Latin America Salsa dancing Cultural Tourism

Salsa is a popular form of social dance originating in Eastern Cuba. The Salsa we hear now is said to be born in New York to a mixture of Afro Cuban folk dances with Jazz. Evidence shows that the “Salsa” sound was already developed in Cuba before being brought up to New York. The movements of Salsa are a combination of the Afro-Cuban dances Son, cha-cha-cha, Mambo, Rumba, and the Danzón. The dance, along with salsa music, saw major development in the mid-1970s in New York. Different regions of Latin America and the United States have distinct salsa styles of their own, such as Cuban, Puerto Rican, Cali Colombia, L.A. and New York styles. Salsa dance socials are commonly held in night clubs, bars, ballrooms, restaurants, and outside, especially when part of an outdoor festival.

In many styles of salsa dancing, as a dancer shifts their weight by stepping, the upper body remains level and nearly unaffected by the weight changes. Weight shifts cause the hips to move. Arm and shoulder movements are also incorporated. Salsa generally uses music ranging from about 150 bpm (beats per minute) to around 250 bpm, although most dancing is done to music somewhere between 160–220 bpm. The basic Salsa dance rhythm consists of taking three steps for every four beats of music. The odd number of steps creates the syncopation inherent to Salsa dancing and ensures that it takes 8 beats of music to loop back to a new sequence of steps.

Understand
Salsa is a popular form of social dance that originated in the Caribbean. The movements of salsa have origins in Puerto Rican bomba and plena, Cuban Son, cha-cha-cha, mambo and other dance forms. The dance, along with salsa music, originated in the mid-1970s in New York. Different regions of Latin America and the United States have distinct salsa styles of their own, such as Cuban, Puerto Rican, Cali Colombia, Los Angeles and New York styles. Salsa dance socials are commonly held in night clubs, bars, ballrooms, restaurants, and outside, especially when part of an outdoor festival.

In many styles of salsa dancing, as a dancer shifts their weight by stepping, the upper body remains level and nearly unaffected by the weight changes. Weight shifts cause the hips to move. Arm and shoulder movements are also incorporated. Salsa generally uses music ranging from about 150 bpm (beats per minute) to around 250 bpm, although most dancing is done to music somewhere between 160–220 bpm. The basic Salsa dance rhythm consists of taking three steps for every four beats of music. The odd number of steps creates the syncopation inherent to Salsa dancing and ensures that it takes 8 beats of music to loop back to a new sequence of steps.

Origin
Fania record label in the 60s, was the one that gave the name “Salsa” to this new blend of different influences, rhythms and styles of Latin music in New York City, especially in el Barrio, Spanish Harlem, and the Bronx. Salsa means sauce which represented son, guaguanco, son montuno, Jazz elements, Latin Jazz, Cuban influences. Prior to that time, each style was recognized in its pure original form and name. It evolved from forms such as Son, Son Montuno, cha cha cha, and Mambo which were popular in the Caribbean, Latin America and the Latino communities in New York since the 1940s. Salsa, like most music genres and dance styles, has gone through a lot of variation through the years and incorporated elements of other Afro-Caribbean dances such as Pachanga. Different regions of Latin America and the United States have distinct salsa styles of their own, such as Cuban, Puerto Rican, Cali Colombia.

There is some controversy surrounding the origins of the word “salsa,” which has been ascribed to the dance since the mid-1800s. Some claim that it was based on a cry shouted by musicians while they were playing their music. Others believe that the term was created by record labels to better market their music, who chose the word “salsa” because of its spicy and hot connotations. Still, others believe the term came about because salsa dancing and music is a mixture of different styles, just like salsa or “sauce” in Latin American countries is a mixture of different ingredients.

Description
In many styles of salsa dancing, as a dancer shifts their weight by stepping, the upper body remains level and nearly unaffected by the weight changes. Weight shifts cause the hips to move. Arm and shoulder movements are also incorporated. The Cuban Casino style of salsa dancing involves significant movement above the waist, with up-and-down shoulder movements and shifting of the ribcage.

