National Museum of Interventions, Mexico City, Mexico

The National Museum of the Interventions is located in the former Monastery of San Diego Churubusco, which was built on top of an Aztec shrine. The museum in split into two sections. The downstairs is dedicated to the site’s history as a monastery, and the upstairs rooms are dedicated to artifacts related to the various military conflicts that have taken place on Mexican soil and how these have shaped the modern Mexican republic. The museum is located on Calle 20 de Agosto, one block east from Division del Norte, following Calle Xicoténcatl, in Churubusco. It is one of five museums that are operated directly by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH).

The Museum is right on one of the stages where one of the most important battles against the US army was fought in 1847, the Battle of Churubusco, hence the theme of it responds to explain the forms of Mexican resistance against foreign interventions, as well as the implications that American expansionism had in nascent Mexico.

As for the collection that protects the museum, it can be classified into several items, one of them responds more to the characteristics of the site museum and includes objects, clothing and paintings that reflect the conventual life of the place, as well as those pieces and archaeological vestiges that have been recovering through the multiple salvages led by the INAH in the locality; in another area, which would respond more to the central objective of the foundation of this museum, that is, the different armed interventions lived by Mexico and whose experience the main basic principles of its foreign policy were generated and defined: non-intervention and self-determination of the villages, there are lithographs, flags, weapons, furniture and accessories both civil and military of the time,

A third item includes objects and easel painting that correspond to the viceregal era and that have both a civil and religious character. Finally, it should be noted that the museum also protects a modest but interesting Historical Archive that has just over a thousand documents that include religious documents such as blood laundering and some papal bulls, which constitute an important testimony of life conventual, even some documents that reveal details of the battles and war experiences lived by historical subjects during the period of independence.

The building that now houses this Museum is an enclosure of great historical importance, since the Battle of Churubusco was fought on that August 20, 1847, during which the American invaders defeated General Pedro María Anaya, the battalions of volunteers from Mexico City and the brave Irishmen of the San Patricio Battalion, who adopted the cause of Mexico in that unequal war. After the defeat of the Mexican army, many of the members of the San Patricio battalion were captured and executed. In homage to the Irish martyrs, one of the streets adjacent to the Museum was baptized under the name of Irish Martyrs.

The monastery
The building has a previous history, it would have been built to house the friars who arrived in New Spain. Previously, the area was occupied by the manor of Huitzilopochco, place of Huitzilopochtli or in the house of Huitzilopochtli, name which in turn means left-handed hummingbird; this town subsisted thanks to the resources offered by the lake (salt, hunting and fishing), as well as to the practice of agriculture with the technique of chinampa.

Given its geographical location in the basin, it occupied a strategic position during the Mexican domain, especially in terms of commercial exchange, since it articulated both local commerce within the Mexico Basin, as well as the long-distance exchange that was carried out by the Pochtecas or merchants through the great market that housed in Pochtlán, one of the twelve neighborhoods that made up the manor and that, apparently, was where the former Churubusco Convent is located today.

Before the Spanish Conquest of Mexico, the land originally belonged to an Aztec lord and was the site of a pyramid shrine to the god Huitzilopochtli. This shrine was eventually destroyed by the Franciscan friars under Pedro del Monte. They Christianized the site using the stones and the foundation of the shrine to build a small church and house for themselves. The current structure was built to replace the smaller house and church near the end of the 17th century. Diego del Castillo and his wife, Elena de la Cruz sponsored the construction which was completed under architect Cristobál Medina Vargas. Work was completed in 1678, and designed to house thirty monks. The Aztec remains lay forgotten until excavation work in the late 20th century uncovered the pyramid foundation, Nahua sculptures, and human remains. Some of these are on display at the museum.

With the introduction of the Catholic Church, in 1524, a rustic hermitage was built to receive the first Franciscan friars who arrived in New Spain. Subsequently, by order of the first bishop, Fray Juan de Zumárraga, the first temple that served as a room, novitiate and school for missionaries destined to evangelize the Philippines and Japan was built with the remains of the pre-Hispanic buildings. After several renovations, in 1592 the first convent of San Mateo Apóstol was founded under the invocation of Santa María de los Ángeles and in 1679, with donations from Don Diego del Castillo, a silver merchant, and his wife Doña Elena de la Cruz, the convent that we can contemplate today was rebuilt. Between 1733 and 1797 the building was modified and expanded.

