During the Tang dynasty, as a golden age in Chinese civilization, Chinese painting developed dramatically, both in subject matter and technique. The advancements in technique and style that characterized Tang painting had a lasting influence in the art of other countries, especially in East Asia (Korea, Japan, Vietnam) and central Asia.
The paintings of the Tang Dynasty were the pinnacle of Chinese feudal social paintings, and their artistic achievements greatly exceeded those of the past. The paintings of the early Tang Dynasty showed unusual achievements. Tang Taizong also paid attention to the construction of the culture while consolidating the political power. The painting activities of Yan Lide, the Li Bian brothers and Yu Chiyi, and the murals represented by the Dunhuang 220 caves reflected the paintings of this period. The highest achievement of art. During the reign of Emperor Gaozong to Xuanzong Li Longji, on the basis of prosperous political power and social prosperity, the culture appeared rich and colorful, and Wu Daozi and his school of painting reflected the great achievements of the nationalization of Buddhist art., portraits of Qian Guoyang, Yin, Yin Jiyou, Fa Ming, etc., Zhang Wei, Yang Ning’s portraits, Chen Wei, Wei Wuzhen, Cao Ba, Han Wei’s poems, Li Sixun, Li Zhaodao and his son, Lu Hong, Zheng Zheng and other landscape paintings, Feng Shaozheng, Xue Yu, Jiang Yan and other flowers and birds eagle crane paintings, etc., show the expansion of the subject matter. At this time, Dunhuang murals also developed to the culmination of prosperity. The Lou Ting’s couples in the 130th Grottoes of Mogao Grottoes, the large-scale statues of the couples, the 172 caves, the 217 caves, the disparity of the Pure Land, and the 173 Grottoes are all magnificent and exquisite murals. masterpiece.
After the Anshi Rebellion, although the national trend of the Tang Dynasty gradually declined, the art of painting continued to develop and improve. Zhou has made creative contributions to the creation of noble ladies and religious murals. Wang Wei, a poet born between Sheng and Zhongtang, is also famous for his paintings. He is skilled in landscapes and is famous for his later generations. Zhang Wei, Wang Zai, Xiang Rong, Bi Hong, Liu Shang, etc. are all famous in the landscape, Bian Bian, Liang Guang, Shu Guang Yi, Teng Chang fine in flowers and birds, Han, Dai Wei specializes in painting cattle, Li grad, Li Zhong And the “fans and horses” that the father and son painted the theme of minority safari, have their own best. In the middle and late Tang Dynasty, the Central Plains war, Xuanzong, and Zongzong went to Sichuan to avoid chaos, and some painters also continued to enter. After the Tang Dynasty, Chengdu, Sichuan Province gradually became one of the painting centers. The famous painters of the Central Plains include Lu Sangga, Chang Hao, Lu Wei, Sun Wei, Zhang Xun, etc. Many painters left their paintings in the temples such as Chengdu Dashengci Temple. In the Sichuan area, some painters also brought to the Central Plains paintings. Under the influence of the Central Plains painting art, many painters in Sichuan grew up, such as Zuo Quan, Zhao Gong, Gao Daoxing, Fang Congzhen, Ma Ju Li is an expert in religious painting. Therefore, “the singularity is far away, and the paintings are more than the four sides,” which laid the foundation for the prosperity of Xiqiao painting during the Five Dynasties.
The paintings in the Jiangnan area are also in development at this time. Zhu has a beautiful landscape and is well-known in the north and south. He painted the scroll barrier “Household Jane”; Zhang is more famous for its mountains and rivers; Zhang Zhihe, No. It is a fisherman’s song and is painted as a scroll; Gu Kuang is also famous for its landscape. Li Deyu guarded Zhejiang, a good collection of paintings and Yanna painters, and Wu Zongshi destroyed the temple towers. He concentrated the famous paintings of Jiangnan temples in Zhenjiang Ganlu Temple, including Wu Daozi, Wang Zizi, Han Yu and other famous Tang Dynasty artists. And the paintings of famous artists such as Gu Yuzhi, Dai Wei, Lu Xunwei, Zhang Wei and Zhan Ziyu have become famous galleries. The paintings of Sui and Tang Dynasties are magnificent and brilliant, and they have a great influence on the development of the five generations of paintings.
