Early history of Japan’s railway

In 1825, railroads using steam engines were put into practical use in the UK for the first time. About 30 years later, this technology arrived as a model of steam car in Japan at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate (1853).

Origins of railways in the UK
The first steam railway in the world is the Stockton and Darlington Railroad, which was set about 40 km between Stockton and Darlington for the purpose of transporting coal produced in British coal mines. Locomotion designed by George Stevenson as locomotive was used. The main purpose of this railroad is to transport coal, and if requested by a passenger it was possible to use on a railway towed vehicle. By the way, it is said that the 4 – foot 8 – inch track adopted here became the basis of 4 ‘8’ ‘1/2 (1,435 mm) between the international standard gauges. The full-fledged railway for customer currency used the steam locomotive rocket at the Liverpool and Manchester railroad opened in the UK in 1830. After that railroad developed as a carrier of industrial development in advanced countries.

Encounter with model railroad
The first railroad that ran in Japan was a model that was carried by ship. At the end of the Edo period, July 6, July 1853, four warships led by Russia’s Effim Putjachin entered Nagasaki and negotiated with the Edo shogunate. During the stay for about half a year we invited several Japanese to the ship and displayed the driving of the model of the steam car. They were invited to the shogunate of the shogunate, Fujio Motoshima of the Saga Nabeshima clan, and Tsuyoshi Iijima likewise, they returned to the clan and reported to the lord.

Following Nagasaki, a model of a steam car ran in Yokohama in 1854. This is what Perry brought as a offering from the president to the general at the second visit to Japan. It was a big thing whether the passenger car riding the locomotive, locomotive and driving locomotive, and whether the passenger car should be put in a passenger car if it is a 6 year old child. Looking at this, the first Japanese who got on a Japanese passenger “to get on a passenger” in Japan is that negotiating that the Shogunate Kawata Hosokosuke would get on the roof of a passenger car could ride it . We also saw Egawa Taroyemon gate on this model and requested to drive by ourselves, making driving successful.

Two years after the exhibition in Nagasaki Ansei 2 February (February 1855) February, Hisashi Tanaka of the Saga clan, known as Karakuri Shiemon, completed a model of a steam locomotive.

First experiment line
In Motoharu 2 (1865), in the section of 600 m corresponding to the current Nagasaki Electric Orbit Civic Hospital near the front of the current hospital, Thomas Glover laid a rail to introduce the railroad to the Japanese, to bring people in Nagasaki I ran and ran. Organization is steam locomotive “Iron Duke” and two passenger cars. Monuments still remain.

Regarding the locomotive used at this time, Katsuma Ide, who is a secretary at the Nagasaki Rakugakai, is conducting an investigation, and the content of the lecture by Morito Muto and the records of Alexander Clark quoted by it, these and the history of China’s railroad Considering, Railway Pictorial Yonoho’s article published in the January issue of 1960 (Showa 35) Show, Himamatsu Yoshimon’s tour which he discovered by Sadao Motoma in the era of prefectural Nagasaki library deputy director, demonstrated the demonstration run It matches the contents of the note. As a result, what Grabber imported via Jardine Matheson’s Hong Kong branch was originally sent from the UK to Hong Kong for Wu Xian Rail Road, which is a small locomotive with a track of 762 mm and a passenger car, then again Although it crosses China, it is said that he did a demonstration run in Beijing instead of Shanghai.

If this theory is correct, it is a high speed machine of broad gauge (7 ft 1/4 in = 2,140 mm), Iron · Duke of the Great Western Railway which was in the UK at the time in 1965 (manufactured in 1847 – 1871 The annual scrapped car) is the same name, but it is considered to be a completely different thing. The locomotive drawn on the monument in Nagasaki city is also the iron and Duku type of the Great Western Railway, so it will be different from the historical fact.

Railway opening

Decision on the construction of the state railroad
In the year following the Meiji Restoration, the government decided to build a railroad by government, and railroad construction between Shinbashi and Yokohama began.