The monastery was founded with the full name of “Nuestra Señora de los Angeles de Churubusco” (Our Lady of the Angels of Churubusco), the name of the village. It was founded by the Dieguina (of San Diego de Alcalá) order of Franciscan friars. These monks arrived in Mexico to establish a way station for evangelists heading to Asia, principally the Philippines. This monastery was one of several dedicated to preparing priests and monks for missions in Asia.

The church associated with the monastery still maintains its original function but the rest of the complex today is a museum with two focuses. The first floor is dedicated to the history and daily life of the Franciscan Deiguina order, which occupied the site for more than 300 years. The upper floor is dedicated to recalling the various military conflicts that have taken place in Mexican territory.

Rooms downstairs such as the kitchen, the refectory, the foyer to the sacristy, the pilgrim’s entrance as well as the garden areas outside have been restored to their original appearance. The kitchen was recreated in 2002, and the refectory, bath area and the foyer were restored in 2005. In addition, a number of other artifacts and spaces have been preserved, such as the excavations of the monastery foundations and its pre-Hispanic predecessors, but they are not available to the public.

Most of the preserved downstairs rooms are related to the feeding and other necessities of the monks, such as the kitchen, the dining room and the bath area and generally were not open to the public. The lower cloister, the foyer to the sacristy and the portals were public spaces. There is also fountain inside the main patio that provided water for the monks and the surrounding community. The main garden contained and orchard which grew fruit and other foods for consumption by the monastery’s inhabitants. The “patio menor” on the side of the complex is where monks could converse with those visiting the facility.

The downstairs also contains a collection of paintings and sculptures from the 17th to the 19th centuries. The Churubusco Collection Room is primarily devoted to colonial-era paintings by Juan Correa, Cristobal de Villalpando, Nicolas Rodriguez Juarez and others. The collection also includes some sculptures and woodwork, usually representing angels, saints and the Virgin Mary. In the main stairwell, there are a number of large oil paintings. Two of the pieces has scenes from the life of Saint Francis of Assisi, called “El transito de San Francisco” (The Death of Saint Francis of Assisi) and “San Francisco como el Profeta Elías” (Saint Francis of Assisi as the Prophet Elijah). There is one other painting here called “La Elevación de San Juan Nepomuceno” (The Elevation of Saint John Nepomuk).

The upper floor and cloister was where the monks slept, studied and prayed and was not open to the public. These areas have not been restored to their original appearance but instead have been converted to a military museum, reflecting the site’s later history.

The Battle of Churubusco
The Mexican Army dislocated the monks living here during the Mexican-American War in order to defend Mexico City from the invading U.S. Army. The Mexicans fortified the building, which included building the parapet. At the time, the complex was far outside the city limits.

It was until 1847, when, by orders of the Mexican government, the friars were evicted to take the building as a point of resistance against the American invasion, where the aforementioned battle of Churubusco was carried out. On 20 August 1847, Battle of Churubusco was fought. When the Mexicans ran out of ammunition, the battle turned to hand-to-hand fighting. When the Mexicans were defeated U.S. General David Twiggs asked General Pedro María de Anaya to surrender his ammunition. The reported response of Anaya is “If there was any, you wouldn’t be here.” This is also the site where Saint Patrick’s Battalion, an Irish regiment originally aligned the U.S., switched sides and fought with the Mexicans to defend Mexico City. A plaque honoring them is placed at the main entrance.

When the invading troops retired from the country, in the middle of 1848, the friars and their nearby inhabitants dedicated themselves to repair the building. Before the application of the laws of reform, in 1861, the friars dieguinos were cloistered in the convent of Churubusco.

In 1869, President Benito Juárez declared the site a national monument in honor of the battle, which was reaffirmed in 1933. However, this did not turn it into a museum. From 1876 to 1914, it served as a military hospital, specializing in contagious diseases.