The prosperity of the paintings of the Tang Dynasty promoted the development of the theory of the history of painting, and the achievements of the works of collecting the history of painting and painting were much higher than those of the past. Some emperors in the Tang Dynasty sought to search for paintings. Taizong and Xuanzong repeatedly sent visits to paintings and paintings, and accepted the folks to offer paintings and calligraphy. The royal family possessed a large scale. The noble scholars such as Sima Dou, Xue Yu, Chen Yu, Han Yu, Zeng Du, Li Deyu and Zhang Yanyuan’s great-grandfather Zhang Jiaxuan are also rich in collections. Li Bai, Du Fu, Bai Juyi and other poems repeatedly involved praise for painting and calligraphy. It is obvious that there was a strong interest in painting at that time. The paintings of the Tang Dynasty were written by Yan Yan, “After Paintings”, Li Yuzhen’s “Continued Paintings”, Zhang Huai’s “Drawing” and Dou Meng’s “Drawings and Relics”. In the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Taizong’s book, Zhong Xiaoyuan, collected the famous paintings of the public and private secrets and the paintings of the Buddhist temples, and recorded them as the book of Zhenguan Public and Private Paintings. Wu Zongshi Hanlin Scholar Zhu Jingxuan set up 97 painters since the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, describing his life and artistic activities and appraising his works. He retained a large amount of historical materials of the Tang Dynasty painters, and it has a history of history. Zhang Yanyuan’s “The Famous Paintings of the Past Dynasties” completed in the first year of Dazhong  is the earliest existing masterpiece of painting. The book collects the historical biography of 372 painters from the ancient dynasty (841), and there are 16 reviews on painting issues. It explains the author’s aesthetic views on the art of painting and records the development of the painter’s masterpieces and landscape paintings. Painting collections, temple painting walls, etc., preserve the precious historical materials of the past paintings. In the third year of Huichang, Duan Chengshi recorded the situation of Chang’an Temple, especially focusing on the works of murals and other works, and wrote “The Temple Tower” (the sequel to the “Yangyang Miscellaneous”), and “Two Jings in the Famous Paintings of the Past Dynasties” The section of the Temple View Painting Wall provides vivid and concrete materials for understanding and studying the art of mural painting in the Tang Dynasty.
Figure painting still dominates the Sui and Tang Dynasties. The Buddhist paintings that flourished in the Wei and Jin Dynasties reached their peak in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. They not only inherited the Han and Wei traditions, but also integrated foreign painting achievements such as the Western Region. The art developed more maturely. Yan Wendi made the Seven Pagodas of Dayun Temple, Yang Qidan and Zheng Faoshi, Tian Yuliang painted murals, Yang Qidan also painted Buddhane, Vimo, etc. in other Baosha Temple, others such as Dong Boren painted Maitreya murals, exhibitions in Luoyang The Longxing Temple painted the eight kings of the relics, which are called miracles. It can be seen that the content of the Buddhist paintings of the Sui Dynasty has undergone significant changes in the paintings, and more images of real people and court buildings. The Taoist paintings of the Tang Dynasty flourished, and important figures were all religious murals.