Keio 3 Years December 23 (January 17, 1868) after half a month when the decree of restoration of the restoration of the royal government was declared in Kyoto, the secretary of the shogunate foreign secretary general Ogasawara Takayuki Anton / Portman was granted a railroad setting license between Edo and Yokohama. This license was said to be a “foreign jurisdictional scheme” where the US side has management rights. Since the Meiji period, the US requested construction based on this license, but the Meiji government said “The signature of the shogunate side in this document is the thing after the establishment of the new government in Kyoto and does not have diplomatic authority” It is refusing to the effect that it is. After that, consideration was made on railroad construction within the new government, and in November 1869, in November of the Meiji era (1869) it decided to construct a railroad between Shimbashi and Yokohama by its jurisdictional scheme. In Japan at that time it was impossible to construct by oneself, so we selected Britain as a country to assist technology and funds. This was due to the fact that the presence of Harry Parks, the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, who had made a constructive proposal on Japan’s railroad, evaluated the technical capabilities of Britain, the birthplace of railways. Next Meiji 3 (1870) Edmond · Morel was from the UK as a chief of architecture and full-scale construction began. On the Japanese side in 1871 Mr. Masaru Inoue (the father of the Japanese railroad) took over as a mining head and railroad head and was involved in construction.

The Japanese railway officially opened between Shimbashi station and Yokohama station on September 12, 1878 (October 14, 1872). However, in fact, temporary sales were done between Shinagawa station and Yokohama station several months ago. The railway became a huge reputation and posted significant profits the following year, but the majority of freight income was passenger revenue.

First route
The track that determines the transportation capacity of the railroad was selected to be 1067 mm, a narrower narrower than the international standard gauge (1,435 mm). This was a reasonable choice given the situation in Japan at the time. That is, the wider the track, the faster you can run a large train, but the disadvantage is that construction costs increase. In particular, the larger the trajectory, the larger the curve needs to be taken, and the standard gauge was luxurious in the mountainous Japanese in the poor country. South Africa and New Zealand, which were then British colonies, adopted 1,067 mm. List other technical points.

In actual construction, civil engineering work was made use of Japanese technology with experience of construction, but only the Rokugo River bridge on the current Tamagawa River was cross-linked with wood under the guidance of British people (In the Meiji era bridge Exchange).
All vehicles were imported from the UK. All 10 steam locomotives were used in a tank locomotive of 1 B axial configuration and mixed with 5 products. It is said that locomotives made by Sharp Stuart Co., which had 4 of them, were the easiest to use.
All the passenger cars were imported in 10 cars of upper class (18 passengers), 40 cars (capacity of 26 people), 8 cars of railway all in 2 axles, but 26 cars in the middle class are under 52 people capacity before opening It was remodeled into an equal car. The running equipment and frame of the passenger car at that time were made of steel, but the car body including pillars, walls and roofs was wooden, this remodeling was carried out by the hands of Japanese carpenters of the training.
The engineer who drives the locomotive was a foreigner. Also, the creation of the operation schedule was also left to the British W · F · page. These foreign engineers were called “hired foreigners” and had taken a high salary.
As mentioned above, the theory that “Britain introduced Japan as 1063 mm, as if it were downgraded like a colony,” as it is said to be the same track as the British colony, This is an error.

Operating Results
The business situation in 1873 the following year after opening, passengers averaged 4347 a day, passenger revenue of 420,000 yen for the year and cargo income 20,000 yen, when subtracting 230,000 yen of direct expenses therefrom, it gains 210,000 yen ing. As a result, the recognition that “the railroad is profitable” has spread. Regarding the ratio of passenger to cargo, railway side also had lack of preparation for cargo operation, but it is a period of time when modern industry is underdeveloped immediately after the Meiji Restoration, and there is no possibility of “carrying baggage”.