President Venustiano Carranza inaugurated on August 20, 1919 the Historical Museum of Churubusco, being enriched by the collections and pieces donated by the National School of Fine Arts and the Chapel of La Piedad; It also functioned as an educational space, where the Heroes de Churubusco Elementary School was and, later, the School of Outdoor Painting, acting from 1924 to 1928. On February 9, 1933 Narciso Bassols, secretary of public education, declared it a Historic Monument. In 1965 the Museum of Transportation, the Department of Restoration of Cultural Heritage and the Latin American Regional Center for Studies for the Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Property were installed.

In the 1920s, it was an art school, and from 1920 to 1960 it was a depot. In the 1960s and 1970s, this building was known unofficially as the Transport Museum as a large number of old vehicles were stored there. This collection was eventually sent to Zacatecas in 1985.

The idea of the Museo Nacional de las Intervenciones emerged in 1980 with the objective of unifying the collection of artifacts and documents related to the various military conflicts on Mexican soil, most of which involve foreign intervention. The building was chosen as the site of this museum because of its role during the Mexican–American War between 1846 and 1848. The outside walls still contain marks from the bullets and cannons from the U.S. army, especially near the main entrance. The presidential decree was issued on 13 September 1981 stating the museum’s purpose as “to explain the different armed interventions experienced by Mexico, from which has derived her basic principles of her foreign policy: non-intervention and the self-determination of peoples.” The adjoining plaza contains a monument to General Anaya, who headed the Mexican army during the Battle of Churubusco in with 1,300 Mexicans against 6,000 U.S. troops.

The Museum
In addition to the cannon, memorials and plaques placed outside the main monastery entrance in honor of the Battle of Churubusco, the second floor of the building itself is dedicated to the Mexican–American War and various other conflicts on Mexican soil between 1825 and 1916. This period in Mexican history is characterized by near-constant intervention by the governments of the United States, Spain and France in Mexico’s internal affairs, ranging from political intrigue, diplomatic maneuvers and armed invasion to assert control over all or part of Mexico’s territory.

The military conflicts are represented here in chronological order, starting from the Mexican War of Independence to the early 20th century. Its collection includes lithographs, military flags, weapons, furniture, drawings, paintings, photographs, maps, documents, and weapons such as cannons, rifles, pistols, bullets, swords and machetes. There are textiles such as flags and uniforms with accompanying insignia and medals. Most are originals but some are reproductions.

The museum is spread out over ten halls with the intention of explaining the historical processes of each of the military conflicts. It starts with an Introductory Hall at the top of the stairs, which is dedicated to showing the forms of fighting adopted in Mexico and the development of U.S. expansionism.

In 2006, a multipurpose room called “Gaston Garcia Cantú” and the El Catalejo Library were opened. The latter offers visitors access to books, videos, sound recordings and other resources related to the history of Mexico.

Still in the planning stages are exhibits which will portray the Mexican government’s interventions, and eventual conquests, of the indigenous peoples within its territory, including the Apache.

Exhibition halls
As a site museum, the National Museum of Interventions allocates its ground floor to illustrate the activities that were part of the convent life, for this there are two rooms whose intention is to recreate the operation of two spaces that starred in life at that time: the kitchen and the refectory.

As for its operation as a national museum whose objective is to explain the military interventions that our country was subjected to during the 19th and 20th centuries, the Museum allocates its top floor to the narration of such historical events being organized as follows:

Introduction room
This room shows the geographical situation of the territories in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Briefly, the origin of the expansionist policy of the United States is presented, which was based on the ideology of Thomas Jefferson who bought the territory of Louisiana. Due to the imprecision of the borders of New Spain and the low colonization in the northern part of it, Jefferson’s ambitions included the provinces of Texas, Nuevo Santander, New Mexico, Coahuila and parts of Nueva Vizcaya and Sonora. A little later, President James Monroe obtained the purchase of Florida and dictated the well-known Monroe Doctrine, which was the basis of the Manifest Destiny of the United States.

Independence Hall
After the abdications of Bayonne and the dispossession of the throne of Ferdinand VII of Spain due to the French invasion of Spain, on September 16, 1810 a revolution began in Dolores that was championed by Miguel Hidalgo. This fight became the Mexican War of Independence, which was followed by José María Morelos, Francisco Xavier Mina, Vicente Guerrero and the insurgents over eleven years. On September 21, 1821, New Spain achieved its autonomy from the Spanish crownand as a new state it became the First Mexican Empire. But the monarchical ideology of Agustín de Iturbide did not prosper and the new country was transformed into a republic ruled by General Guadalupe Victoria. Among the characters who defended the republican principles highlighted Brother Servando Teresa de Mier.