Yan Liben and Wu Daozi were all influenced by Zhang Wei and each created. In particular, Wu Daozi spent more than 300 mural paintings in Jingluo Temple in his life. He was in disguise, and he was in a state of change. He had no similarities. He also had important creations in his skills. After middle age, he used his enthusiasm and enthusiasm. The line drawing of the leek line shows the trend of the high and low depths and the crooked streamers, and slightly dyes the stains in the burnt ink marks, and obtains the effect of flying in the sky, full of wind and natural high, and the world is called Wu, breaking through. The style of the Wei and Jin Dynasties and the Tang Dynasty opened up a generation of painting style. The style style he created in religion is called Wu Jia-like. Han Yu painted the image of the Brahma woman in Chang’an Baoying Temple, which resembled the image of the Wei Yuanzhong family song. The “Buddhist Temple” shows the tendency of religious art to further secularization. In addition to the good-looking ladies in the Tang and Tang Dynasties, there are also outstanding creations in religious paintings. He paints Uranus and Bodhisattva well, especially in Guanyin’s quiet environment, creating the distinctive national characteristics of “Water Moon Guanyin”. The new style of religious painting has been followed by future generations. Zhou’s religious painting style is called Zhou’s.
The temples in the Tang Dynasty are places of worship and entertainment. Wu Daozi’s paintings of Buddha statues are often seen by people. When Zhou Xiu painted the temple, he listened to the audience and made an humbly change. These records all explained the connection between the religious painter and the masses. After the Mid-Tang Dynasty, the religious murals in Sichuan were quite developed. The famous Dashengci Temple, Shengshou Temple, Jingzhong Temple and Yingtian Temple in Chengdu have Lu Xiga, Zhao Gong, Zhao Wenqi, Fan Qiong, Zuo Quan and Zhang Nanben. The murals painted by famous artists such as grandchildren, in addition to the popular Buddhist scriptures, also appeared in the real hall depicting the portraits of nobles and sorghum, and the landscape trees and flowers also appear more as decoration in the temple murals.
Singing and dancing
In the early Tang Dynasty, the political power was strong. The rulers paid much attention to the use of painting to serve the consolidation of the political power. The tribute to the dynasty, the commendation of the heroes and some major political events have become the subject of the creation of the painters. The “Qin Fu 18 Bachelor Map” painted by Gao Zhe in the 9th year of Gao Zuwu De ( 626 ) and the later ” Yong Hui Zhao Chen Tu” are all large-scale works depicting the scholars of the time. In the 17th year of the Zhenguan (643) painting, “Lingyange Gongchen Map” is an important creation after the Han Qilin Pavilion and the Yuntai painting heroes to recognize the meritorious deeds. Figure)). The “Foreign Map” and “Gong Gongtu” of Li Lide’s paintings, the “Wang Huitu” of the paintings, etc., sang the power of the Tang Dynasty and the friendly exchanges with the remote ethnic regimes, and Li Dide’s “The Princess of Wencheng” and existing Yan Liben’s “Steps of the Steps” directly depicts the major historical events of the Tang Fan League and Princess Wencheng.
The paintings that represent the life of the royal family and the nobility have flourished since the Northern and Southern Dynasties and have also improved significantly in art. There are Yang Zihua, Zheng Fa Shi, Yang Qidan and others in this generation, and each has their own specialties: “Yang (Zihua) is a pommel horse character wins, Yang (Qidan) is a court victory, Zheng (French) is a feast luxury To win…”. Zheng Fa Shi’s paintings “Li Chang’s scorpion, the martial arts of the martial arts; the soft posture, the leisurely elegance” vividly portrays different styles of grace. In the landscape paintings, there are also aristocratic amusement activities, such as the exhibition “You Chun Tu”. In the Tang Dynasty, there were more painters who portrayed the portraits of the royal family and the scenes of life. The court painters Chen Yu, Yang Ning, and Yang Shu were all famous for their portraits. Zhou Guyan’s paintings were forbidden when he was a ban, and he talked about the characters of Li and Li. Zhang Yushan’s paintings “Gui Gongzi, Ma Ma Ping, Gong Yuan, Ladies, famous in the time.” Many of the works reflect the amusement life of the emperors at that time, such as “The Emperor’s Fighting the Sycamore”, “The Emperor’s Cool Picture”, “The Emperor’s Picture”, “The Emperor’s Fighting Birds”, “Wu Huizhen” “Dance Map”, “After the Tang Dynasty”, and other art scenes can be seen from the existing Zhang Wei’s “The Lady of the Kingdom of China” and “The Map”. The literature records Wu Daozi, Chen Yu, Wei Wuzhen and other paintings of the “Golden Bridge”, depicting the Tang Ming Emperor Fengshan and the entourage team, but also extremely magnificent creation. In the mid-Tang Dynasty, Zhou painted literary ladies and nobles, reflecting the aesthetics of the times. His paintings are simple, colorful, and meticulously depicting the spiritual state of the lady’s scented tea, spring, railing, photo, bragging, music, and solo life, and solitude and even sadness. Digging into the inner feelings of the characters is more profound. Han et al. are good at painting the life scene of a scholar.