The arms are used by the “lead” dancer to communicate or signal the “follower,” either in “open” or “closed” position. The open position requires the two dancers to hold one or both hands, especially for moves that involve turns, putting arms behind the back, or moving around each other, to name a few examples. In the closed position, the leader puts the right hand on the follower’s back, while the follower puts the left hand on the leader’s shoulder.

In the original Latin American form, the forward/backward motion of salsa is done in diagonal or sideways with the 3-step weight change intact.

In some styles of salsa, such as the New York style, the dancers remain mostly in front of one another (switching places), while in Latin American styles, such as Cuban style, the dancers circle around each other, sometimes in 3 points. This circular style is inspired by Cuban Son, specifically to the beat of son montuno in the 1920s. However, as it is a popular music, it is open to improvisation and thus it is continuously evolving. Modern salsa styles are associated and named to the original geographic areas that developed them. There are often devotees of each of these styles outside their home territory. Characteristics that may identify a style include: timing, basic steps, foot patterns, body movement, turns and figures, attitude, dance influences and the way that partners hold each other. The point in a musical bar music where a slightly larger step is taken (the break step) and the direction the step moves can often be used to identify a style.

Incorporating other dance styling techniques into salsa dancing has become very common for both men and women: shimmies, leg work, arm work, body movement, spins, body isolations, shoulder shimmies, rolls, even hand styling, acrobatics and lifts.

Latin American styles originate from Puerto Rico, Cuba and surrounding Caribbean islands.

Venues
Salsa dance socials are commonly held in night clubs, bars, ballrooms, restaurants, and outside, especially if part of an outdoor festival. Salsa dancing is an international dance that can be found in most metropolitan cities in the world. Festivals are held annually, often called a Salsa Congress, in various host cities aimed to attract variety of salsa dancers from other cities and countries. The events bring dancers together to share their passion for the dance, build community, and to share moves and tips with each other. These events usually include salsa dance performers, live salsa music, workshops, open dancing, and contests.

Rhythm
Salsa generally uses music suitable for dancing ranges from about 150 bpm (beats per minute) to around 250 bpm, although most dancing is done to music somewhere between 160–220 bpm. Every salsa composition involves complex Afro-Cuban percussion based around the Clave Rhythm (which has four types), though there can be moments when the clave is hidden for a while, often when quoting Charanga, Changüí and Bomba. The key instrument that provides the core groove of a salsa song is the clave. It is often played with two wooden sticks (called clave) that are hit together. Every instrument in a salsa band is either playing with the clave (generally: congas, timbales, piano, tres guitar, bongos, claves (instrument), strings) or playing independent of the clave rhythm (generally: bass, maracas, güiro, cowbell). Melodic components of the music and dancers can choose to be in clave or out of clave at any point. However it is taboo to play or dance to the wrong type of clave rhythm (see salsa music). While dancers can mark the clave rhythm directly, it is more common to do so indirectly (with, for example, a shoulder movement). This allows the dancing itself to look very fluent as if the rest of the body is just moving untouched with the legs.

For salsa, there are four types of clave rhythms, the 3-2 and 2-3 Son claves being the most important, and the 3-2 and 2-3 Rumba claves. Most salsa music is played with one of the Son claves, though a Rumba clave is occasionally used, especially during Rumba sections of some songs. As an example of how a clave fits within the 8 beats of a salsa dance, the beats of the 2-3 Son clave are played on the counts of 2, 3, 5, the “and” of 6, and 8.

There are other aspects outside the Clave that help define salsa rhythm: the cowbell, the Montuno rhythm and the Tumbao rhythm.

The cowbell rhythm emphasizes the “on-beats” of salsa: 1, 3, 5 and 7 while the conga rhythm emphasizes the “off-beats” of the music: 2, 4, 6, and 8. Some dancers like to use the strong sound of the cowbell to stay on the Salsa rhythm. Alternatively, others use the conga rhythm to create a jazzier feel to their dance since strong “off-beats” are a jazz element.

Tumbao is the name of the rhythm that is played with the conga drums. It sounds like: “cu, cum.. pa… cu, cum… pa”. Its most basic pattern is played on the beats 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8. Tumbao rhythm is helpful for learning to dance contra-tiempo (“On2”). The beats 2 and 6 are emphasized when dancing On2, and the Tumbao rhythm heavily emphasizes those beats as well.