Spanish intervention room of 1829
When Ferdinand VII regained his throne, he refused to accept the Independence of Mexico. In San Juan de Ulúa a stronghold of Spanish troops remained in the fort and it was until 1825 when the Mexican army managed to defeat them. In 1827 a conspiracy led by the Dieguine friar Joaquín Arenas was discovered, the congress formulated a law to expel Spanish residents. In 1829 the Isidro Barradas expedition was the last of the reconquest attempts in Mexico, along with the expeditionaries penetrating Veracruz, making progress to Tampicoand Altamira. The November of September of 1829 the Spanish troops capitulated to the forces commanded by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, but the Spanish government recognized the independence of Mexico until 1836.

The room also shows the informal imperialism carried out by the US ambassadors in Mexico. Following the Mexican government’s refusal to sell the territory of Texas to the United States, plenipotentiary minister Joel R. Poinsett promoted divisionism among Mexican politicians. These were two aspects of centralism (Scottish lodge) and federalism (York lodge), but the minister’s interventionist activities were criticized and led to his expulsion from Mexico. His successor Anthony Butlermade new offers for the purchase of the province of Texas, in the face of repeated refusals, the strategy of the new minister was to promote that American settlers who inhabited the territory held rallies and armed uprisings in favor of Texas Independence. Additionally, Butler promoted that US citizens residing in Mexican territories file financial claims for damages suffered due to the uprisings themselves.

The war broke out and the province became the Republic of Texas, which was “independent” for a period of nine years until it was annexed to the United States. Pawhatan Ellis, successor of Bulter, pressed for the collection of compensation. The policy of interventionism caused the diplomatic rupture between the two nations, only international arbitration avoided war. The amount claimed was two million pesos, which failed to be paid and the debt was an excuse for eight years later President James K. Polk justify his declaration of war.

French intervention room or War of the cakes from 1838 to 1839
Mexico had signed trade agreements with England, the United States and other European countries in 1825. For its part, the French government refused to recognize Mexico as a new independent country until 1830, as the Bourbon dynasty ruled the nations of France and Spain, and the latter had not recognized the independence of its colonies. But with the July Revolution, Luis Felipe I occupied the throne, free of any commitment to Fernando VII of Spain, signed two trade agreements with the Mexican government.

Mexico had the experience of the disadvantages of free trade with the industrialized powers, so the congress disapproved the signing of one of the treaties. This allowed French residents to trade retail in Mexican territory. On the other hand, in Mexico there were constant clashes between federalists and centralists, and armed struggles caused instability and social insecurity for the civilian population. French Minister Antoine Deffaudis, who sought at all costs the signing of the treaty, took advantage of the dilemma and collected signatures among all the French merchants affected by the soldier to demand compensation from the Mexican government for damages to their establishments, among them was a confectioner. In addition to compensation, the minister demanded the signing of the desired treaty.

The French government responded with alarm to the reports of his minister, presenting himself as a defender of international rights and with the excuse of being necessary to give “a lesson of civilization” to the American nations, sent his army to block the Mexican ports, thus carrying out the First French Intervention in Mexico. After the naval blockade, the Anastasio Bustamante government rejected the coercion of the French and formally declared war on France. In Europe, the actions of Luis Felipe I were criticized, as the second largest trade in America had been closed. In 1839, Richard Pakenham, British minister arrived in Veracruz with the slogan of negotiating peace between the two nations. TheOf March 9 of 1839 was signed at the port the peace treaty, claiming compensation remained in force and was the excuse for a second intervention.

American intervention room from 1846 to 1848
When the annexation of Texas to the United States was completed, the Mexican minister in Washington terminated his diplomatic mission, and relations between the two countries were broken. General Zachary Taylor established a camp in Brownsville, north of the Rio Grande, a place that belonged to the state of Tamaulipas. This situation caused a skirmish between Mexican and American soldiers. President James K. Polk declared war on Mexico the 13 of maypole of 1846, the Mexican government responded similarly on 7 July of the same year, so began the firstUS intervention in Mexico.