Route between Hanshin
The Keihansin area, which was under construction at the same time as the Keihin area, also proceeded smoothly, and on 11 May 1874 between Osaka station and Kobe station opened. However, at this time it was treated as provisional opening and opening ceremony was held when we extended to Kyoto station in 1877.

As a characteristic between Hanshin, there are points that cross a lot of large rivers. Especially the Ishiya River and the Ashiya River are the Ueno River, and in order to cross this, it was necessary to dig tunnel under the river. The first railroad tunnel in Japan was the Ishiya River Tunnel, a hired brick built by the guidance of a foreigner. The Ashiyagawa Tunnel was dug in Japan’s first double track standard. In addition, a truss bridge, designed by British England and produced in the UK, was laid in the 13 places (Shindo River), Kanzaki River and Mukogawa River. In 1876, Kyoto Station (originally, Omiya Tsu Tento Station) and Osaka Station opened, Keihansin was tied with a railroad.

The railway in Hokkaido
The first railroad in Hokkaido, the government-run Horonai railway was completed in 1880 and Timomiya station (later abolished) under the guidance of an American technician – completed between Sapporo stations (later Miya Line and Hakodate Main Line). At this time a number of imported axle layout 1C US-made tender locomotive (model 7100, benchiku, quiet etc attached) was saved.

The era of large private railway construction
Although it was a successful railway, under the financial difficulties of the government after the Southwest War of 1877, except for the Tokaido Line (1889 full of Meiji etc.) and the new construction Almost stopped. The railroad head Masaru Inoue and others insisted on the principle of railway, but the railway that had been opened until this time was not only between Shimbashi station and Yokohama station, but also the Horonai railway in Hokkaido (one of the Miya Line and Hakodate Main Line Department · Horouchi Line), Kamaishi Railway, and Otsu Station – Kobe Station, so it was expected that the railroad development will not progress as soon as it is now, mainly from Iwakura and Hirofumi Ito, using private capital As the voice wishing for the construction of the railroad became stronger, the Japanese railroad was established in 1881 (Meiji 14) as a company of semi-government who eventually protected the government. Since the business performance of Nippon Railway was good because it was protected by the government, private railway companies that will develop trunk lines after that will be born one after another in the same way (note that Hokkaido Coal Those which added Yeonetsu, Kansai Railroad, Sanyo Railway and Kyushu Railway are called Meiji’s “Great Great Private Railway”). Also, the content of assistance for each private railway varies greatly according to the regional circumstances to be built, and it is inferred that the government made judgments carefully in aid.

In 1885 (Meiji 18), the Osaka Prefecture Railway established as the promoter of the Kansai business circulation, Shizaburo Fujita, Shintaro Matsumoto etc as a founder opens between Namba Station and Owakawa Station (later abolished), but later It became a part of the Nankai main line of the Nankai Railway (present Nankai Electric Railway), and it is the oldest private railway in existence as a pure private capital.

The movement of construction of private railways subsided in 1890 (Meiji 23), after that, a company operating a medium to small scale route was established, 1906 (Meiji 39) railway That trend continued until the State-owned Law promulgated. Meanwhile, the public railway (national railway) also has a lot of twists and turns as the route is being improved, and on 18th July, 1889 (Meiji 22) it is carrying out the current Tokaido main line in full, Many have become supplementary roles of the private railway, such as the current Shinetsu main line and Ouwamoto line.

Tokaido Line
The route originally connecting Tokyo and Kansai was supposed to be via Nakasendo (Nakamido Trunk Line). This is believed to be due to the strong opposition of the Army that the Tokaido line is flourishing shipping, the railway with a high fare is not used much, and the Tokaido line is close to the sea and the Army is more vulnerable to foreign attacks . In 1883, the “Nakasendo Railway Public Debent Certificate Ordinance” was issued and the construction between Takasaki Station and Ogaki Station began, but because of passing through the mountainous area there were many difficulties and the construction was difficult. Then in 1886, Inoue of the railroad director persuaded the Army ‘s large – scale Yamagata Yumeno, and consulting with Prime Minister Ito Hirobumi, (who both come from the Choshu clan) to change the route to Tokaido Decided. Following this, the construction of the Tokaido Line advanced rapidly, and the whole line was opened on July 1, 1889.

