Turkish-Islamic Architecture in Hungary

Apart from Spain and the Balkans, there are hardly any European countries where Muslim-like memories are complemented by architectural styles. This is why special attention is to be paid to the works of art in the Turkish artwork which, although not of high prestige, can be met in Hungary. The Hungarian art history (s) are mostly ignored or affect the memories of the occupying Turkish culture.

Historical background
Turkish-Islamic culture did not provide any incentive for domestic sculpture and painting, as Islamic religion forbade man-depiction. That is why the figurative ornaments and furnishings of the Christian churches that had been used were destroyed, and the mural painted, even where the building was reserved for use. They also caused considerable destruction by neglecting the maintenance of cultural monuments. Warfare and taxes have caused anxiety that even paralyzes the survival of local artistic traditions and building opportunities. The Turks were built only where there was no adequate, usable old building, or a new type of construction resulting from their culture was needed. That was not much in quantity. Yet, according to contemporary city paintings and engravings, some cityscape, urban silhouettes have changed completely. Pest, Buda, Eger, Vác, Pécs, Timişoara in the 17th century representations of the heavily emphasized domes and slender minarets, the easternmost cityscape from the west.

As Hungary and Transylvania represented the eastern frontier of Gothic, Hungary was represented by Western-western projection of Turkish-Islamic architecture (shade provincialism). Then, as soon as the cities of ours were quickly filled with the mines that were built, the silhouette effect was short lived with the end of the devotion. But in fact, the whole of Islamic culture in Hungary has almost disappeared without a trace. This is quite different from the situation after the liberation of the Balkan territories (such as the Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian) from the south-east. While in these areas, Islamic religion and spiritual influences have deepened and become more and more permanently absorbed in local cultures – mostly as a religion – in Hungary, this cultural flow is only a symmetrical intermedion. In addition to the culture of the country, essentially Western Europe, the depopulation of the occupied territories and the destruction of the continuous struggles in the “endings” played a role, and therefore the hostility of the population as well.

Sacred Architecture
Due to the characterizing transformation of the exterior image of the cities, the Muslim places of worship (mosque, mosque, minaret) and burial memories (türbe) are the primary concern.

Mosques, jams
Their appearance is characterized by their central layout, their flagellated domed domed domes and their minarets in vertical contrast with their vertical contours. Their floor plan and their interior layout are mostly square (possibly dome-domed halls with harem), and upwards they go through an octagonal space overlapped by a stellatitis (cell-like) dome. It was not necessary because of the peculiar nature of sanctification because of the distinctive ornamental design of the floors and the false planes that made it clear to the essence of the space. In addition to the dotted-winged or donkey- tainted loopholes and the drift-like stalactite, besides the chamomile transitions, only the mihrab and the narrow, steep pulpit (mimbar) formed in the direction of Mecca (ie south-east) were sometimes decorated. The well-known memories in Hungary:

Budapest / Budapest:

According to some Turkish sources (eg Evlija Cselebi) there were supposedly 24 mosques, 43 mosques, 3 tents and 10 monasteries in Buda. [ source? ]

Osman’s Bej’s mosque remained the safest, with his donkey-faceted façade façade being known from a drawing from 1722. It is at the northern end of today’s Main Street.

Gáspár Kászim Pasha’s Mosque (built around 1579, the parish of Pécs today built in the place and stones of the medieval St. Bertalan church): the largest of the Turkish mosques in Hungary are 22 m of internal height and 16.5 m of span dome. With its imposing mass influx, the monumental center of Széchenyi square, which is the main highlight of the city, is still today. A rectangular square with an octagonal dome and a dome with its dome was joined by an open-air hall next to a slim minaret, which was demolished in 1753. The mosque was rebuilt in the Baroque period and was restored several times. Between 1939 and 1942, modern semi-circular spatial expansion was provided (Körmendy N. – Lux G.).
Jakovali’s Hussein’s mosque, today stands between clinical buildings, with a square-shaped interior, a dome-shaped octagonal dome and the minaret next to it, perhaps best illustrates its former character.
Memi pasa’s mosque : today it is gone.
Ferhad Pasha’s Mosque : Ferhad Buda dog died in 1590, as a victim of murder, revolted soldiers were supposedly strangled with rope. Its foundational sacred circumference was built around 1570-1580 in Pécs. In today’s Király street, besides the mosque, there was a mansion house, a dervish colony, a twin-bath, which is nowhere to be found.


Turkish temple is no longer present. He was demolished and his precious material was dispersed.

Ibzim Ibzim’s Hadzis of Ibiza

The mosque of Malkocs b

Ali pasa jamaica
Suleiman Sultan’s mosque
In addition to the listed mosques of Turkish construction, the majority of the busy Christian churches became slaves of the Islamic religion which, after the disappearance of religious equipment and all figurative ornamentation, were made by incorporating wooden mimbras, surface painting, Islamic decoration and inscriptions from the early days and externally using minarets for their rituals.

Monastery building

Bektashi Derviskolostor : The Bektashi Order is a Szu’i tarika, that is, a school. He is the founder of Haci Bektas Velit, a contemporaries of Yunus Emre and Dzsalal ad-Dín Rúmí (other than Mevlana). The task of the Bektasis in the Ottoman Empire was the spiritual and military education of the janissaries and the faithfulness. Bektashi was also Gül Baba.
Eger: The remaining 14-angles, with a fine-skinned stalactite ring attached to the left-handed, open-minded minaret remained.

Edd: 16-angular, truncated, later reconstructed.

Pécs: next to the Jakovali Hassan mosque. Can not be visited.

Esztergom: truncated.