Between July and August US troops under General Stephen W. Kearny raided from Oregon to San Francisco, Monterrey (California), and occupied Los Angeles on August 13, the campaign extended to Santa Fe (New Mexico). Maritime expeditions were made to take the squares of San José del Cabo, La Paz, Mulegé, Guaymas, Mazatlán and San Blas.

General Taylor undertook the campaign to the east and took the city of Monterrey in September 1846. In February 1847, the belligerents clashed at the Battle of Angostura. From San Antonio the Americans attacked Parras and from El Paso they advanced through the state of Chihuahua to Jiménez.

General Winfield Scott arrived on March 9 in Veracruz with a force of thirteen thousand troops. After a constant bombing on March 27, the defenders capitulated. The American offensive followed the route of Cortés to Cerro Gordo, Jalapa, Tepeaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala until reaching Mexico City, where military forces met in the Battle of Padierna, the Battle of Churubusco, the Battle of Molino of the King and the Battle of Chapultepec. TheAs September 14 as 1847 in the Zocalo the hoisted American flag which flew for nine months. Mexico ceded through the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo the territories north of the Rio Grande. Including the state of Texas, an area of 2,400,000 square kilometers became the property of the United States.

Only five years later, during the Santa Anna dictatorship, American settlers again used the strategy of invading and then negotiating. With the intention of building a transcontinental railroad route, the Americans invaded the territory of La Mesilla, before the impossibility of defending the Santa Anna border militarily preferred diplomatic negotiations. Minister James Gadsen was responsible for carrying out the negotiations demanding the sale of Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, Sonora and the Baja California Peninsula. On 13 December as as 1853Santa Anna managed to deter ambitious expectations and sold La Mesilla for ten million pesos.

French intervention room 1862-1869
Mexico continued to live violent times through the Ayutla revolution, the promulgation of the 1857 Constitution and the War of Reform. The political class remained divided, on the one hand the liberals whose nation project was Republican, Federalist and Democratic; and on the other hand, the conservatives who longed for a monarchist and centralist system. Both fractions requested foreign aid by signing treaties that put the country’s sovereignty at risk: The Mon-Almonte Treaty and the McLane-Ocampo Treaty. On the other hand, US President James BuchananHe announced to the congress of his country, the desire to “help” Mexico to prevent European powers from intervening in America, their veiled interests being to obtain the territories of Sonora and Sinaloa. Fortunately for Mexico, the US Congress rejected the proposal, and none of the signed treaties were ratified, since the liberals defeated the conservatives on December 22, 1860 at the Battle of Calpulalpan.

Benito Juárez was elected president, when he took office on July 16, 1861, he decided to suspend the payment of the State’s debt for two years. Spain, France and England, the main creditors of Mexico signed the London Convention on October 31, forming a tripartite alliance to demand the protection of their subjects, the payment of debt, and the creation of a stable regime in the American country. A clause established not to claim any acquisition of Mexican territories.

In early 1862 the squads of the three countries arrived in Veracruz. TheFebruary 19, the Soledad conventions were signed, but the intentions of the French were exposed when commissioner Dubois de Saligny insisted on destroying the tripartite alliance and claimed an exaggerated amount as compensation (twelve million pesos), without backing or supporting document In parallel, the conservative Juan Nepomuceno Almonte had met with Napoleon III, managing support to overthrow the liberal government of Juarez, on March 6 a French reinforcement under Charles Ferdinand Latrille landed in Veracruz. The English commissioner Charles Wyke and the Spanish commissionerJuan Prim urged Saligny to respect the conditions of the London Convention, given the French refusal, the English and Spanish troops left the Mexican coast at the end of April.

The Second French Intervention in Mexico was commanded by General Latrille, who led the advance of his troops through Fortín, Orizaba and the Acutzingo Summits. On May 5, the Battle of Puebla was confronted, in which Mexican forces emerged victorious under the command of General Ignacio Zaragoza. The Mexican victory raised morale and nationalism, but the defeat was a surprise for the French and Napoleon III considered the act as a scorn, for that reason, commissioned a new expedition under the command of General Élie-Frédéric Forey, who little more than a year after the defeat took the Plaza de Puebla, on May 17, 1863. On this occasion the advance of the French forces was overwhelming and Mexico City was occupied on June 10 of the same year.

