Sikh Architecture is a style of architecture that is characterized with values of progressiveness, exquisite intricacy, austere beauty and logical flowing lines. Due to its progressive style, it is constantly evolving into many newly developing branches with new contemporary styles. Although Sikh architecture was initially developed within Sikhism its style has been used in many non-religious buildings due to its beauty. 300 years ago, Sikh architecture was distinguished for its many curves and straight lines; Shri Keshgarh Sahib and the Sri Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) are prime examples.
A gurdah (in panxhab language: ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, Gurduārā or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ, gurdvārā , which means ‘door to the Guruja’) is the place of worship of Sikis ; However, in gurdvarat sikemi are welcomed people of all faiths as well as those who do not exercise any such. Gurdvara has a Sahib Darbar where the present and permanent Guru of the Sikhs is placed, the scripture Guru Granth Sahibi on a Takhat (a raised throne) in a prominent central position. Raag (singing Raga) recite, sing and explain, verses from Guru Granth Sahibi , in the presence of the holy gathering. All gurdvarat have Langar hall, where people can eat vegetarian meals free of charge. A gurdare can also have a library, nursery and learning room. Gurpahara can be identified by the distance between the high flag poles that carry Nishan Sahib, the Sikh flag. The most famous Gurdvara is Harmandir Sahibi (popularly known as the Golden Temple) in Amritsar, Punjab, India.
The first Gurdvara was built at Kartarpur on the banks of the Ravi River in the Punjab region in today’s Pakistan from the first Scythian guru, Guru Nanak Devi, in 1521. He is now in the Western Narayal Pakistan Narayal district. The worship centers were built as a place where they could gather to hear the gurus give spiritual lessons and sang the religious hymns in worship of Wahegurus. As the population continued to grow, Guru Hargobindi, the sixth guru, introduced the word gurdvara . The etymology of the term ‘gurdvara’ derives from the words’ stone (ਗੁਰ) ‘(a reference to the Sikha gurus) and’ dvara (ਦੁਆਰਾ) ‘, which together mean the’ gate through which gurus can be reached ‘. After that all the places of worship Sheikh began to be known as gurdvara. Some of the most prominent Sikhe shrines set by Sikha gurus are:
Nankana Sahibi, located in the 1490s by the first Sikh guru, Guru Nanak Devi, in Punjab, Pakistan .
Sultanpur Lodhi, accredited in 1499, became Sikhe center during the time of Guru Nanak Devi in the Kapurthala district of Punjab, India .
Kartarpur Sahibi, set in 1521 by the first Sikh stone, Guru Nanak Devi, near Ravi River, in Narva, Punjab, Pakistan.
Khadur Sahibi, located in 1539 the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad Devi, near Beas River, in the Amritsar district of Indian Punjab.
Goindwal Sahibi, set in 1552 by the third Sikh guru, Guru Amar Dasi, near Beas River, Amritsar district of Indian Punjab.
Sri Amritsar, set in 1577 by the fourth Sikh guru, Guru Ram Dasi, in the Amritsar district of the Indian Punjabi.
Tarn Taran Sahibi, set in 1590 by the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Devi, Tarn Taran Sahib district, Indian Punjabi.
Kartarpur Sahibi, set in 1594 by the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Devi, near Beas River, Jalandhar district, Indian Punjabi.
Sri Hargobindpuri, located by the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Devi, near Beas River, Gurdaspur district, Indian Punjabi.
Kiratpur Sahibi, set in 1627 by the sixth Sikh guru, Guru Hargobindi, near Sutlej River, Ropar district, Indian Punjabi.
Anandpur Sahibi, set in 1665 by the sixth Sikh guru, Guru Tegh Bahaduri, near the Sutlej River, Indian Punjabi.
Paonta Sahibi, set in 1685 by the Ten Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singhu, near Yamuna River, in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
From the beginning of the twentieth century, a number of Sikhs gilltons in British India were under the control of Udas mahanti (clerics). The Gurdarves Reformation Movement of the 1920s resulted in the Gurdwara Parbandhak Shiromani Committee that took control of these gurdvaras.
