The art of the Armenian carpet extends over several centuries and is part of the carpet art of the Caucasus. Like other decorative arts, the weaving of the carpet creates strong links between different cultures in both time and space. Through the association within the same work of archaic elements and more modern patterns, strong ancient symbols from the night of time and modes of expression of today, the art of weaving, transmitted from generation to generation for centuries, bears witness to a sense of tradition, even though the deep meaning of the ornaments retains only decorative value. In this, such as ceramics, goldsmith or costumethe art of rug weaving reflects the intermingling of cultures and its profound influence on lifestyle, trade and all aspects of everyday life.
When we speak of the Caucasus, a place of ethnic and religious mixture, of contrasts between various ways of life and of historical upheavals, it must be observed that neither the technical particularities, nor the place of origin, nor even the characters used for inscriptions are sufficient to make sure that an object of art, and more particularly a carpet, is attributed to a given culture. All of these elements alone can draw conclusions.
The “Caucasian carpet” include works created mostly in the xix th and in the early years of the xx th century in the defined territory of Armenia and Georgia, of Azerbaijan, between the Caucasus range and Iranian and Turkish borders. Daghestan carpets are also attached to the Caucasian group. These carpets are distinguished by their great variety, their richness in ornamentation, a subtle harmony in the play of color ranges, and above all, by the uniqueness of each copy, until the beginning of the 20th century. century, when the appearance of cartoons began for the reproduction of the drawings.
Development of Armenian carpet and rug weaving
Armenian carpet weaving that at the initial period coincided with cloth weaving by execution technique have passed the long path of development, starting from simple fabrics, which had been woven at the braiding frames of various form to pile knotted carpets that became the luxurious and dainty pieces of arts.
Carpet-weaving is historically a major traditional profession for the majority of Armenian women, including many Armenian families. Prominent Karabakh carpet weavers there were men too. The oldest extant Armenian carpet from the region, referred to as Artsakh during the medieval era, is from the village of Banants (near Gandzak) and dates to the early 13th century. The first time that the Armenian word for carpet, gorg, was used in historical sources was in a 1242-1243 Armenian inscription on the wall of the Kaptavan Church in Artsakh.
Art historian Hravard Hakobyan notes that “Artsakh carpets occupy a special place in the history of Armenian carpet-making.” Common themes and patterns found on Armenian carpets were the depiction of dragons and eagles. They were diverse in style, rich in color and ornamental motifs, and were even separated in categories depending on what sort of animals were depicted on them, such as artsvagorgs (eagle-carpets), vishapagorgs (dragon-carpets) and otsagorgs (serpent-carpets). The rug mentioned in the Kaptavan inscriptions is composed of three arches, “covered with vegatative ornaments”, and bears an artistic resemblance to the illuminated manuscripts produced in Artsakh.
The art of carpet weaving was in addition intimately connected to the making of curtains as evidenced in a passage by Kirakos Gandzaketsi, a 13th-century Armenian historian from Artsakh, who praised Arzu-Khatun, the wife of regional prince Vakhtang Khachenatsi, and her daughters for their expertise and skill in weaving.
Armenian carpets were also renowned by foreigners who traveled to Artsakh; the Arab geographer and historian Al-Masudi noted that, among other works of art, he had never seen such carpets elsewhere in his life.
On the opinion of various authors that the origin of the oriental carpets and rugs did not have any association with nomadic tribes, and Central Asia. They consider that the “oriental carpet is neither of nomadic origin, nor do its origins lie in Central Asia; it is a product of ancient oriental civilizations in the Armenian Uplands at the crossroads of the oldest trade routes between west, north and south”.
The development of carpet and rug weaving in Armenia had been the barest necessity that had been dictated by the climatic conditions of the complete Armenian Highland. The type, size and thickness of carpets and rugs had also depended upon the climate of every specific region within the territory of Armenian Highland. The dwelling houses and other buildings in Armenia were constructed exclusively of stone or were cut in rocks with no wood flooring inside traditionally. This fact was proved by the results of excavations carried out in medieval Armenian cities, such as Dvin, Artashat, Ani and others. There has been the necessary source of raw materials in Armenia, including wool yarn and other fibres, as well as natural dyes. The most widespread raw materials to produce yarn for carpets and rugs was sheep wool, as well as goat wool, silk, flax, cotton and other.
In the 13th and 14th centuries, when the carpet weaving started to develop at Near East, Armenia “was one of the most productive regions” in this regards. It was conditioned by the existence of “good quality wool, pure water and dyes, especially beautiful purple dye”.
One of the most important conditions for the development of carpet and rug weaving was the availability of towns and cities, where the arts and crafts might develop. These cities and towns also served as large commercial centers located on main ancient trade routes that passed by the Armenian Highland, including one of the branches of Silk Road that passed across Armenia.
