aracsi, the Sopronhorpácsi, the Tobacco and the Upper House. In the form of the Templars of Zsámbék, there are already Gothic symbols.
The church churches were built in a more modest version. According to the law of the construction of St. Stephen’s Church, the villages joined together. However, their temples were not made of durable material, but they were made of wood, patics and wicker. Based on these temples we know the core of the villages, the law also stipulated that the village should not be far from the church (such as Himeshaza or Kiskunfélegyháza). Among the remaining temples there are also central and longitudinal types. Common with outside circles, inside a roughly settled arrangement (Gerény, Karcsa, Pápoc). This purely circular plan was only a solution of cemetery chapels. There is little to know about the unified secular architecture. The residence could be a tent or a wooden house, the stone house appears only as a rarity. We do not know about building anymore either. Anonymus refers to earthworms, walnuts, pumice and mud-lined forests of Slavic origin. The dwelling tower of Esztergom, which is the core of the castle, indicates that this type of building has already appeared.
From the second half of the 13th century, a new social layer appeared as the orderer of art works, the citizenship. The art of bourgeoisie was in touch with the art of the royal centers. Protection of the urban settlement IV. Since the law of Béla, a wall has been built, towers and gates built. In addition to ecclesiastical art, significant secular art evolved (dwellings, wells, roads). Urban craftsmen did not have any effect on the art of villages. The residential and palace building became an independent artistic task, Gothic art was emerging. Gothic architecture played an important role IV. Béla’s law, even after massive constructions began. ARC. Bela began the construction of the new royal residence, Buda. Although the royal center had already been transferred to Óbuda, the site proved to be unworkable in the military, so construction works on the southern side of the Castle were started. At that time the construction of Buda was still modest, the main aspect was defense. Next to the castle there was a city on the north side. The work of the king is made up of the Franciscan Blessed Virgin Mary and the simple Mary Magdalene Church, the Temple of Buda’s Dominican Monasteries and the Monastery of the Rabbits Island Dominican Nuns. In these buildings the ribbed crossbars have already appeared.
The construction works were carried out all over the country (Visegrád lower fortress, the tower in Visegrád, incorrectly named Solomon, Sárospatak dwelling tower, etc.). Béla helped the wealthy gentlemen with donations and encouraged similar activities. Generations and bishops were almost competing. The central residential tower of these castles was built on steep rock or sloped walls, with additional spaces, walls and gates connected to the terrain. The barracks were narrow, here the water was secured by a cistern and a well. The huge old towers were usually very dark, only the most modest demands were met (Castle of Csesznek, Castle of Sümeg, Castle of Trencsén).
The development of the towns started in the 13th century. Egyptian sources present Sopron, Buda and Esztergom as urban settlements. In these cities, the emanation of Buda’s architecture is felt, like the sanctuary of the Franciscan church in Sopron and the extension of the sanctuary of the Gyulafehérvár chapel. Based on these, the art of ancient Gothic art in Anjou is based on these.
Anjou Age and Sigismund Age
The Anjou shed the foundation of Visegrád citadel and palace. Parallel to this, the construction of the Buda Castle was built, in the age of Louis Lajos the bases of today’s palace were already in existence (István Tower). Following Sigismund’s throne, a direct link was established with the Parler building block in Prague. Sigismund built the new wing of the Friss Palace and the Csonkatorny rising from the civic town.
This was the flower age of Gothic architecture. Lajos Nagy’s diósgyőri castle is the earliest work of the typical four-cornered rectangular castle type. Examples of this type are the Royal Castle of Tata and the Pozsony Castle in Zsigmond. In addition to royal castle architecture, the castle architecture was also occupied by the nobleman. There were ribbed crossbars, varied window and door forms. Wardrobes on family coats of arms, in towers fireplaces. The most beautiful examples are from the Highlands: Trenčín, the castle of Máté Csák; Beckó, the castle of the Stribor family; Hollókő is the Gypsy genus; Nógrád is the castle of the Bishop of Vác; the area of Veszprém (Gares of Csesznek, Sümeg castle of the Bishop of Veszprém) and the Great Plain are significant (Gyula the Marótiak, Kisvárda Castle of Várdák). Castle of Kőszeg and Siklós was the Garaiak. The most magnificent creation of the era is the Castle of Vajdahunyad.