Not every place where Guru Granth Sahibi is placed and treated with the due respect according to Sikh Rehat Maryadas (Sikh code of conduct and customs) can be considered a ‘gurdvarë’. The main functions that take place in all the main gurdvaras on a daily basis include:
Shabad Kirtanin: that is the singing of the hymns by Granthi Sahibi , most Shabadet by Guru Granth Sahibi , Dasam Granthi, and compositions by Bhai Gurdasi and Bhai Nand Lali, can be performed within a gurdware. It is inappropriate to sing hymns of popular rhythmic ringtones or other melodies.
Paathi: That is the religious preaching and reading of Gurbani by Guru Granth Sahibi , with their explanation. There are generally two types of Paathesh: Akhand Paathi and Sadharan Paathi.
Sangati and Pangati: Providing a free community cooking like a langar for all visitors, regardless of the faith, region, culture, race, caste or class that is part of.
Along with these functions, gurhdes around the world serve as centers of the Sikh community in many other ways including the functioning as Sikhe library libraries and schools to teach children Gurmukhi, hostility to Sikhe scriptures, and organization of charitable activities in a wider community from the Siqs. In gurdwara there are no images, statues or religious paintings. The essential feature of a gurdware is the presence of the sacred book and the eternal Sikh guru, Granth Sahibi . The Sikhs have a high respect for the teachings and ordinances of Granth Sahibi . A gurdwara has a main darbar hall , a free kitchen for the community called langar , and some other services. A gurdwara is identified by the high poles of Nishan Sahib, the Sikh flag. Many of the historical gurdvaras associated with the lives of Sikha gurus have a sarovar (ecological pond) present for washing. The marriage ceremony of Sheikh, called Anand Karaj, is carried out within a gurdvare. The Sikhs also perform some of their rites of mortal ceremonies (Antam Sanskar) within the gurdala. It is also the focal point of important Sikh holidays, with the exception of Nagar Kirtani, which is a Sikh procession of sacred anthems from the whole community. These processions begin and end in a gurdah.
Archduke of Gurdare
Unlike worship places in some other religious systems, stone buildings do not have to follow any set of architectural designs. The only required requirements are: Granth Sahib ‘s placement, under a tent or a tent throne, usually a platform higher than the floor on which the believers stand and a high hanging flag at the top of the building. Later, more and more gurdwara (especially India ) have imitated the model of Harmandir Sahib , a synthesis of Indo-Persian and Sheikh Architecture. Most of them have square rooms, stand on a higher plinth, have access to all four wings having a square or octagonal sanctuary usually in the middle. Over the past decades, in order to meet the demands of larger gatherings, larger gathering rooms with better air, with the sanctuary in the end have begun to become a general style. The location of the saint is mostly in a place that allows a space for circus (ritual walk around the sanctuary). Sometimes, to enhance the space, verandahs are built at the edge of the hall. A popular cube pattern is a lily lily crowned with an ornamental pendant. Bow tops, kiosks and cubes are used for outdoor decorations.
Darbar Sahibi refers to the main hall within a Sikhe gurbuare . This hall where the scripture stands, Guru Granth Sahibi (the present and eternal guide of the Sikhs), set on a stool or throne in a prominent central position.
Worship in Darbar Sahib takes the path in Divan’s hall or prayer room. In the sofa, people are found singing worship worship by Granthi Sahibi. Guru Granth Sahibi is the highest spiritual guide Sikh and treated as if he were a living guru. People who visit Gurdara sit on the floor often cross-legged, as if they head their feet to an object or person, in this case Guru Granth Sahibi, may be confused or disrespectful according to cultural norms. It is also commonplace and optional posture for deep meditation. Moreover, sitting on the floor is seen as a symbol of equality among all people. Instead of standing in the chair, anyone sits on the floor so nobody is higher than the others. Traditionally, women and children as well as men sit on different wings of the sofa. However, sitting down on a mixed pattern in front of Guru Granth Sahib is not forbidden. The Guru Granth Sahib is placed on pillows, having ‘beautiful ebony’ placed above them, which are on a raised platform that has a canopy. Cohat, called Romalla, covers Guru Granth Sahib when he is not being read. This is located opposite the sofa room, where there is also another raised platform where the musicians sit down and play their instruments (called Ragi) while the congregation sings hymns. Music is an important part of Sikh worship as it helps when people are singing hymns that are written at Guru Granth Sahibi. The Hymns written in the Guru Granth Sahibi are called Gurbani, which means: the words of the gurus .