Five big private railway company
Hokkaido charcoal railway road
Hokkaido Charcoal Railway Road was established in 1889 in the form of taking over the routes of the government-run Horonai railway which was a slump in sales, and laid a line corresponding to some of the later Hakodate main line, Muroran main line, Ishinbun line etc. It was mainly responsible for transporting the coal produced from the coal mines along the line to the loading port.

Japan Railway
Nippon Railway started construction from the railroad route originating from Tokyo to Gunma prefecture in silkworm area, opened the first line between Ueno station and Kumagaya station on 18 July 1883 (Meiji 16) In 1884 (Meiji 17) on August 20 extended to Maebashi station, and on September 1, 1891 (Meiji 24) on the current Tohoku main line Ueno station – Omiya station – Sendai station – Aomori station It was decided to extend the line rapidly in a short period of time, such as making it all over. Construction of this railroad was strongly national policy elements, and the north of Sendai station was depopulated, and since the deficit is expected even after completion, we received great assistance. That is, the government burdens the interest rate (8%) under construction, 8% of the income and expenditure income after opening, the government guarantees, the non-substitution payment of the public land, buy-ups of private land and exempt land taxes.

The route of Maebashi station – Akabane Station – Shinagawa station (later Takasaki line · Akabane · Yamanote line) that this company opened in 1885, together with the state railway (Shinagawa station – Yokohama station), the main exported goods of that time It was the first line of contribution to the industrial development by railroad, becoming the route connecting the production area of ​​raw silk and silk fabric to the export port.

Sanyo Railway
The Sanyo Railroad runs from Hiroshima Station from Kobe station and laid the route (current Sanyo main line) to Mago Station (now Shimonoseki station). Established in 1888, completed in Hiroshima in 1894. In August of this year, the Nissin war began, and troops and goods were transported from all over Japan to Hiroshima and Ujina which became shipping base to mainland China. Emperor Meiji stayed in Hiroshima from September the same year, Omoto administration also moved to Hiroshima and commanded the war. To transport these people and goods, the Sanyo railroads of the Tokaido line and the private railroad of the government and the transportation power of the Japanese railroad were used. Since the ancient people and goods come and go from the ancient times in Sanyang district, it is judged that the prospect of the balance after construction is not bad either. As a result, the amount of aid for construction was significantly smaller than that of the Nippon Railway, and only 2,000 yen per mile of construction aid was delivered.

Sanyo Railway was also known for aggressive management due to circumstances that was forced to compete with the Seto Inland Sea Route, creating the first variety of services in Japan. Both the setting of express train (1894), the release of admission ticket (1897), the service of train boy (1898), the operation of dining car (1899), the connection of sleeper cars (1900) It was quick. In addition, importance was attached to transportation capacity, the railroad was constructed with a gradient of less than 10 per mil except for the Seino eighth section (22.5 per mil) in Hiroshima prefecture, the curve with a radius of 300 m or more. In addition, we produced 23 locomotives at our own factory as private railway.

Kyushu Railway
The Kyushu Railway is constructed from the Mojiga Station (the current Moji Port Station) to Yashiro Station, Triangle Station, Nagasaki Station, Ogura Station and laying the route to Yukuhashi Station (later Kagoshima Main Line, Triangle Line, Nagasaki Main Line, Sasebo Line, Omura Line, the Nisshin main line). The assistance from the country during construction was equivalent to Sanyo Railway. Under the guidance of German Rumshutel, we completed the transfer between Moji Station – Kumamoto Station, Tosu Station – Saga Station by 1891 using the vehicle imported from Germany. Due to coal transportation by Chikuho coal field, cargo revenue exceeded passenger revenue from 1899. Since then the stable business conditions continued, I did not approve the nationalization of the railway in 1907.

