Monumentalism is the term with which the architectural tendencies are defined that during the twentieth century (especially in the first half) have had as an essential canon the inspiration and re-linking to classicism and neoclassicism. Critics divide this architecture into two currents: Neobarocco and simplified Neoclassicism.

Monumental art
Monumental art, the field of spatial arts, whose creations are created for a specific architectural environment, and conform to the concept of visual-archettechanics and color.

Monumental art works include monuments and monuments, sculpture, painting, carpeting, stained-glasses, and some monuments (some art critics call architectural works as Monumental art). The premises of the building and the interior, the square monument typically embody and propagate the most common social and philosophical ideas of the time devoted to the memory of prominent figures or celebrities. Combining architecture (see Combined Art), monumental art specifies the ideological content of the structure, the ensemble or the mechanically organized space. But often these things have a relative self-importance and are an important dominant of the ensemble.

The aspiration to express great ideas is based on the great artistic forms of those works, the massive correlation between human, material-spatial environment and nature. Such works are distinguished by the depth of philosophical reflection of the world, the greatness of humanity, the primordial principle of perception. Other works of monumental art do not bear high ideas and adorn the walls, covers, facades and surfaces in architecture, and borders with decorative art (sometimes referred to as monumental decorative art) through their archetytonic articulation. However, there are no boundaries between these two types of monumental art.

The history of art is known for various ways of monumental art and architecture, such as Pompei houses, plastering, and spatial-illusory frescoes or cornices of ancient Greek temples, importing sculptures on the facades, or the structures of Central Asia in full moonlit, XVII. Russian, choreographical patterns to decorate the graven-graving principle. Monumental art originated from the primeval. In the monkeys, liturgical statues, pictograms, the primeval man’s impressions about the power of the forces of nature were reflected in his work activity. By appearing in the classroom, public relations have become decisive in monumental art.

In the ancient Egyptian art, the dominant monumentality and static principles in the society of slavery should have contributed to the steadfastness of the social order and the deity of the ruler’s personality (Giza’s “Great Sphinx”), but in the typical forms of art of modern times embodied the notion of the victory of the human collective against the human mind. During the era of the ancient Greek sovereign democracy, monumental artistic works penetrated by faith in human beauty and dignity (Athens’s sculptures) were created.

The whole artistic structure of the Gothic cathedral, the painting and sculptural decoration, not only reflected the ideas of the feudal society and the church hierarchy, the whole system of medieval religious-dogmatic views, but also the idea of the growing city identity, the pathos of the city committee staff (the sculpture of Reims, Sharm and other temples). The national spiritual growth of Italy in the Renaissance era has been demonstrated by the great power of monumental art (Michael, David, Michel, Sixtinian Chapel frescos, etc.) with great public sound, tense dramaticism and titanic power.

With the Neo-Baroque, we return to the eighteenth century with the proportion of orders that becomes gigantic, enriched with ornamental friezes. It is the architecture of the Soviet Union with the various palaces of the central party committees in Leningrad as in Kiev. Here, as elsewhere, the scenographic vision of the architectural space, which must celebrate the regime, takes over, on the planimetric composition of the buildings.

The rise of national self-consciousness, the ideas of French enlightenment were expressed in the 18th century. 2nd half of XIX century The sculptures of a number of European European countries in the first quarter of the patriotic pathos and humanism, in simple monumental art (in Russia, F. Shchedrin, I. Martos and others), penetrated through ideas and expressions. XIX century in the middle of bourgeois. social development has resulted in universal ideas and ideas and the breakdown of the realistic capitalist realm, bringing the monumental art to decay, eliminating its combination of architecture and ideological-artistic integrity.

Simplified neoclassicism
The simplified Neoclassicism, also referred to as the twentieth century style, is linked to the classical architectural culture, but it lightens the elements and architectural details, removing or simplifying the decoration. This is the architecture preferred by totalitarian regimes for its celebratory efficacy in the built environment, with the exaltation of Romanity passed in the Italian case. His major theorist will be in Italy the architect Marcello Piacentini who will dominate the fascist twenties with his canons, restricting the field to the rationalists, who tried to reconcile the themes of the Modern Movement within an authoritarian regime. Its construction will also influence from the urban point of view, both in the construction of new interventions (university city of Rome, E42) and in the demolition and reconstruction of historic centers (Via della Conciliazione, historical centers of Brescia and Livorno).

Piacentini will work on two essential canons: the exterior modernization of style and the classical structure of architectural design. We will have like this:

the elementarization of architectural details; smooth walls, full balconies, flat frames, lightened capitals, elementarized arches, smoothed columns, which must remember the Mediterranean Sea and the ” romanità ” passed, also adopting specific materials such as marble;
an empty neoclassical architectural space with symmetrical and blocked floor plans, closed volumes, gigantic proportions, and the exaltation of the overall scenic vision.