Szigetvár: also in a truncated state.

The most desirable creations of Turkish religious buildings were the turtles, tombs, and gravestones, which, as modest sized, central, domed buildings, emerged from the turbaned graves of Muslim cemeteries.


Gül Baba’s turban (octagonal, once hemispherical bouquet): Gül Baba, the father of the Roses, Bektasi Dervis, a warrior Muslim monk who arrived in Buda in 1541 with the invading Turkish army. According to legend, he died on September 2, 1541, on the Thanksgiving celebration of the occupation of the city. In honor of this, an ornate burial was organized, in which Sultan I. Szulejmán himself participated, and even, according to the legend, he was among the coffin-makers. The turtle raised above the grave of Gül Baba was built between 1543 and 1548 by Mehmed Jahjapasazada, the 3rd buddha dog.

Idrisz Baby’s Tail It was far-famed swag. He was regarded as a mediator, so Muslims have been crying since then, calling such gracious tombs to the Islamic zijara (Turkish: ziyaret).
Public buildings
There are only a few built-in facilities in Hungary. The most characteristic of the baths are the distinctive role played by the use of thermal springs, such as thermal baths (Illyans), not only in ritual, hygiene and health, but also as the stage for Turkish social life.

Public and thermal baths
Their basic layout is central. If the submerged rooms of the bathrooms were pierced around their dome-covered, octagonal middle pool pans, which were illuminated by illuminating openings. This band of tones originally appeared in the exterior mass formations too. It was only later that it was exposed.


During the 150-year-old Turkish occupation, a special type of bath (and style) built on medicinal water springs has embodied / dampened the community bath culture. On the right side of the Danube there were eight baths, of which smaller and bigger ones were. Since Islam claimed that only the flow of river water was suitable for physical cleansing, the Turkish baths of Buda were ilidzsak, also called kaplidzsas type, these art-designed and decorated baths were built above the springs (where they rinsed their bath before bathing). During this period, bathing buildings became Buda’s most famous and prestigious buildings.

Rudas bath near the Danube (former name: jesil direkli ilidzsá = green colony bath)
Rác bath (laidzse of the baths = small bath)
King bath (built by Szokollu Musztafa in the second half of the 16th century).
The Császár Bath (Velibej Bath) (also built by Szokollu Musztafa, and the former most beautiful spa in Buda). In 1726, Fischer von Erlach communicated a building of special significance with floor plans, sectional and facade representations. Its basic arrangement is the nine-compartment space group around the basin. Under its small corner cups were also basins in diagonal direction, before the space co-operative the entrance hall was arranged in front halls. The ensemble was later expanded with József Hild’s spa yard.

Arnaut’s dog’s bath
Validé Sultana Bath

The bath of the Hévízi Fort
Rusztem’s dog’s bath

Memi pasa’s bath

Güzeldzse (Lovely) The Pasha’s Bath’s Bath (Turkish Court)

Turkish Fountain

Turkish Fountain

well house

Idrisz Baby’s Well
Turkish Fountain

Pasha Fountain

Turkish Fountain

Turkish Fountain

Residential building
With respect to dwellings or other types of buildings, there is hardly any significant new effect or developmental achievement, although it is known that the construction of their newly built houses was subject to strictly defined permits (8.5 m height etc.). Even in the Buda Castle Quarter, only traces of isolated transformation works can be discovered.


Turkish house

Bég house

Turkish house
Strategic architecture
At the time of the Turkish occupation and occupation, only the reinforcement of the defense system of the castles resulted in more significant architectural activities. In addition to strengthening the rural castles:

The Buda Castle wants to be highlighted. Thus, some of the bastions of the Castle Border (the tower of the Karakas Pasha built between 1618-21, the bastion of Kászim Pasha (Fehérvári rondella), the Savanyu soup tower, Veli bej tower, the Esztergom bastion on the northwestern corner of the castle, and on the north side the Sziavus and Murád pasa towers).

Turkish Castle

Palánkvár Thanks to the strong castles that started in Hungary after the Mongol invasion, a castle castle was built in places where stones or bricks were missing. Later on, during the fighting against the Turks, the construction of the palaces was known as one of the procedures for the “Hungarian style” building.

Csonka Tower : According to the Turkish traveler Evlija Cselebi ‘s description of 1663, he was defended by a three-tiered palisade walled by the Gulf of Bothnia, which was approached by two gates. The inner quarters are square, rounded in towers with cannons, in the middle of a building, perhaps an older church, the Szulejmán-jamb, and the rectangular strong tower next to it.

The Tower Tower in Freeburn
Fortress of Hévíz
Kula Tower
Danube-bank palaces (castles) fortifications
” Bátaszék ” | ” Szekszárd ” | ” Tolna ” | ” Paks ” | ” Földvár ” | ” Yen Palanka ”

Unfortunately, there is very little reference to the architecture of this kind in the history of Turkish architecture in Turkey.

Turkish bridge
Szolnok’s Turkish Bridge : The Szolnok Bridge was the permanent wooden bridge of the Tisza. The other aspect of its significance to the Szolnoks is that in Szolnok there are relatively few historical monuments in the city of Szolnok due to later destruction, fires and floods, and the Castle itself has been destroyed. (The significance of the archaeological finds is that Oya Tuzcuoglu visited Szolnok on June 10, 2008, the Ambassador of Hungary to the Turkish Republic, who attended the Aba-Novák Cultural Center at the opening ceremony of the Turkish Bridge Bridge in Szolnok).

Other architectural monuments
There is also a lack of information about the establishment of commercial and accommodation facilities (bedesten = market hall or han = caravanserai).

Source from Wikipedia