The paintings depicting the customs of the Tian family also began to appear. The Daisuke Tian Dailiang was famous for his paintings. He has painted twelve screens of the Tianshe, and the Han Dynasty paintings, “Tianjia Customs”, “Village Society”, “Fengyu”, etc. There is no rumor, but there are still many pictures depicting agricultural farming in the large-scale paintings of the Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang.
The landscape paintings that express the beauty of natural mountains and rivers developed into an independent painting in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. They got rid of the immature state of “the water is not tolerated” during the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, and the maturity of “people greater than the mountains”. In the early landscape paintings of the Tang Dynasty, the fairy immortal content and the aristocratic amusements were often interspersed with green and green colors, which were delicate and decorative. The Sui Dynasty exhibition is good at “the pavilion, the people, the mountains and the mountains, and the miles away.” The painting “You Chun Tu”, which he painted, was successfully painted with the graceful brush and green color, and successfully painted the profound and prosperous people of Chunshan spring water. The scene of boating and amusement has a profound influence on the landscape paintings of the Tang Dynasty. Although the early Tang Dynasty figure painter Yan Liben was mainly based on figure paintings, he also made achievements in the previous generation of landscape paintings. However, the significant improvement in landscape painting was after the Tang Dynasty. After the exhibition, Li Sixun and Li Zhaodao raised the green landscape painting to a new stage.
Li Sixun’s landscape paintings are characterized by the sturdy and gentle style of the pen, the gentleness of the clouds, the glory of the clouds, the sacredness of the gods, the solitude of the rocky ridges, and the reputation of the “National dynasty”; Li Zhaodao is “changing the father’s power, wonderful Again, the creation of “Hai Tu” is praised, their green mountains and rivers are beautiful and full of fun, and they are regarded as exemplary by future generations. Wu Daozi, who is famous for his paintings, also made outstanding contributions to landscape paintings. He often “painted the walls of Buddhist temples, even if he could smash the beach, if he could consider it”, thus creating a new style of landscape painting. He once enshrined the paintings of the Jialing River in Sichuan in the Datong Hall. One day, it was completely different from the landscape paintings that Li Sixun used to paint with “March of the Moon”, but both of them were “very wonderful.” Therefore, Zhang Yanyuan believes in the “Landscapes of the Past Dynasties” that “the change of mountains and rivers began when Wu became a second li”. In the Tang Dynasty, Wang Dongzi was also famous for his landscapes. “The mountains and rivers are quiet, the peaks are excellent,” and “extinct and secluded, ancient and modern”, and Wu Daozi said. In addition, Lu Hong retired to Lushan, refused to recruit and did not want to be a official, and painted landscapes and stones. He once painted the “Grass Hall” to Mingzhi. Zheng Yigong’s poems, good paintings and calligraphy, are especially long in the landscape, and are praised by Tang Xuanzong as “Zheng Zheng Sanjue”.