The Montuno rhythm is a rhythm that is often played with a piano. The Montuno rhythm loops over the 8 counts and is useful for finding the direction of the music. By listening to the same rhythm, that loops back to the beginning after eight counts, one can recognize which count is the first beat of the music.

The basic Salsa dance rhythm consists of taking three steps for every four beats of music. The odd number of steps creates the inherent syncopation to the Salsa dancing and ensures that it takes 8 beats of music to loop back to a new sequence of steps. Different styles employ this syncopation differently. For “On1” dancers this rhythm is described as “quick, quick, quick, pause, quick, quick, quick, pause.” For “On2” dancers this rhythm is “quick, quick, slow, quick, quick, slow.” In all cases, only three steps are taken in each 4-beat measure (or 6 total over 8 beats).

Styles
Salsa’s roots are based on different Cuban genres such as Cuban Son, specifically to the beat of Son Montuno in the 1920s. However, as it is a popular music, it is open to improvisation and thus it is continuously evolving. New modern salsa styles are associated and named to the original geographic areas that developed them. There are often devotees of each of these styles outside their home territory. Characteristics that may identify a style include: timing, basic steps, foot patterns, body rolls and movements, turns and figures, attitude, dance influences and the way that partners hold each other. The point in a musical bar music where a slightly larger step is taken (the break step) and the direction the step moves can often be used to identify a style.

Afro-Latino style
The afro-Latino style is a very popular kind of salsa in the Caribbean, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Cuba. It pretty much involves the same dancing as most versions of the salsa but has a little bit of twist added to it. The thing that separates it and gives it its own identity is that some of the songs tie in an African language and certain African instruments that gives the songs different rhythms.

Incorporating other dance styling techniques into salsa dancing has become very common, for both men and women: shimmies, leg work, arm work, body movement, spins, body isolations, shoulder shimmies, rolls, even hand styling, acrobatics and lifts.

Latin American styles originate from Puerto Rico, Cuba and surrounding Caribbean islands including the Dominican Republic, and then expanding to Venezuela, Colombia, and the rest of Latin America; Also, there exists the “Miami” style, which is a fusion of some Cuban style elements with elements of various North American dances from the USA.

Colombian / Cali style
Cali-Style Salsa, also known as Colombian Salsa and Salsa Caleña, is based on geographical location of the Colombian City of Cali. Cali is also known as the “Capital de la Salsa” (Salsa’s Capital); due to salsa music being the main genre in parties, nightclubs and festivals in the 21st century.

The elements of Cali-Style Salsa were strongly influenced by dances to Caribbean rhythms which preceded salsa, such as Pachanga and Boogaloo. Cali has the most salsa schools and salsa teams in the world. Many of the competitions are held in Colombia.

The central feature is the footwork which has quick rapid steps and skipping motions. Colombian style does not execute Cross-body Leads or the “Dile Que No” as seen in other styles, but rather step in place and displace in closed position. Their footwork is intricate and precise, helping several Colombian Style dancers win major world championships. Cali hosts many annual salsa events such as the World Salsa Cali Festival and the Encuentro de Melomanos y Coleccionistas.

Cuban style / Casino
In Cuba, a popular dance known as Casino was marketed as Cuban-style salsa or Salsa Cubana abroad to distinguish it from other salsa styles when the name was popularized in the 1970s. Casino is popular in many places around the world, including in Europe, Latin America, North America, and even in some countries in the Middle East such as Israel. Dancing Casino is an expression of popular social culture; Cubans consider casino as part of social and cultural activities centering on their popular music. The name Casino is derived from the Spanish term for the dance halls, “Casinos Deportivos” where a lot of social dancing was done among the better-off, white Cubans during the mid-20th century and onward.

Historically, Casino traces its origin as a partner dance from Cuban Son, Cha Cha Cha, Danzón and Guaracha. Traditionally, Casino is danced “a contratiempo”. This means that, distinct from subsequent forms of salsa, no step is taken on the first and fifth beats in each clave pattern and the fourth and eighth beat are emphasised. In this way, rather than following a beat, the dancers themselves contribute in their movement, to the polyrythmic pattern of the music. At the same time, it is often danced “a tiempo”, although both “on3” (originally) and “on1” (nowadays).