Sri Harmandir Sahibi (the dwelling of God ) (also called Sri Darbar Sahibi ), and informally considered as the “temple of the Lord” (in the proverbial language: ਹਰਿਮੰਦਰ ਸਾਹਿਬੀ), also called Sri Darbar Sahibi (in Probable language: ਦਰਬਾਰ ਸਾਹਿਬ, dəɾbɑɾ sɑhɪb) Golden, ” is the most sacred Gurdvara of Sikhism , located in the city of Amritsar, Indian Punjab. Amritsar (literally the deposit of the nectar of eternity ) was founded in 1577 by the fourth Sikh guru, Guru Ram Dasi. Fifth Guru Sikh, Guru Arjani, projected the Harmandir Sahib to be built in the center of the sacred deposit, and until his construction, Adi Granthi, the sacred Sikhist script, placed within Harmandir Sahibi. Harmandir Sahib Complex is also the home of Akal Takht, the sixth guru, Guru Hargobindi. While Harmandir Sahibi is regarded as the house of the spiritual attribute of God, Akal Takhti is the land of God’s earthly authority. The construction of Harmandir Sahib was planned to be a place of worship for men and women of all vital and social backgrounds, even believers of other religions would be welcomed and worshiped in a similar way to God. In this way, as a gesture of this non-sectarian commotion of Sikhism, Guru Arjani specifically invited the Sufi Muslim saint, Sai Mian Mirin, to lay the foundation stone of Harmandir Sahib. The four entrances (representing the four directions) to enter Harmandir Sahib also symbolize the Saqha’s opening to all men and beliefs. Over 100,000 people visit the holy shrine every day for worship, and also to participate jointly in the Meal and Free Community Cuisine ( Langari ) despite the differences, a tradition that is the distinctive feature of all Sikh Gurdwarve. The current Gurdvara was rebuilt in 1764 by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia with the help of other Sikha thinkers. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Maharaja Ranjit Singhu secured the Punjab region from the outbreak and covered the top floor of the gurdwar with gold, giving it a distinctive appearance and its popular name.
Harmandir Sahib means the Temple of God. Guru Amar Dasi ordered Guru Ram Das to create a nectar deposit as a place of worship for Sikh faith. Guru Ram Dasi instructed everyone to join the works, under the supervision of Bhai Budhas and engage workers to help them. The Father said that the nectar deposit should be God’s home, everyone who could bathed in it should provide all spiritual and worldly advantages. During the progress of the works, the hut on which the first garrison stood was expanded as his residence; now known as the mahale or palace of the gurus. In 1578, Guru Ram Dasi dug a deposit, which later became known as Amritsar (the Nectar of Eternity Basin), giving its name to the city that ran around it. Through time, Harmandir Sahibi, was built with this deposit and became the main center of Sikhism. His sanctuary was made to accommodate Adi Granthi, which includes compositions of Sikha gurus and other saints considered to have the values and principles of Sikhism, such as Baba Faridi and Kabiri. The design of Adi Granth was started by the fifth guru of Sikhism, Guru Arjani.
Guru Arjani conceived the idea of creating a central place of worship for the Sikhs and designed the architecture of Harmandir Sahib. The earliest plans to excavate the sacred deposit (Amritsar or Amrit Sarovari) was marked by Guru Amar Dasi, the third Sikh guru, but was implemented by Guru Ram Dasi under the supervision of Baba Budhas. Land for the construction site was provided by previous Guru Sahibs paid or free by the Zamindars (landowners) of the local villages. The plan to build a civic residence was also done, and the construction work for the Sarovar (deposit) and township started simultaneously in 1570. The works on both projects were completed in 1577.
In December 1588, Guru Arjani started building the gurdare and the foundation stone was set by Hazrat Mian Miri on December 28, 1588. Gurdvara was completed in the year 1604. Guru Arjani placed Guru Granth Sahibin in him and appointed Baba Buddha as his first granty in August 1604. In the mid-18th century he was attacked by Afghans by one of Ahmed Shah Abdali’s generals, Jahan Khani and had to be thoroughly rebuilt in the 1760s. However, in response, a Sikh army was sent to pursue Afghan force. The forces met five miles outside Amritsar where the Jahan Khan army was destroyed.