Juarez had to flee along the San Luis Potosí, Saltillo, Monterrey route to reach Paso del Norte. The conservatives through a commission, chaired by José María Gutiérrez Estrada, offered Maximiliano de Habsburgo the throne of the Second Mexican Empire. The monarch accepted under the conditions of the Miramar Treaties that were signed on April 1, 1864 and landed in the port of Veracruz on May 28. The French army and conservative troops supported the new emperor, but the liberal resistance continued its struggle through the guerrilla technique.

In Europe, the hegemony of France was threatened when Prussia defeated Austria in the Battle of Sadowa. On the other hand, at the end of the War of Secession in the United States, the government of this country warned the French government that it would respect the Monroe Doctine. Given these expectations, Napoleon III decided to withdraw his army from Mexico and recommended Maximiliano to abdicate the throne.

Room of the restored republic
Mexican conservatives deterred Maximilian, but the small imperial army was defeated on May 15, 1867. Maximiliano, Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía were shot on June 19 at Cerro de las Campanas. Juarez returned to Mexico City on July 15 and was correct for the period 1867-1871. The economic situation in the country was deplorable, diplomatic relations were restored with Russia, Italy and Spain. At the end of the Civil War, the United States changed its policy of territorial expansionism to a capital export policy, without Mexico being the exception to its investments.

Porfiriato room
Juarez presented himself as a candidate and won the elections again in 1871. Porfirio Díaz, a moderate liberal, who had fought alongside Juarez did not agree with the reelectionist policy and launched the Plan de la Noria. Díaz was supported by several generals in Zacatecas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, Sinaloa, Sonora and Durango, however Juarez died suddenly on July 18, 1872. Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada held the presidency and tried to re-elect in 1876. Porfirio Díaz again under the concept ofno reelection published the Tuxtepec Plan and thus unleashing the Tuxtepec Revolution from which it triumphed.

Díaz exercised his first presidential term and at the end of his term he respected his own ideology of no reelection. Manuel González exercised the following period as president, when he finished Diaz decided to present himself again as a candidate for the presidency. He won the elections and again in power decided to modify the Constitution, so he was re-elected during the elections of 1888, 1892, 1896, 1900, 1904 and 1910. Considering his first presidential term, it was thirty years during which he exercised the power, this era is known as the porfiriato.

With the help of the army, he imposed “Porfirian peace” suppressing political rebellions, as well as the indigenous uprisings of the Yaquis in Sonora and the Mayan cruzoob in Yucatan. However, it achieved economic development through foreign investments in the mining and oil industry. The ecclesiastical properties that were nationalized by the Reform Laws were sold at ridiculous prices, which led to large estates. The workers and peasant disagreement began to express themselves with the Cananea strike and the Río Blanco strike, which were repressed by the army.

Revolution Hall
During the first year of the Mexican Revolution Díaz resigned from the presidency and left the country. Francisco I. Madero was elected president, took office in November 1911 and tried to uselessly achieve harmony between the different factions of the revolutionaries. The social revolts were protested by accredited ambassadors in Mexico in order to ensure the well-being of foreign residents. Especially Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson demanded guarantees for US investments. He and his government were in disgust with Madero, as he had created a tax on oil exports.

Bernardo Reyes and Félix Díaz (Porfirio’s nephew) organized a coup d’etat, which was supported by the US ambassador who in the basement of the embassy printed pamphlets to get supporters of the rebellion that began on February 9, 1913 and that was known as the tragic decade. Madero appointed Victoriano Huerta to face the rebellion, the US ambassador prompted Huerta to join the Porfiristas through the so-called Citadel Pact. Huerta’s betrayal culminated in the murders of President Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez in 1913. The popular voice to indicate the interventionist policy of the United States renamed the agreement as the Covenant of the embassy.