What gives the dance its life, however, is not its mechanical technique, but understanding and spontaneous use of the rich Afro-Cuban dance vocabulary within a “Casino” dance. In the same way that a “sonero” (lead singer in Son and salsa bands) will “quote” other, older songs in their own, a “casino” dancer will frequently improvise references to other dances, integrating movements, gestures and extended passages from the folkloric and popular heritage. This is particularly true of African descended Cubans. Such improvisations might include extracts of rumba, dances for African deities, the older popular dances such as Cha Cha Chá and Danzon as well as anything the dancer may feel.

Miami-style Casino
Developed by Cuban immigrants to Florida and centered on Miami, this dance style is a fusion of some elements from Casino with lots of elements from American culture and dances. The major difference of Miami-style from other North American styles is the “Atras” or “Diagonal”, back breaking steps performed backwards diagonally instead of moving forwards and backwards as seen in the New York style. Dancers do not shift their body weight greatly as seen in other styles. Instead, dancers keep their upper body still, poised and relaxed while the feet execute endless intricacies. The dancer breaks mostly On1.

A major difference of Cali Style and Miami-style is that the latter is exclusively danced on the downbeat (On1) and has elements of shines and show-style added to it, following repertoires of North American Styles. Miami-style has many adherents, particularly Cuban-Americans and other Latinos based in South Florida.

Rueda de Casino
In the 1950s Salsa Rueda or more accurately Rueda de Casino was developed in Havana, Cuba. Pairs of dancers form a circle (“Rueda” in Spanish means “Wheel”), with dance moves called out by one person. Many of the moves involve rapidly swapping partners.

“Rueda de Cuba” is original type of Rueda, originating from Cuba. It is not as formal as Rueda de Miami and consists of about 30 calls. It was codified in the 1970s.

“Rueda de Miami” originated in the 1980s from Miami, is a formal style with many rules based on a mix, and is a hybridization of Rueda de Cuba & North American dance styles, with some routines reflecting American culture (e.g. Coca-Cola, Dedo, Adios) which is not found in the traditional Cuban-style Rueda.

Los Angeles style
The Los Angeles Salsa Style (LA style) is danced strictly on 1, in a slot \ line, using elements of various North American and stage dances. This helps prevent dancers from hitting other couples on a crowded dance floor. It is strongly influenced by the Latin Hustle, Swing, Argentine Tango, Mambo dancers from Mexico and Latin Ballroom dancing styles. LA style places strong emphasis on sensuousness, theatricality and acrobatics. The lifts, stunts and aerial works of today’s salsa shows are derived mostly from LA style forms with origins in Latin Ballroom and Ballet lifts.

The two essential elements of this dance are the forward–backward basic step and the cross-body lead. In this pattern, the leader steps forward on 1, steps to the right on 2-3 while turning 90 degrees counter-clockwise (facing to the left), leaving the slot open. The follower then steps straight forward on 5-6 and turns on 7-8, while the leader makes another 90 degrees counter-clockwise and slightly forward, coming back into the slot. In total, the couple turned 180° while the follower moved a distance (about 2meters).

Rogelio Moreno, Francisco and Luis Vazquez are credited for the early development and growth of LA Style as well as Albert Torres, Laura Canellias and Joe Cassiniare. Later dancers such as Alex Da Silva, Edie Lewis, Joby Martinez and Johnny Vazquez are often credited with developing the LA style of dancing as we know it today.

New York style
New York style is danced in an ellipse or a “flat figure 8” on the floor, with the partners facing each other most of the time. Unlike other styles of salsa, New York style is danced on the second beat of the music (“on 2”), and the follower, not the leader, steps forward on the first measure of the music. The etiquette of New York Style is strict about remaining in the close dance space, and avoiding dancing in a sandbox area with a lot of spins, turns and styling. There is greater emphasis on performing “shines” in which dancers separate themselves and dance solo with intricate footwork and styling for a time—a phenomenon that likely has origins from Swing and New York Tap.