The poet Wang Wei is also famous for his landscape in the contemporary era. “The paintings of landscape trees and stones are traced like Wu Sheng, and the wind is special.” In his later years, he lived in Lantian. He once painted “Suichuan Map”, showing the beautiful scenery of his estate. The broken ink landscape is especially praised by future generations. In his landscape paintings, he has more interest in seclusion in the mountains. After the Tang Dynasty, the achievements of breaking the mountains and rivers were more prominent. Wang Zai’s paintings and landscapes are “out of the elephants”. He “painted a water on the 10th and painted a stone on the 5th”. After careful consideration and repeated brewing of the posters, the Tang Dynasty recorded his paintings of the Linjiang Shuangshu Songbai, “on the air, under the water. “, “Da Shizhen, the name is difficult to distinguish”, has an elegant taste. Zhang Shushan draws ink and water, mountains and trees, and Yu Shan writes with baldness. It is said that he can hold two tubes at the same time, and at the same time draw different trees with dry and glory. “The branches are moist and contain Chunze, and the dead branches are miserable with autumn colors.” Then, “the beauty is high and low, the depth of the stone is deep, the stone tip is falling, the spring is like a dragonfly”, and it is full of artistic appeal. He once wrote an article on “Drawing the Scenes”, which is said to be a painting, but it has been lost. At that time, another painter named Bi Hong, who was famous for painting trees, asked him for painting. He replied that “the foreign teacher is good at making things, and he has the heart.” He succinctly clarified the unity and unity of landscape painting creation, and portrayed the natural image. At the same time, it emphasizes the expression of the artist’s subjective thoughts. In the middle and late Tang Dynasty, the famous landscape painters include Xiang Rong, Yang Yan, Gu Jie, Liu Shang, etc., and Wang Moshan splashed ink on the landscape. After drunkenness, he poured ink on his knees, rubbed his hands, or swung or swept. It is light or thick, and its shape is painted with mountains and rivers, clouds and rains; and Li Ling’s good paintings of mountains and trees are all a bit of a touch, and the image is quite interesting; they are not painted according to common law. And thus is considered as an escape.
The painter of the specialty pavilion has Yin Jizhao, who once painted “Gusutai” and “Afang Palace”. The boundary painting is a special subject, and Yin Jizhao is an important pioneer. In the late Tang Dynasty, Jing Hao lived in the Taihang Mountains, and painted the magnificent scenery of the northern mountains and rivers, opening a new stage of the five generations of landscape painting. The landscape paintings of the Tang Dynasty show a panoramic view of Dashan Dashui and Songshi Pingyuan. They have created and developed the expression techniques of green and broken ink, and formed a variety of styles, reflecting the ideological interests of different classes of noble scholars. Landscape paintings are not only painted as screen scrolls, but also widely decorated in palaces, halls, and temples. The painters who specialize in landscapes have also emerged, showing that landscape paintings have begun to occupy an important position in national painting.
Flower and bird painting
Flower and bird paintings have also become independent paintings in the Sui and Tang Dynasties and have made significant progress. The images depicting the image of animals and plants in China were often seen in the decoration of handicrafts. The Han Dynasty often showed auspicious images. After the Wei and Jin Dynasties, birds and other beasts were painted. Due to the development of aristocratic art in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the theme of flowers and birds was popular in the courts and high society to decorate the environment and meet the needs of spiritual appreciation. For example, in the early Tang Dynasty, Taizong and Shixiu rafting Chunyuan Pool, see play, call When he was in Gaozong, Xue Yu was known as a painted crane. He tasted the six-heavy screen. At that time, there were Xue Yu painting cranes and Lang Yuling painting phoenix on the secretary’s wall. At the time of Dezong, he painted the flowers and birds in a good way. “There is a light and profitable color, and the color is bright,” and “the metamorphosis of the poor feathers, the flourishing of the flowers,” when the new Luo Guojin presented the peacock, and ordered the side to write its appearance. The color is vivid and the way to be awkward.