Early Gothic Church Architecture
A 14-15. Almost all Episcopal cathedrals were enlarged or rebuilt in the 16th century (church in Veszprém, chapel of Hédervári in Győr, circumcised sanctuary in Eger). In the area, the nobility raised monastic and parish churches. The Franciscan church in Szekesevo was raised by Tamás Szécsenyi. János Hunyadi built a Franciscan church in Tövinen, Kinizsi founded the Nagyvázsonyi Paulin monastery, and in Nyírbátor the Báthorians were active. The type of church was also published, preceded by the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris through the Chapel of John the Evangelist erected in 1361. The chapel of Pozsony was also the forerunner of the grove’s chapels (the Gara Chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Zapolya Chapel of Spiš).
In the second half of the 15th century, the place of Gothic was replaced by the Renaissance, and the German-French influence was replaced by the Italian. Political reasons helped to make changes. The change of style first took place at the headquarters of Buda thanks to Mátyás. The Renaissance spread through the mediation of nobility and high priesthood. The Hungarian Renaissance can be divided into three periods of style.
Early Renaissance (1460-1541)
mature Renaissance (1506-1570)
late Renaissance (between 1570-1690 and 1750)
It is typical that local variations have emerged, and some Renaissance phenomena have lived side-by-side.
The first Renaissance buildings were Matthias’ palaces, the eastern wing of the Buda castle and its courtyard, the Visegrád palace and the marble wool. Their style followed the Tuscan Renaissance. At that time, the order of the façade (semicircles or columns connected with straight beams), window and door types, decorative motifs, which had a striking effect on subsequent construction projects, emerged. Architect Matthias was the Chimenti Camicia in Florence. In Buda there was a significant stone carving workshop, where the stone carvers knew the Italian motifs and carried it further. Mátyás’s constructions were immediately followed by the architects of Esztergom (1480-1500), János Aragóniai, Hippolite Este, Tamás Bakócz in Esztergom, Miklós Báthory in Nógrád (1483) and Vác (1485-95), András Báthory in Ecsed Castle (1484), Zsigmond Csürtnyai (1488) and Pécs (1498), László Geréb, Transylvanian bishop Gyalu castle (1480-90), Péter Váradi Kalocsa Archbishop of Bács (1490s), Balázs Ráskai in Csővár, Pál Kinizsi Nagyvázsony.
In the second half of the early Renaissance, the new style appeared not only in Transdanubia and in major centers, but in Szilágyság, Csíki-havas, Szabolcs, Bihar, Zemplén, Sremie. Most of the memorials follow the traditions of the Matthias era: Pest tabernacles, birch carvings, fragments of Pécs, details of the Siklós castle, the facade of the 2nd street of the Káptalan street in Pécs, the papal vaulted gateway from 1515. In Transylvania, with the Tuscan influence, it is possible to show a Lombard effect (János Lázói chapel on the north side of the cathedral of Gyulafehérvár).
Mature and late Renaissance
The mature Renaissance marks can be seen from 1506, from the construction of the Bakócz chapel. The Bakócz chapel is already connected to the cinquecent. The same line is represented by the carvings of Joannes Fiorentinus and the tabernacle of the archbishop of Pécs Archbishop György Szathmáry.
After the Mohács War and the fall of Buda, the architecture continued to be on a different line. According to the divisions of the country, three art provinces have been formed, which can be distinguished in formative terms: Transdanubia, Felvidék, Transylvania.
However, Italian influence still prevailed, until 1526 in Tuscany, then in northern Italy, from the 1570s to the 80s, the stricter form of the cinquecento was dominant, again influenced by Tuscany, especially in Transylvania, while in Transdanubia they continued to adapt to the upper-class patterns.
For the late Renaissance, Hungarian character becomes decisive, an element that would be purely Italian, there is not, despite the fact that many Italian masters worked in the country.
In Transdanubia, the traditions of the previous era were the clearest. The Italian army engineers introduced the Italian bastion system, and the cinquecento forms also appeared. By the first half of the 16th century, art before 1526 was continued, in the second half of the century late-cinquecentals were introduced and the late Renaissance appeared. New types of buildings were built, such as a rectangular basement with an arcade courtyard like the destroyed canyon castle, Pietro Ferrabosco ; and Egervar Castle.
The remnants of the late Renaissance of Transdanubia are mainly castle castles, such as Sopronkeresztúr, the dominant form element of the loggia (Sopron Fire Tower), which also appeared in dwellings.
The particular Uplands style has emerged as a top Italian influence and shows extreme variation. At the beginning of the development, the Sárospatak Castle can be built. In the second half of the 16th century the construction of the Perényi buildings was followed by a lot of construction, first Lombardy and then late Renaissance forms (Trenčín castle, 1540, Márkusfalva, 1567, Orava castle, 1561-1611, Banská Bystrica town hall, 1564-65; -87; Ugróc Castle, 1589; Grandmother Castle, 1571-1605).