Though he did not create New York style salsa, Eddie Torres is credited with popularizing it, and for having the follower step forward on the first beat of the first measure, followed by another step forward on the second beat to change direction (the “break step”).

There are two distinct developments of New York salsa as a music and dance genre:

Primary evolution from Mambo era was introduced to New York due to influx of migrating dissidents from all the Caribbean and other Latin migrants during Pre/Post Cuban Revolution in the 1950s and 1960s. This era is known as the “Palladium Era”. At this time, the music and dance was called “Mambo”—connoting the general term without being specific. The most famous dancer during this era was Puerto-Rican descendant Pedro “Cuban Pete” Aguilar, also known “The King of Latin Beat”.
Secondary evolution during the late 1970s, Latin Puerto Rican migrants, contributed a lot to the New York salsa development during the “NuYorican” era of Héctor Lavoe which greatly popularized salsa and modern Latin music throughout the world. Puerto Rican salsa superstars were the most important musicians during the era, such as Ray Baretto (“The Godfather”) and many others. There are also salsa artists that transcend both periods, notably the legendary Puerto Rican Tito Puente (“The Mambo King”).

These two developments create a fusion of a new salsa music and dance genre, different from its Latin American and Caribbean counterparts.

New York style salsa emphasizes harmony with the percussive instruments in salsa music, such as the congas, timbales, and clave, since many or all of those instruments often mark the second beat in the music.

Argentina

Bariloche
Asia Bar, Mitre 774. Salsa evening every Friday, 1AM-5AM.

Buenos Aires
Azúcar Abasto, Avda. Corrientes 3330 y Agüero (Subway B “Carlos Gardel” Station – Colectivos 24 – 71 – 124 – 142 – 168 – 180), ☏ +54 11 4865-3103. Th-Sa evenings. Has a great reputation. Old style Cuban and Puerto Rican salsa.
La Salsera, Calle Yatay 961, Villa Crespo (a short taxi ride from Azúcar Abasto), ☏ +54 11 4866-1829. All styles of salsa. All ages.
Maluco Beleza, Sarmiento 1728 (a short taxi ride from 9 de julio & Av. de mayo). Th midnight-5PM, F Sau 1AM-6PM, W 9:30PM-midnight. Brazilian music – Samba & AXE – great place for Brazilian music lovers.

Colombia
Generally you can find lots and lots of salsa music in Colombia. Most of the people would know how to dance and move with the rhythm. However there are two problems for the advanced salsa dancer. First is that they usually don’t do any turns, most Colombian girls get confused by Cross-Body lead (“Dile-que-no”). Second, usually people get to the clubs by pairs and sit around tables.

The elements of Cali-Style Salsa, also known as Colombian Salsa and Salsa Caleña, were strongly influenced by dances to Caribbean rhythms which preceded salsa, such as Pachanga and Boogaloo.

The central feature is the footwork which has quick rapid steps and skipping motions. Colombian style does not execute Cross-body Leads or the “Dile Que No” as seen in other styles, but rather step in place and displace in closed position. Their footwork is intricate and precise.

Cali
Cali is also known as the “Capital de la Salsa” (Salsa’s Capital); due to salsa music being the main genre in parties, nightclubs and festivals in the 21st century. Cali has the most salsa schools and salsa teams in the world. Cali hosts many annual salsa events such as the World Salsa Cali Festival and the Encuentro de Melomanos y Coleccionistas.

Blues Brothers, Av. 6AN No. 21-40 Barrio Santa Mónica, ☏ +57 2 661 3412, ✉ bluesbrothersbar@hotmail.com.
Tin-Tin-Deo, Calle 5 # 38-71, Barrio San Fernando (in Calle 5 & Carrera 38). Th-Sa 8PM-3AM. It claims to be recommended by The New York Times as the Cali site to visit for its musical identity and its salsa culture. 15,000 peso entry includes 10,000 peso credit at the bar.
Zaperoco, Avenida 5 # 16-46 (close to Avenida 5 Norte & Calle 14). Th-Sa 8PM-4AM. Quite crowded (but not too crowded), good music. Mostly pairs. Authentic Colombian salsa. Upscale bar.
La Topa Tolondra, Calle 5 # 1437, ☏ +57 316 4944768. 10PM-. Large dance floor. Caters to old and young, foreign and local dancers. Come at 9:30PM or 10PM to avoid the queue. Free salsa lesson on Mondays.
Club Changó, K3, Cavasa, ✉ info@chango.com.co. Th-Sa 8PM-6AM.