Some of the architectural features of Harmandir Sahib were created as symbols of the Sikh worldview. Instead of the normal habit of building a stone on a high place, it was built to a lower level than the surrounding terrain so believers have to go down the stairs to enter it. Moreover, instead of an introduction, Sri Harmandir Sahibi has four entrances. Gurdvara is surrounded by Sarovar, a large lake or sacred deposit, consisting of Amrit (“holy water” or “eternal nectar”) and is supplied by the river Ravi. For gurdvara there are four entrances, which symbolize the importance of acceptance and openness. In the complex there are three sacred trees ( ber ), each symbolizing a historical event or a saint Sikh. Within the gurdvaru there are many commemorative plaques commemorating historical, historic, sacred, martyrs and martyrs, including memorial gravals of all soldiers dead dead fighting in World War I and II.
Many of the current decorative plaster and marble works date back to the early 19th century. All the work in the field and marble was developed under the patronage of Hukam Singh Chimnit and Emperor Ranjit Singh, Maharaja of the Sheikh Panjabi Empire. Arch Darshani Deorhi stands at the beginning of the pavement for Harmandir Sahibi; it is 6.2m high and 6m wide. Harmandir Sahib’s coat of arms was started by Ranjit Singhu and was completed in 1830. Maharaja Ranjit Singh was an important donor to the shrine. The Harmandir Sahib Complex also includes Akal Takht (the elite of the Infinite ), built by the sixth Sikh guru, Guru Hargobindi as an authority for the administration of justice and consideration of earthly affairs. Within the complex, Akal Takhti is a counterpoint to the sacred shrine, in that Harmandir Sahibi is the dwelling of the spiritual attribute of God and Akal Takhti is the seat of God’s earthly authority.
Many gurdvara are designed to reduce men’s wings and womens to the other, though designs overshadow and seat segments are not mandatory. They generally sit together but in the detached wings of the hall, both at the same distance from Guru Granth Sahibi, as a sign of equality. Believers are offered Karah Parshad in the hall, usually given in the hands collected by a sewadar (a volunteer of the gurdvaras). In the liver’s room, food is cooked and served in the community by volunteers. Only the vegetarian food is served in the langar’s hall, to accommodate visitors from different backgrounds so that no one remains offended. All people belonging to different faiths sit together to share a common meal, regardless of any dietary restriction. The main philosophy behind Langar is twofold: to offer teaching to engage in Seva and as an opportunity to serve the community from all of the backgrounds and help in removing all the differences between the rich and the deaf high and low.
Sikh Architecture in Karnataka
The earliest Gurdvara in Karnataka was Gurdwara Nanak Jhira in Bidar. It was built in the style of traditional Sikh architecture, in a sacred place in Bidar. It is also called Nanak Jhira, where Jhira means there is a source of water. The legend says Guru Nanaku stopped there on his way to Sri Lanka in 1512. During that time, Bidar residents were suffering from a lack of water. A fresh water spring came out of the hills through the spiritual power of Guru Nanakut. A committee developed work for Gurudvara Nanak Jhira Sahibin with the construction of three central floors completed in 1966, including the historical source of Nanak Jhiras deified by Guru Nanaku. Source water is collected in ‘Amrit-Khud’ (a deposit), built in white marble. There is a Sikh museum, built in the memory of Guru Teg Bahadur, featuring important events of Sikh history through paintings and other images. Built in Cycladic architecture, Gurdvara is a vibrant mix of Mogule and Raxutian Architecture . Onion shaped cubes, multi-leaf bows, mated columns, ornamental works, frescoes, etc. are of a Mogul style, more particularly of Shah Jahan’s Period, while balcony windows, shelves held by brackets, hatches , rich ornamental friezes, etc., are elements derived from Rhapsody Architecture as seen in Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner and other places in Raxhastan. In addition to the above Gurudvar in Bidar, Bangalore also has Gurudvara built in the twentieth century. Guru Nanaku, Guru Sikh, was the first to visit Bengaluru. On his way back from Sri Lanka he banned in Bangalore. Kempegowda, the builder of Bangalore, met him and asked for his blessing. Guru Nanaku not only blessed Kempegowdan but also told him to develop the country. But it took many more years to build a gurudvaras like in Bangalore. Now in Bangalore there are three gurudvara. The first and largest gurudvara in Bangalore, near Lake Ulsoor on Kensington Street, is an elegant white structure that opened on April 13, 1946. It was recently reconstructed with marble floors.
Source From Wikipedia