In the 17th century, the late Renaissance ruled, and this was reflected in the structure and form of the castles (Buda Castle, Beniczky Castle in the Lower Mushrooms, 1667, Castle of Kistapolcsány, 1662, houses in Levoca and Eperjes). The architecture of Spiš and Sáros County, which is baptized as a partisan renaissance, is a special spot in color, and because of its local character, it is easy to distinguish between Polish, Austrian and Czech houses. Its most beautiful memories are the Thessaloniki castle in Bethlehem (1564), the belfry bell tower (1591), the church tower of Szinye (1628), the Thököly Castle in Kolding, the Fricci castle (1623-30), and several houses of the Levis and Eperjes.
This is where the ripples of Renaissance emerged, formed after Italian patterns under the rule of the Ruling Center. The patronage boosted the architectural appeal. In the fifteenth century, around 1530-70, the castle of Szamosújvár, the residence of Adrianus Wolphard’s humanist Cluj-Napoca, the southern wing of the Bethlen Castle in Alvinci, the Old Castle of St.
From the second half of the 16th century, the late Renaissance was counted with castle constructions (Castle of Nagyvárad, Castle of Fogarasi, Castle of Silesia, Castle of Istvan Kokas, Cluj-Napoca). The Stonewall School in Cluj has been established, which has been able to follow orders for 150 years throughout Transylvania.
The architecture of the 17th century coincides with the flowering age of Transylvania, massive castle constructions and princely palaces, which served as a model (the five-star interior castle of Várad, the Lónyay Castle, the Radnóti castle and the wine-cellar castle of Ákos).
In the second half of the 17th century, construction of national significance stopped, instead of castles, castles were built, like Bethlenszentmiklós, built by Miklós Bethlen’s writer. At the end of the 17th century, the Transylvanian floral Renaissance, which appeared primarily in decorativity, fell to the 18th century in its flowering period, and was most widely published by Dávid Sipos in a stone-carving work of Kelemen.
Turkish-Islamic Architecture in Hungary
In addition to Spain, there are hardly any European countries where Muslim memories complement the line of architectural styles. This is why special attention is to be paid to the works of art in the Turkish artwork which, although not of high prestige, can be met in Hungary. The Hungarian art stories are mostly ignored, or just – without a great deal of review – affect the memories of the occupying Turkish culture.
The Turks were built only where there was no adequate, usable old building, or a new type of construction resulting from their culture was needed. That was not much in quantity. Yet, according to contemporary city paintings and engravings, some urban silhouettes have changed completely. Pest, Buda, Eger, Vác, Pécs, Temesvár XVII. The portraits of the heavily heavily weighted domes and slender minarets, and the oriental flavor of the west, differed from the west.
Baroque art in Hungary has long lived with the late Renaissance. He came in with European currents and first came into literature in the literature following Péter Pázmány’s work. Its tendency to spread from west to east, after the Turkish expulsion, has been established throughout the country.
The spiritual background of the architecture of the 17th century was counterrevolutionary. The works of the Catholic high priesthood and the aristocracy were started in the 1620s. The first reminder of Baroque architecture in Hungary is the Jesuit church of Nagyszombat designed by Spazzo. In his arrangement, he follows the principal Jesuit Temple, the Roman Il Gesù. The memorials of the constructions begun following the Jesuits are the St. Ignatius Church and the Basilica of Győr, the St. George Church of Sopronas well as the Jesuit church in Košice. The architects of the era were usually Italian masters such as Carlone (1616-1667), Martinelli (1684-1747). The Hungarian baroque church architecture is characterized by accentuated towers and gates, illuminated by windows, side-barred medieval vessels.
Castle architecture followed the traditions of the previous century (Márkusfalva, Rohonc, Sopronkeresztúr). The first baroque castle was erected by Pérod Esterházy Pál in Carlson, Kismarton, with an Italian builder. However, the castle building was only developed after the Turkish fights. Firstly, the castle of Ráckeve (1700-1702) of Jenő Savoyai was built according to plans by Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt. Its U-shaped floor plan, which is part of the cour d’honneur, is completely different from the former castles. The main line of the castle architecture, however, did not follow this, but followed the French pattern from the twentieth-thirties of the 18th century.
In the beginning, secular architecture was suppressed by ecclesiastical constructions such as the Carmelite church in Győr, the Jesuit church and residence in Trencsén, the Pauline church in Pest (university church), etc. At that time, most of the churches of the resettlement of the Great Plain were built, where it was possible, in the remains of the former churches (Kiskunfélegyháza, Kecskemét). The light of Baroque secular architecture eventually came to light in the second half of the 18th century. Mary Theresa began the reconstruction of the Royal Palace of Buda, Jadot (1710-1797), Ignác Orcsek (1750-1770) and Franz Anton Hillebrandt(1719-1797). Bishop’s palaces were built from church money, including in Oradea, Vác, Szombathely, Székesfehérvár and Kalocsa.