Cartagena
Cafe Havana, Getsemani, corner of Calle del Guerrero and Calle de la Media Luna, ☏ +57 314 556 3905, ✉ cafehavanacartagena@yahoo.es. W-Su 8:30PM-4AM.
Donde Fidel Salsa Club, Centro Portal de Los Dulces #32-09, in between De los Coches Square and Aduana Square, ☏ +57 314 5261892. Seating inside on two floors, and outside in the plaza. The owner’s name is Fidel. Since the late 1980s. Large variety of old salsa. In old city of Cartagena, close to the clock tower (torre del reloj), in the plaza where the candy sellers are under the arches.
Quiebra Canto, Getsemaní Carrera 8B Nº 25 – 119 (near the convention center in the old city). An up-market salsa joint with a tile dance floor (shoes slide effortlessly even with rubber soles); all tables get a great view of the dance floor. If you have a table there is a minimum liquor consumption charge.

Medellin
Thete are lots of clubs around Carrera 70 (near Estadio Metro Station), including:

Eslabón Prendido, Calle 53 # 42-55, near Parque Berrio Station, ☏ +57 313-745-6349, ✉ eslabonprendido@hotmail.es. Tu Th-Sa 7PM-2AM. An institution in the salsa circuit of Medellín and its best option for a Thursday night. Intimate, cheerful and the host of great bands, this bar is in the busiest area of ​​Parque Periodista. It is very popular on Thursdays when, for a cover of 8,000 pesos, you can experience a great night of salsa. The place begins to light up at 10:30PM. One block from the renowned Parque del Periodista. On Tuesdays there is jam session in which artists of the local scene are assembled in a large orchestra. There is also a live orchestra on Fridays, sometimes with talented bands from the city. You have to arrive early to get a table. The Salsa selection at this bar, especially when the orchestra is on break or not playing, is generally commercial, perhaps oriented toward the less discerning ear of the foreign audience. When there is live music, cover is typically 10,000 to 12,000 pesos.
El Tibiri, Calle 44B #70, near the Estadio Station, ☏ +57 310 849-5461, ✉ tibiribar@gmail.com. W-Sa 10PM-2AM. This down and dirty, informal basement Salsa bar is one of the most famous in Medellin for a hot and sweaty salsa experience. What it lacks in style is compensated by a good atmosphere. The drinks are cheap, and over the weekend, it’s the favorite place of the young salsa fans. Typically Colombian Style and/or Colombian Street Salsa (Salsa Callejera). Charges cover only when there is live music.
Son Havana, Carrera 73 # 44 – 56, near the Stadium Station, ☏ +57 4 586-9082, ✉ sonhavana@une.net.co. W Th 9PM-midnight, F-Sa 9PM-4AM. For a taste of Cuban salsa, go to Son Havana near El Tibiri. Good mojitos, of course, and be sure to check the schedule for live bands. Timba, son, charanga, guaguancó and other Afro-Antillean rhythms. Its musical focus is on the Timba, one of the rhythms that makes up Salsa. Cuban dance is popular at this venue in the formation of a wheel, known as the Cuban Casino/Rueda. Casino/Rueda practice on Wednesdays. They usually have live music at least once a week with their group Son Havana All Stars, and sometimes several times a week, varying between young orchestras in the city. ~12,000 pesos when there is live music.
Bururú barará, Cl. 44. From La Sonora Matancera, through the Great Combo of Puerto Rico and other great artists, this place brings together the energy of salsa in a single space. An excellent dance floor invites you to move to exhaustion.
Convergencia, Calle San Juan (Calle 44 at Carrera 73), ☏ +57 4 412-4971. Convergencia Bar is a place with a tradition of salsa classics in its musical programming.