American intervention room of 1914 and 1916
When Victoriano Huerta usurped the presidency, discontent in the country was general. Venustiano Carranza led the constitutionalist army against the usurper’s federal army, the revolution went on. In the United States, Woodrow WilsonHe was appointed president, dismissed Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson and declared himself an enemy of Huerta by denying the recognition of his government. The new American president, with the purpose of imposing a political ideology according to the economic interests of his country, decided to impose an arms embargo on Mexican ports. The arguments used by Wilson were to end the civil war in Mexico and “educate” the Mexican people so that they could exercise democracy and elect good rulers.

The 9 of April of 1914, nine crew of the battleship Dolphin landed at the port of Tampico in a controlled area by huertistas troops to refuel. The US Marines were arrested, but Major Morelos Zaragoza released them immediately to avoid a diplomatic incident. To repair the relief, Admiral Henry T. Mayo required Huerta’s troops to honor the American flag. The petition was denied, and was one of the reasons for President Wilson to mobilize a greater number of vessels to Mexican ports, as well as to his troops along the border.

On April 21, Admiral Frank Friday Fletcher bombed the port of Veracruz to prevent the German ship Ypiranga from unloading a batch of weapons that would be handed over to Huerta’s federalists. After the bombing and without finding greater resistance, the American soldiers landed in the city, where they remained for eight months, thus initiating the Second American Intervention in Mexico. The Americans tried unsuccessfully to make an alliance with the Carranza constitutionalists. The ambassadors of Argentina, Brazil and Chile(known as the ABC Group) mediated between the governments of the United States and Mexico to achieve peace in the Niagara Falls talks in Canada, but the US government did not agree to withdraw its forces until the constitutionalist army defeated the federalists and Huerta exiled from the country. US troops left the port of Veracruz in November 1914.

Because there was no ideological agreement between Carranza and the popular leaders Francisco Villa and Emiliano Zapata, the Mexican revolution continued for three more years. In 1915 the Carranza consitutionalists gave a blow to the conventionalists of Villa, destarticulating the Northern Division. In early 1916, the Northern Centaur opted for guerrilla warfare, ordered the execution of nineteen employees of an American company and on March 9 attacked the population of Columbus in New Mexico. Historiography has not established the reason why Villa carried out these provocative actions, President Wilson soon reacted and appointed General John J. Pershing to command a punitive expedition in order to capture the Mexican leader.

This Third American InterventionIt began with a force of five thousand men, which in a short period, increased to twelve thousand. For the first time in the military history of the United States, motor transport, war tanks and airplanes were used. Carranza protested the intervention, but since the objectives were favorable to his personal interests, he ordered his men not to confront the American soldiers. Villa’s forces carried out new attacks on the other side of the Mexican border, and despite Carranza’s orders, the constitutionalists fought battles in Parral and Carrizal against US soldiers. The US government displaced a force of one hundred and ten thousand soldiers to the border, but diplomatic talks were established in El Paso and Atlantic City before the invasion began.. The military expenses were of a high cost for the United States and the objective of capturing Villa was not achieved, on the other hand in Europe the First World War was fought; Given these expectations, President Wilson decided to withdraw his army. After eleven months of occupation, American soldiers evicted the country on February 5, 1917.

Churubusco collection room
This room is dedicated to the sacred art of the New Spain era. You can admire paintings attributed to Juan Correa, Cristóbal de Villalpando and Nicolás Rodríguez Juárez, in addition there are other anonymous works, sculptures and wood carvings.

The building housed the Former Convent of Our Lady of the Angels of Churubusco, which represents the history and daily life of the Dieguine order, one of the branches of the Franciscan Novohispanos, who lived in that building for more than 300 years. It is possible to appreciate the spaces that were used daily by the friars, such as the kitchen, the refectory, the ante-accrist, the pilgrims’ portal, the garden, the cloisters, the chapels and the cells, between other places.

The National Museum of Interventions is one of the five national museums of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), in which the different foreign interference that Mexico faced between 1825 and 1916 is remembered.

The National Museum of Interventions has the mission of preserving the material testimonies that protect the intellectual intellectual heritage, related to the foreign interventions that Mexico has experienced, the pre-Hispanic site and novohispano convent of Churubusco, in addition to developing the knowledge around this heritage, and to make it known, promoting its enjoyment, valuation and appropriation, as well as the reflection on the past and present of Mexico, thereby promoting an awareness of identity and citizen participation in the population of Mexico.