Kansai Railway
The Kansai Railway is a line leading from Nagoya Station to the Kusatsu station along the old Tokaido and the line leading to Kusatsu station, passing through Kizu Station, to the Nishijima Station (now abolished) · Minatocho Station (later JR Namba Station) (Partly due to acquisitions of other companies). Established in 1887, in 1899 Nishijima station – Shin Kizu station (waste station) – Aichi station (waste station) – Nagoya station is in full swing. Because it competes with the Tokaido line of the government railway, construction assistance of the country did not come out. The company competed with the public railway for speed and service, attracted passengers with various ideas, including speed competition between Osaka and Nagoya, plus color bands under the window by fare discount and vehicle classification by vehicle class. These measures can be said to be overwhelming to the island Yasujiro who entered the railroad hall later.

Contribution to Nissin · Russo-Japanese War
The western war in 1878 was the first time that the Japanese railroad was used for war. At that time it was only driving between Keihin and Keihansin, but there was a great effect on the concentration of troops and the transportation to the port. The Niseko War fought from 1894 to 1895, the Russo-Japanese War that began in 1904 and ended in 1905, is a project that took the whole power of Japan after the Meiji Restoration, and the railway is also big for the war Played a role.

Sino-Japanese war
As mentioned above, the Nissin War broke out the following month when Sanyo Railway reached Hiroshima. Hiroshima which is the end point of the west railroad at that time became the closest terminal to the continent. In Hiroshima the Emperor Meiji and Omotoji, who lead the war, stayed (Hiroshima Imotozon), nearby Ujina Port played a role as a shipping port to the continent. Troops and military goods of various places were gathered in Hiroshima by transferring the public railway and private railway.

Russo-Japanese War
The scale of the Russo-Japanese War was larger than the Nisshin War, and the transport of military goods in the railway also exceeded the Sino-Japanese War significantly. The number of people transported reached 886,000, horses reached 138,000, cargo reached 262,000 tons. General transport has been greatly reduced to achieve this transport during wartime. However, massive private rail allocation was very inconvenient for war fighting. For example, the Hirosaki Division famous for the Hakkoda mountain case, the Hirosaki station – Fukushima station is government-run, Fukushima – Shinagawa is Japan railway, Shinagawa – Kobe is government-owned, Kobe – Hiroshima travels from Sanyo Railway, Hiroshima to the continent. In carrying out these transports, troublesome work such as diamond between the railroads and the handling of vehicles and subsequent shipping cost adjustment occurred. This leads to nationalization of the railroad after the war. Many railway songs were composed by composers, Oku Yoshiyoshi etc. Gagaku before and after this war.

The beginning of urban traffic
As an urban transportation agency, a horse-drawn railroad was first born with the Tokyo horse railway railroad opened in 1882 (Meiji 15) as the beginning. However, there are problems of bait and manure, and according to the global trend, it will be switched to orbit traffic using a train – that is, a streetcar soon. The first example was the Kyoto Electric Railroad opened in 1895 (Meiji 28). It was a streetcar that ran for 6.6 km from Fushimi in the southern part of Kyoto to Kyoto city, and was powered by hydroelectric power of Lake Biwa Canal. This railroad was acquired in Kyoto city in 1918, and the route became a part of Kyoto Toshi Den.

Furthermore, using the mobility of trains, the idea of ​​using it for intercity traffic is also born. This was in line with the American inter urban, but as early as 1905 (Meiji 38) Hanshin Electric Railroad, several companies / routes were born, mainly in Kansai and Kanto. Many of these are also the source of current private railway lines. Like the Nagoya Electric Railway, the predecessor of the Nagoya Railroad, things that develop trams into suburban trains also appeared.

Also, in 1904 (Meiji 37), the first railway operation on a railway compliant route rather than orbit, the Kobu Railway has started. In the suburbs, it became clear that the train train was superior to the steam train, and at the private railway which had escaped nationalization such as the Nankai railroad, commenced to introduce the train from the end of the Meiji era.