Cuba
In Cuba, a dance known as Casino became popular in the 1970s. Dancing Casino is an expression of popular social culture; Cubans consider casino as part of social and cultural activities centering on their popular music.

Casino traces its origin as a partner dance from Cuban Son, Cha Cha Cha, Danzón and Guaracha. Traditionally, Casino is danced “a contratiempo”. This means that, distinct from subsequent forms of salsa, no step is taken on the first and fifth beats in each clave pattern and the fourth and eighth beat are emphasised. In this way, rather than following a beat, the dancers contribute in their movement, to the polyrythmic pattern of the music. At the same time, it is often danced “a tiempo”, although both “on3” (originally) and “on1” (nowadays).

What gives the dance its life, however, is not its mechanical technique, but understanding and spontaneous use of the rich Afro-Cuban dance vocabulary within a Casino dance. In the same way that a “sonero” (lead singer in Son and salsa bands) will “quote” other, older songs in their own, a Casino dancer will frequently improvise references to other dances, integrating movements, gestures and extended passages from the folkloric and popular heritage. This is particularly true of African descended Cubans. Such improvisations might include extracts of rumba, dances for African deities, the older popular dances such as Cha Cha Chá and Danzon as well as anything the dancer may feel.

In the 1950s Salsa Rueda or more accurately Rueda de Casino was developed in Havana. Pairs of dancers form a circle (“Rueda” in Spanish means “wheel”), with dance moves called out by one person. Many of the moves involve rapidly swapping partners. “Rueda de Cuba” consists of about 30 calls.

Havana
Casa de la Musica, 20, La Habana (in Miramar neighbourhood about 20 from the old city). Live bands every night. Taxis tend to overcharge on the way home. 10-15 CUC cover for foreigners (4 CUC for Cubans).
Casa de la Musica, Calle 31 esq. 2, Plaza de la Revolución (in downtown Havana). Table reservations are requiered for Cubans, foreigners are allowed to enter without reservations but at a higher price at the entrance. 10 CUP for Cubans, 10 CUC for foreigners.
Piano Bar Delirio Habanero, Teatro Nacional, Paseo and Calle 39, Plaza de la Revolución (in downtown Havana next to Casa de la Música), ☏ +53 7 8644508. Daily 10PM-6AM. A small but popular place serving good and relativelly cheap drinks. Live performances are hosted frequently. Entrance for foreigners costs 5 CUC.
CH Salsa Club, Aguila 165, Between Animas and Trocadero, ☏ +53 7 8676628. Dance school.

Trinidad
Casa de la Musica (off Plaza Mayor Casco Historico), ☏ +53 5 2557014. Hosts live performances every night starting at 10PM. Miss of tourists and Cubans. Open air bar. 1 CUC.

Peru

Cusco
Lots of places around the main plaza. All of this places teach salsa for free every night. Usually after midnight the music is changed for mixed music. Cusco is a great place to start learing salsa. but the experienced dancer would proabably satisfy with dancing only with the instructors.

Stock up your water prior to dance. Dancing first time dancing above 3400m will make you thirsty.

Mama Africa, Portal de Panes 109 3th Floor. 10PM to midnight. Mama Africa is on the second floor high above Plaza de Armas and is one of the most popular nightclubs in Cusco. It attracts relatively young people. There are locals and also many tourists. It’s a great place to dance and to enjoy music. Teaches Cuban style, and sometimes LA style (depending on the teacher).
Mythology, Portal de Carnes 298 2nd floor, ☏ +51 84 255770.
Salsa Dance School, Collacalle 480 (close to the plaza Limacpampa Grande), ☏ +51 921 958 733, ✉ salseroscusco@gmx.com. Group and private lessons.

Lima
Son De Cuba, Calle de la Pizza 277, Miraflores. Every night. This club is popular with tourists. The music is Salsa, Bachata, and merenque.
La Casa De La Salsa, Av. Bauzate y Meza 169, ☏ +51 941 494 941, ✉ lacasadelasalsa@live.com. This club focuses on dancing Salsa with live band all night long. It’s La Victoria district which can be dangerous for travelers. Attracts a mainly local crowd.
Cohiba, Avenida del Ejercito, Miraflores, ☏ +51 14226110.