Among the most famous churches built under the ripe Baroque church are the Franz Anton Pilgram designed by Jason’s Church, the Eger’s Minorite Church and the St. Anna Church in Buda. The Cistercian church in Székesfehérvár was built in 1756, and the most valuable rococo furniture in Hungary is the sacristy. At the same place in 1771 from the Queen Maria Theresa rebuilt by extremely wealthy St. Stephen’s Basilica, which in 1777 from the Roman Catholic Diocese of Székesfehérvárbecame a cathedral. Religious constructions mainly show a German-German influence, while the French influence has increased in secular architecture, which is evident from the Esterházy castle in Flanders, which is the source of the splendor of Versailles Castle, where rococo is already present. One of the most spectacular and most beautiful examples of late Baroque architecture in Hungary is the Grassalkovich Castle in Gödöllő. The effect of the castle is well illustrated by the fact that the Grassalkovich Castle style has since been spoken, which has also influenced the town aristocratic palaces. Baroque dwellings in Eger, Buda Castle, Sopron and Veszprém Castlethey have remained beautiful. The builders were mostly Hungarian masters. The baroque began to influence rural architecture at that time, and the folk-like peasant baroque was formed. The tendency of late Baroque style is reflected in the works of Menyhező Hefele and James Fellner’s works, such as the Venetian Palace of Veszprém, the Szombathely cathedral and the bishop’s palace, the bishop’s palace in Székesfehérvár, the Pope’s large church or the Eger’s Liturgy. The klasszicizmus characteristic elements than the tympanum and Ionic columns application began to spread.
In the 19th century
In the first half of the century
The Hungarian architecture of the first half of the 19th century was characterized by a classicist nationalist style. The emerging national consciousness was in this style. Ferenc Kazinczy’s work spread and became the favorite style of the dance world. After the development of Pest became a town, in 1808, József dwarf created the Szépítő Bizottság. The 1857 commission secured the urban design conceptuality of the new buildings and the stylistic unit, thus promoting classicalism becoming civic. Buildings are puritanism, sobriety, moderate shaping. The construction of mansions, terraced houses and public buildings began. The first major building was the Great Church of Debrecen, designed by Mihály Péchy (1755-1819). In the decades before the reform, two leading masters took over Mihály Pollack (1773-1855) and József Hild (1789-1867). They played a leading role in the reform era as well. Pollack’s first solo work was the Lutheran Church at Deák Square, and he planned a number of palaces and castles. His main work is the building of the Hungarian National Museum, which occupies a significant place in the European context of Hungarian classicism. Hild’s operation set the classicist appearance of the emerging capital (Lloyd Palace, Tänzer House) and church orders (Eger Cathedral). Among the smaller meseters, Mátyás Zitterbarth (1803-1867), Ferenc Kasselik (1795-1884), and József Hofrichter (1779-1835) are the most important buildings in Pest. In addition to Pest and Buda, the main center of the classicist construction was Esztergom. The Basilica was built here, initially based on János Packh’s plans (1796-1839), which was finally completed by József Hild. Classical houses were built throughout the country, sometimes provincial.
From the middle of the nineteenth century, Romanticism has been influenced by the use of oriental elements. His master was Feszl Frigyes (1821-1884). He first attempted to create Hungarian national architecture, using both Moorish and Byzantine elements. His main work was Pesti Vigadó, which is also a prominent feature of European romance.
Age of dualism
From the romance, the most significant architect of the second half of the century, Miklós Ybl (1814-1891). His influence, however, was more evident in the dissemination of history. After 1860, historian aspirations began, first of all the neo-Renaissance (Ybl: Várkertbazár, Opera, Customs House, Gusztáv Petschacher and Alajos Hauszmann). Frigyes Schulek (1841-1919) and Imre Steindl (1839-1902) dealt with the resurrection of the style of Gothic and Romanesque (Halászbástya, Országház). At the turn of the century different eclecticand neo-Baroque tenants set the cityscape.
Coupled with specific international technology (concrete national character) Stephen Medgyaszay secession (Veszprém Petőfi Theater, Sopron Petofi Theater, Rárosmulyadi church) that has been shown more respect towards the avant-garde (Dezso Laczkó Museum Veszprem). Only the First World War ended the flowering of the Hungarian secession, although rural secession homes were built even in the 1920s. But the motifs were preserved only by the plaster architecture.