There are many scholars and gentlemen of the royal family in the Tang Dynasty. The Hanwang Li Yuanchang is good at painting eagle owls. Teng Wang Li Yuanying and Li Zhanran are famous for painting bees and butterflies.At the time of the Kaiyuan, the minister of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Feng Shaozheng painted the eagle, the pheasant, the chicken, the scorpion, and the Xuanzong was too Changqing, and the eagle bird was also good at drawing the eagle bird. The same state Chengcheng made the white painting eagle 鹘 “mouth claws slim, very interesting”,There is also a coordinating lang Xiaoyueshan painting one-color bamboo, which is quite interesting. The martial arts department of Langhou Yinzhong Zhongrong draws flowers and birds wonderfully. “Or use ink, such as the five-mining”, it can be seen that the development of flower and bird paintings in Fuli has emerged. Describe the performance of flowers and birds with ink. Flower and bird paintings also appeared on the murals of Buddhist temples. In the Song Dynasty, Huang Xiufu’s “Yizhou Famous Paintings” contained: At the end of the Tang Dynasty, the glory of the glory of the dynasty was in the glory of the sacred temple of the sacred temple of the sacred temple. There are two paintings in the three college halls. Teng Chang also painted the Tianhua Rui image in the Dashengci Temple. As for the temple barrier screen, it is more common to decorate the flowers and birds. Today, there are six flower and bird screens on the tomb of Astana in Turpan, Xinjiang. Each picture is painted with waterfowl and flowers. The sky is also dotted with birds. The Japanese Zhenglun Institute has a pair of long-tailed birds on the screen of the bird’s nest. There are two flowers behind the butterfly. There are butterflies flying around the two flowers, and the screens of the birds and grasses are also dyed with multi-color flowers. Butterfly, bird, etc., with vivid shapes and strong decorative features, are extremely valuable materials for studying flower and bird paintings in the Tang Dynasty. It is the constant exploration and improvement of the techniques of flower and bird painting in the Tang Dynasty that created conditions for the development and prosperity of the flower and bird paintings of the Five Dynasties and Song Dynasty.
The art of murals reached its peak in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. At that time, palaces, bureaus, halls, temples, grottoes, and tombs were decorated with murals. The murals in the Tang Dynasty inherited the traditions of the Han and Wei Dynasties. The murals were expanded from graphic figures and Buddhist stories to landscapes, flowers, animals and animals. The content and skills were much higher than the previous generation.
The court palace built by Sui and Tang Dynasties in Chang’an and Luoyang is extremely magnificent. In order to meet the needs of political needs and beautify the environment, most of them have mural decoration. When Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty stood up, he was enshrined in the painting of “Twenty-Four Heroes” in Lingyange, and commended the heroes of the founding of the country. During Xuanzong, Li Sixun and Wu Daozi successively painted the landscape of Jialing River in Sichuan in the Datong Hall. “Li Sixun’s merits of several months, Wu Daozian’s traces of one day are extremely wonderful”, each with different styles. From the poetry of the Tang Dynasty, it can be seen that the painting of the eagle, the lion, the crane and other birds and beasts to decorate the hall. The famous crane master Xue Yu painted cranes on the walls of the offices of Chang’an and Chengdu. Wei Wei had requested Du Fu at the request. Painting horses on the wall of Chengdu.
