Lacquer ware is a traditional technique unique to Toi, applying lacquer which is refined from the sap of Urushi (lizard) on the surface of the container and applying various decorations. It is also called lacquer work craft. It prospered in Japan, China, the Korean Peninsula, and was also used in Southeast Asia and others. Basis is a lacquer which applies lacquer to a container. In addition to this, recently screen printing and the like are also used.
Japanese people who used lacquer from the Jomon Period today have lacquerware which is seen as the supreme artwork afterwards as well as living goods.
As a local culture, lacquer ware as a local industry has long been popular as a living goods in Japan for a long time. The lacquerware which made even more design entertained people’s eyes.
Painter also called paint art is the process of making lacquer. In addition to paint and paint like lacquer craft, the painting of wood furniture and statues of the painting work, but also belong to the scope of lacquer; as for the paint itself is a paint, with the function of painting, it can independently develop into a lacquer art . Therefore, the development of lacquer art is an applied art that integrates sculpture, painting and craft.
Large paint color, not easy to transfer white, peach color and other brilliant color. To paint bright color must be mixed with tung oil, the paint color desalination. Tung oil content of less than 20%, can be used to polish the light; tung oil content higher than 20%, you can be used to fight gold plastic, multi-layer thick 髹.
The painter must first buy the tung oil boiled, first heated to 140-200 degrees Celsius, to slow fire to remove moisture, boiled as a varnish.
Lacquer production complicated procedures, can be simply divided into tire and painting two steps, the tire is making the future type, and painting is carved lacquer or painted painted decorative performance. In the production of lacquer, the pre-use of wood, bamboo or bronze, as the inner tube coating, and then adjust the color of paint, layer by layer in the tire wall, this work is also known as “paint “. Wood tire susceptible to material restrictions, can not be thin wall to reduce weight, so he invented the curly cylinder of wood, as the inner tube of lacquer, but the disadvantage is the shape of the stereotypes.
Until the folder was found, the lacquer system will be able to change freely. The production method of the clip is to shape the paint with gray paint first, and then use burlap or coarse fiber cloth, plaster the paint on the tire, then layer by layer of paint, dry and hard to see the original modeling. Further development is the advent of bodiless lacquer ware, which is said to have been invented by Shen Zhaoan, a lacquer artist in Fuzhou, Fujian during the Qianlong reign of Qing Dynasty. The use of bodiless lacquer and lacquer ware is almost similar and is the application of sculpture technology.
After the completion of the tire, they paint the coating work. Lacquerware quite a lot of decorative techniques, can be roughly divided into “carved lacquer”, “carved fill” and “mosaic” and other three ways. Carved lacquer refers to the hard and dry after the paint on the surface of the carved decoration work, carved lacquer to be done before the performance, you must first thick paint, and sometimes paint on the surface, “heap paint” to enhance the thickness . Common carvings are mostly “carved red”, the so-called red, is the red-based lacquer, the pattern of ornamentation outside the part removed, leaving the red pattern and non-red pattern, of course, depending on the main color is different , There are ticking, ticking green or ticking black. Carving fill the practice, it contains the carved lacquer and filling paint two steps, the first carved pattern of different colors, and then fill in other colors, dry after mapping and then polished, making lacquer decoration, with multi-color performance . More sophisticated decorative techniques, as well as “Shen Jin” “paint”, “varnish” application. As for the mosaic, it is attached to the paint on the different materials, the paint itself that is sticky, so mosaic treatment more difficult. Common inlaid decoration, is made of shell “snail”, there are other gold foil silver ornaments (gold) and other performance.
We will take up the lacquer arts technique that has developed our own development in Japan, trace its history, and enjoy the charm of Makie and the beauty of lacquer art. In addition, in this exhibition room we introduce a new exhibition case, so that you can see the detail technique, the inside of the box, the pattern of the side, etc. well.
Makie’s technique developed independently in our country since the end of the Nara era has reached completion in the Muromachi era, and almost all methods have come out. This era is also an era of tea prosperity, techniques such as Shinkin which photographed China’s fine money, Kamakura sculpture learned from the sculpture saw great prosperity. We collect works of contemporary art by various techniques and see the various forms of Muromachi era lacquer art.
In the Muromachi era, Makie art became more sophisticated than the previous generation, almost all additional techniques came out and complicated expressions, which combined a number of techniques, became visible. In addition, receiving a fashion of the Renga (bricks) at the time, many designs of maki-e artworks representing famous Japanese poetry have been transmitted. In addition, in this era, under the leadership of the shogunate, Ming trade is organized and spurs inflows of foreign cultures such as China. The arts and crafts brought from China and Korea etc. at that time was called “Tango (Tomo)” and was respected.
Cherry blossoms at the same time as the cold springs loose, coloring the scenery, entertaining people’s eyes, but it will be scattered in a blink of an eye. However, it seems that its cleanliness and transience touched the hearts of people’s hearts. Speaking of Waka ‘s classic “flower”, it refers to cherry blossoms, from ancient times Japanese people have been interested in cherry blossom viewing nobility. However, as far as the field of lacquer ware is concerned, the appearance of works with the theme of cherry blossoms is surprisingly late and examples are seen after the Muromachi period. Especially after the early modern times many lacquer artworks incorporating cherry blossoms into the design were produced as if weeded weirs.
Tokyo National Museum
Tokyo National Museum collects and preserves cultural assets spanning the Toyo region widely, mainly in Japan as a comprehensive museum in Japan, for public viewing, and conducts survey research and education dissemination project etc. related to this , Aims to preserve and utilize cultural properties that are valuable national assets.
From April 1, 2007, the National Museum belonging to the National Museum of Japan and the National Institute for Cultural Properties to which the National Museum of Japan belongs were integrated, and the “National Institute of Cultural Properties” was launched. We will promote the preservation and utilization of cultural properties, which are precious national assets under the new corporation, more efficiently and effectively.