In the 20th century
The first modern Hungarian architect, Béla Lajta (1873-1920), who sought new ways for Western European and American experimentation, started from Lechner’s aspirations. The Rózsavölgyi store is the first modern Hungarian building. Beside him Móric Pogány (1878-1942), Dénes Györgyi (1886-1961) belonged to the innovators. This includes the fact that the First World War is a very serious failure in the history of Hungarian architecture.
Between the two world wars the eclectic aspirations woke up for a while, but the new currents gained ground. Church buildings were renewed by Aladár Árkay and Bertalan, Gyula Rimanóczy, Károly Weichinger, Iván Kotsis’s work, mainly with Italian inspiration.
The typical activity of the 1932 group of the group was mainly agitative.
First manifestations of Hungarian Engineers and Architects Association was in November 1928, debate on the evening of contemporary architecture, which Joseph Fischer (Frankfurt sites) was able to broadcast reports, Paul and Ligeti (the aesthetics of modern architecture) performance.
Exhibitions of the group The first exhibition was organized in the 1931 Autumn House and Home Decoration Fair. Here’s the “House” plan. The idea of the ” House ” goes out of the traditional concept of architecture, and it also has a lifestyle and sociological change, and it is called a utopian plan (the idea of a New Writing magazine was also organized in the late sixties, or even a vibrant “collective house-private home” discussion forum. See also: “notorious” plan of Zalotay from “Szentendre” to Budapest “living room”).
During the second phase of the group’s activities, it has been joint planning tasks. This stage is characterized by the lack of community assignments because of their firm social policy orientation. Their activities were mainly localized in the condominium and private villas of the most talented civilian buyers, representing modern spirits. In fact, they have moved away from their own ideological line. In addition to the given socio-political framework in Hungary, it also contributed to the fact that the unity of the group was progressively disrupted, the joint works were lagging behind, and even the CIAM’s 1938 Congress was unable to compile the Hungarian material. The Hungarian group was dissolved in 1938. But its architectural effect did not really succeed after the Second World War.
The most important architectural task of the post- World War II era was reconstruction. At the beginning, modern experiments continued, but during the dictatorship the Socreal architecture, which was already blossoming in the Soviet Union, became the pattern to be followed, and this architecture manifested itself in obsolete eclecticism (Tibor Weiner, Dunaújváros constructions, houses, blocks, housing estates). Even this age has its architectural values. These include, among others: Zoltán Farkasdy College of Applied Arts, György Jánossy Gödöllő Water Tower, and Rimanóczy Gyula BME. “R” building on the Danube.
The new generation of architects – university students, young instructors, practicing architects – growing up in the special socioeconomic conditions of the period after the 1956 Revolution, have lived together with the continuously changing social, economic, technical, artistic and architectural events, dense event changes. They became “together” to represent the typical Hungarian “creative architectural generation” of the end of the century, thus becoming the bridge between the previous pioneers (and less pioneers) and the new ones.
The period ranges from 1956 to the end of the century, which is a time of marked change – say drastic -. In the field of social policy, the increasing crises of dictatorial arbitrariness, the revolting, the lost revolution, the repression, the one-party systemic, top-down socio-economic formation, the political system change, the rebuilding of democracy (nowadays globalization) problems.
Meanwhile, era was the era of technological and technological changes that shaped the era of architecture. The overhaul of the state-owned construction industry, from brickwork to concrete construction, prefabrication, metal and light construction, to structure-building, has taken place with an amazing expansion of the usable building materials; from the brick-trough to the house factory and tower crane technology…
The process of change in the architectural and architectural idea was not even smaller: the architectural spirit started from the eastern interpretative socreal to the early Hungarian avant-garde traces and experiences of its living creatures, while instructors and disciples, with the young practicing architects, studied the Bauhaus principles. functionality, structuralism, modern material and form training, the spirit of collectivism. Recapturing the spiritual values of the earlier ages, protecting them. The interpretation of architecture has widened to environmental culture, environmental protection, urbanism, construction and settlement economics, construction, construction policy, and geoinformation.
As a result of the foregoing, in the 1960s, interest in modern forms and representative buildings of the era were industrial buildings, hospitals, hostel and office buildings (Zoltán Farkasdy, József Finta, Zoltán Gulyás, György Jánossy, Károly Jurcsik, Péter Molnár etc.).
The design and construction of new neighborhoods (housing estates) under mass housing construction programs matured urban planning and urban architecture as an autonomous “urbanist” branch. The housing estates built from the prefabricated elements built up in the era still play a decisive role in satisfying social expectations (housing) and in the slow, stubbornly changing environment culture and social sociological processes.
Source from Wikipedia