The eclecticism of that period was also expressed in monumental art. XIX century end of XX century The monumental art of the beginning has gone through difficult, controversial ways. Organic painting works are organically linked to modern style structures (M. W. Wrubel, F. Holland, M. Danen et al.). XX century At the beginning, the monumental sculpture created by the arithmetic principles appeared again (A. Mayol, EA Burdel). XX century The monumental art has undergone profound changes. The contradictions of the bourgeois civilization decline, powerful revolutionary revolutions, and the establishment of a new socialist society were reflected in the works.

At the same time, the struggle against fascism, imperialism, colonial pressure, social and national liberation movements contributed to the rebirth of monumental art, to convey passion and conviction. XX century The monumentalist-artists are characterized by the sharp publicist tendency, the emotionality of the discovery of the subject, and often the classical approach (works of Mexican monumentalists, frescoes of communist municipalities of Italian and French cities). The monumental art in the socialist society, continuing the traditions of the great masters of the past, continuing the ideas of humanism, is called for the active transformation of reality.

During the era of socialism, the monumental art is liberated from the need to serve the interests of the exploitative classes, it is a full manifestation of its democratic social principle. The socialist society has introduced new content into monumental art, expanded its sphere of influence, including cities and large industrial and industrial complexes. In 1918, the Leninist program of monumental propaganda began. High ideological and artistic features are remarkable.

Links with the Modern Movement
Some scholars identify traits that are close to the twentieth century Italian in some architects who are located between nineteenth-century language and Modern Movement, as in the last works of Auguste Perret, where the characters are still more sober and somehow refer to the classical tradition French, as in the public works museum of 1937. Other examples are found in the so-called Classicism Scandinavian and some constructions of ‘ architect Swede Gunnar Asplund, which some in the Crematorium in Stockholm 1935 – 40it achieves a balance between modern forms and monumentalism in an ideal of synthesis with the languages of the classical past tradition.

There are those who fall within monumentalism even if part of the so-called metaphysical architecture of ‘ Italy between the wars, typical of which some cities of foundation d’ fascist era as Portolago (the Greek island of Leros) or Sabaudia. The same still seems more related to the themes of the Modern Movement in its specification and Italian characteristic (Italian Rationalism) as many have recognized, defining the two cities as a rare example, even if unknown as regards the first, of International Style.

Some critics still go further, including in the monumentalism of some architectural expressions of the Modern Movement, when focused on a search for symmetry, the pace perfect, repetitive and monumental as in the works of Mies van der Rohe, whose Seagram Building it it is the most complete expression. Also in some works by Giuseppe Terragni the primordial forms of Monumentalism are found as well as the cubic, monolithic and strongly symbolic volumes. After all, the Casa del Fascio of Como, one of the masterpieces of Italian Rationalism, is drawn on the golden section and built on symmetry balances. However, these buildings belonging to the Modern Movement have different articulations in plan in relation to the functional distribution, which is less evident in the monumental buildings; in them the architectural space is in close relationship with the relationship between form and function, which is the first and essential characteristic of the rationalistic theme.

Monumental art works have been created in the Armenian Highland still in the primeval art. Numerous monuments (dragons, rock painters, monkeys, monuments, etc.) have been preserved. Written information about the great monkeys, bronze and golden pagans. Erebuni’s frescos suggests the highly developed monumental painting of this region. Monumental art monuments have been created in the field of architecture. Oct From the very beginning the temple of Garni has been preserved. An example of monumental ornamental art painting is the Garni bath floor. Various types of temples and palaces have been built throughout Christianity, with examples of which are evidence of monumental art issues, and individual national solutions.

One of the earliest examples of the combination of art is the Akhtamar Cathedral (as written by the palace), the Grigor Lusavorich Church in Ani, etc. The magnificence of architecture is interconnected, with high-quality and varied expressions of sculpture and painting. The result of cold-hearted thinking is the cross-stones, the monumental sounds of which have been reported and in the architectural environment, and stand as a monument to a monument. Naghash Hovnatan (Hovhannes Poghos Petros, St. Anania Churches, Etchmiadzin Cathedral), Hakob and Harutyun Hovnatanyan (in St. Karapet Monastery of Apacunis) created many works to satisfy the taste of the Armenian jewelry, the needs of the time and the taste of the Armenian monumental art. Monumental art has reached unprecedented development in Soviet Armenia. Armenian artists have created permanent works when embodying the Lenin project of the Monumental propaganda. Among them, M. occupies a special place.

Source from Wikipedia