In the archaeological excavations in recent decades, a large number of tombs of the Tang Dynasty murals were found. Among them, the murals of the Tang Dynasty royal tombs distributed near Xi’an in Shaanxi Province are the most beautiful (see the murals of the Sui and Tang dynasties). The murals are designed according to different positions of the tombs, patios, ramps and tombs. The contents include travel, Yiwei, music and dance, and palace ladies. Among them, the murals of Lishou tomb in Sanyuan, Shaanxi, are located in the Li Chongrun tomb murals in Lixian County and the murals of Li Xian’s tomb. Li Xianyu’s tomb mural is the most prominent. In the tomb of Li Shou, the 6-meter-long “Hunting Map” painted dozens of hunters in the mountain gorge, and there were rules in the chaos. On the east wall of the tomb of Li Xian, the 12-meter-long “Hunting Travel Map”, the character of the eagle with a dog riding a horse on the Chang’an Avenue, reflects the momentum of the aristocratic martial arts; “Polo Map” painted the physical players Chima competes for the ball and vividly records the popular sports in the Tang Dynasty. The “Guest Map” shows the three foreign envoys under the guidance of officials of the Tang Dynasty, reflecting the close relationship between the Tang Dynasty and the remote political powers. Li Zhongrun’s tomb “阙楼图” is magnificent, the ceremonial team is solemn and the scene is vast. The tomb of Li Xian and Li Xianyu’s tomb is full of grace and graceful appearance. Most of these murals are from the hands of court painters, depicting various figures such as figures, ladies, border paintings, landscapes, etc., lines or rigorous simplicity, or sprinkling and temperament, with brilliant colors, showing the early and prosperous Tang Dynasty Painting level.
During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the creation of religious murals culminated, and there were murals in a large number of temples all over the place. The temple murals in Chang’an and Luoyang were mostly hand-painted by famous painters. The paintings are long gone, and their grand occasions are in Zhang Yanyuan’s paintings of the famous dynasties. There are more specific records in the “Wuzhou Temple View Mural” and the Duan Chengshi “Temple Tower” (see the mural paintings of the Sui and Tang Dynasties). After the middle of the Tang Dynasty, the murals of temples in Sichuan were very prosperous. In the Song Dynasty, Huang Xiufu’s “Yizhou Famous Paintings” recorded a lot of vivid materials. The mural paintings of the temples in the Tang Dynasty are magnificent and bright in color. The theme of the anti-Nan and North Dynasties is popular with the prestige and sacrifice of the content of the Bunsen story, and a large number of beautiful and joyful paintings that sing the praises of the heavens, and a large number of paintings in the temple murals. “Western Pure Land Disguise”, the famous master of good deeds has painted more than 300 pieces of natural land in disguise. There are also many scenes depicting real life in religious murals. The image of the gods and Buddhas has the temperament of human beings. Even the bodhisattva, such as the palace, is modeled after the nobles’ lyrics, and some temples also have sorghum portraits. At the end of the Tang Dynasty, the Huang Chao Uprising, Yu Zong fled to Sichuan, and returned to Chang’an to paint his image and the Wenwu Bailu statue in Chengdu Dashengci Temple, which is a huge group image.
Mountains and rivers, flowers and birds also appeared in the temple view. Wu Daozi often painted stone cliffs in the Buddhist temple, Wang Wei painted the map in Qingyuan Temple, Zhang Xun painted three times in the Zhaojue Temple in Chengdu, and Shuguang painted four times in the Dashengci Temple. Bamboo and so on have been praised by people. All of the above signs clearly show that there are obvious secularization tendencies in religious murals. The temple murals account for a large proportion of the creations of many famous painters. Yan Liben, Yan Chiyi, Zhang Xiaoshi, Fan Changshou, Wu Daozi, Huangfu, Liu Xingchen, Zhou Xing, Sun Da, etc. all enjoy a good reputation for mural painting. Their works have a distinct ethnic style and personal characteristics.
The murals of the Sui and Tang Dynasties temples have long been decadent, but a large part of the cave murals have survived, and their quantity and artistic level are much higher than in the past. Due to the strong national strength, the Silk Road is unimpeded, the exchange between the Central Plains culture and the Western culture, the murals of the Kizil Grottoes, the Kumu Tuxu Grottoes and the Senmu Sem Caves in Xinjiang are more exquisite and have distinct regional characteristics. The murals of Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes reached the peak of prosperity in the Tang Dynasty. There are more than 200 existing Tang Caves, accounting for almost half of all the existing caves. Among them, large caves, such as the 220th Cave of the Tang Dynasty, the 217 Cave, the 103rd Cave of the Tang Dynasty, the 130th Cave, etc. The scale of the murals is magnificent, the content is rich, the shape is accurate, and the color is brilliant, which is comparable to other eras. The dramatic changes in the paintings, especially the large number of Western Pure Land disguise, depicting all the beautiful scenery of the Loutai Pavilion, Qibaolianchi, and Kabuki in a huge scene, is a tortuous reflection of the prosperity and prosperity of the Tang Dynasty. In the murals such as Maitreya Sutra, Fahua Sutra, and Guanyin Pumen, there are a lot of life scenes such as traveling, marrying, farming, harvesting, etc. The murals create vivid images of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, disciples, and kings. Flying, especially romantic. The image of the wealthy dignitaries in the supporters also occupies an important wall, dressed in glamorous clothes, carrying relatives and slaves, such as the 130 Caves and the wife of Wang’s offerings, and the 156th Cave Zhang Yichao Travel Map, etc. Its power position is outstanding. The preservation of a large number of traces provides extremely rich information for the study of Tang Dynasty paintings and social history.
Tang painting had a major influence on East Asian painting and central Asia painting. The Tang Dynasties frequently exchanged cultural exchanges between the frontier and the extraterritorial. In Chang’an and other places, there were border ethnic groups and foreign painters engaged in artistic activities. Rich Chinese paintings attract the surrounding countries, and many foreign envoys, businessmen, scholars, and monks search for Chinese paintings to bring back to China. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Japan repeatedly dispatched missions, including the painters.
During the days of Tianbao (742-756), Jianzheng monk and his accompanying disciple easted Japan, and while promoting Buddhism, they also made certain contributions to Japanese religious sculptures and paintings. During the Tang Dynasty, Gao Zong, the Japanese traveler, returned to China, and returned to China to bring back the famous painter Li Zhen, “The Five ancestors of Zhenyan”. The Japanese shogunate has the paintings and calligraphy works of the Tang Dynasty, and the Japanese who admire the Tang culture, the paintings are also obviously influenced by the Tang Dynasty paintings. influences. North Korea is also very interested in the paintings of the Tang Dynasty. In the last years of the reign of Emperor Dezong (785-805), Silla merchants purchased dozens of Zhou’s paintings at high prices in the Jianghuai area and brought them back to China. The Tang Dynasty was closely related to the culture of Central Asia. Du Huan’s “The Book of Economics” recorded that he had flown to Central Asia. In the big food kingdom, he saw Han Shu, Liu Shu, and Liu Han. The cultural exchanges between Tianzhu (India) and the Lion Kingdom (Sri Lanka) and the Tang Dynasty were particularly frequent, which had a certain influence on the culture of the Tang Dynasty. When Emperor Taizong Wang Xuan Ce made the Scorpio, that is, there were painters and craftsmen, and the Lions came to Tang Dynasty. King Kong Sanzang’s paintings of the Western Region’s Buddha statues have been sampled in the wooden tower of the Guangfu Temple in Luoyang.
The paintings of the Tang Dynasty boldly absorbed the style of the Western Regions on the basis of tradition. Yu Yi painter Qi Chiyi stayed in Chang’an for a long time. He painted foreign figures and Buddha statues. He used the color to calm down and piled up the scent. The hook line was small, and the pen was tight, like the iron wire, but the big one was sprinkled with the spirit. “. The “Devil of the Devil”, which he painted at the Puxian Hall of Guangzhai Temple in Chang’an, is considered to be “somewhat strange, and he is out of the wall.” Kang Guoren Constance was in the school of Tang Weizheng, painting exotic animals and poultry, early flowers and late leaves, vivid and varied. Their art enjoyed a high reputation at the time.
Source from Wikipedia