Abd ar-Rashid al-Bakuvi wrote that “the carpets and as-zalali that are named “kali” are exported from Kalikala (Karin) that was located on the strategic road between Persia and Europe. According to the 13th-century Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamavi, the origin of the word kali/khali/hali, a knotted carpet, is from one of the early and important Armenian carpet centers, Theodosiopolis, Karin in Armenian, Qaliqala in Arabic, modern Erzerum. He says, “А Qaliqala on fabrique des tapis qu’on nomme qali du nom abrege de la ville”. Academician Joseph Orbeli directly writes that word “karpet” is of Armenian origin
Between the tangible reality of the Pazyryk carpet and the Mongol domination of the Near East in the 13th century virtually nothing survives, not even fragments. Our knowledge of oriental rugs is entirely from literary sources. Of these there are three categories: the Arab geographers and historians, who represent the most important witnesses of rug making, the Italian merchants and travelers, and the Armenian historians. The most common term for these Near Eastern floor and wall covering in these sources are Armenian carpets or carpets from Armenia. It is only later, as the Ottomans conquered these areas, including all of Armenian in the 16th century, that the term Turkish carpet began to be used, but that too was replaced in the 19th century by the term Persian rug or carpet because the great commercial agents of England, the U.S., and Germany began setting up looms for quantity weaving in Iran to supply the ever increasing demand for the oriental rug in their countries.
The Medieval Arab sources – al-Baladhuri (a 9th-century Persian historian), Ibn Hawqal (a 10th-century Arab writer, geographer, and chronicler), Yaqut (13th-century Arab geographer), and Ibn Khaldun (a 14th-century Arab polymath) among the most famous – speak regularly about the wonderful Armenian carpets of Qali-qala and the medieval Armenian capital of Dvin (“Dabil” in Arab sources) as well as their use of the Armenian red cochineal dye known in Armenian as vordan karmir (“worm’s red”), the fundamental color of many Armenian rugs. Marco Polo reports the following his travel account as he passed through Cilician Armenia: “The following can be said of Turkmenia: the Turkmenian population is divided into three groups. The Turkomans are Muslims characterized by a very simple way of life and extremely crude speech. They live in the mountainous regions and raise cattle. Their horses and their outstanding mules are held in especially high regard. The other two groups, Armenians and Greeks, live in cities and forts. They make their living primarily from trade and as craftsmen. In addition to the carpets, unsurpassed and more splendrous in color than anywhere else in the world, silks in all colors are also produced there. This country, about which one might easily tell much more is subject to the Khan of the eastern Tatar Empire.”
According to the 13th-century Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi, the origin of the word kali/khali/hali, a knotted carpet, is from one of the early and important Armenian carpet centers, Theodosiopolis, Karin in Armenian, Qaliqala in Arabic, modern Erzerum. He says, “А Qaliqala on fabrique des tapis qu’on nomme qali du nom abrege de la ville”. Academician Joseph Orbeli directly writes that word “karpet” is of Armenian origin.
Classification of lint-free carpets – carpets in technique
Proceeding from technical, ornamental, color and many other features, as well as taking into account the spread of local names and the sphere of life, Armenian carpets are classified into seven groups: mesar, dzhejim, two-sided carpet, shulal carpet, straight-running carpet, carpets in oblique wrapping and a carpet with a partial pile.
Simple on the technique of textile
The most primitive and ancient way was woven Jedjima, which in Vaspurakan were called “tchimchi”. The base stretched on the pins parallel to the ground on the veranda of the house or under the open sky. The basis for the Djejim is multicolored, stretched by strips. Color bars have separating narrow stripes in several black and white threads. The width of the Jedge is 40-5 cm. Sewing the woven strips to each other, get the desired width of a blanket or rug; Jedzhim put felt and the edge of the dzhejima along with the felt is sewn together with a woven band of 10 cm with a motley serrated pattern. Jedjems are made of fine woolen yarn and of silk threads. Dark blue and dark brown, the tightly twisted duck passes between the multi-colored warp threads, densely nails and is not visible in the fabric. Djedzhima are smooth-striped and patterned-striped. The patterns rise in relief above the background, or together with a photon make an even surface. Among the patterns of the Djedjima are many geometric, jagged, diamond-shaped, in the form of scallops, stars, crosses. In Djedjim, plant, bird and animal patterns are stylized and geometrized. In Matenadaran – the Institute of Ancient Manuscripts. Mashtots, under the bindings of medieval manuscripts are usually located pads of fabrics such as Jedjima light, gentle tones.
Of all the carpet tissues, the simplest is the mesar. The colored threads of the base of the mesar, intertwined with a different color by the weft threads, form patterns so that both the warp threads and the weft threads become visible in the fabric. For mezar usually take the thread of natural wool color – white, gray, golden brown. At the smart mezars designed for the girl’s dowry, they revive the patterns with red, blue and green threads. Patterns are made up of squares, rectangles, strips and lines, so that the original game of colors and patterns is obtained. Mesars end on both sides with long fringe and woven plaits with knots on the head. Mesars are equally cleanly formed both from the front and from the inside.
The third and main type of carpets is a two-sided carpet, in which the monochrome warp threads are covered with weft threads. The background of such carpets is usually dark red or dark blue, on which are located large medallions. These medallions in the mountain regions have names that coincide with the names of the ornaments, which are painted with wooden molds on the festive bread: Krkeni, Gata, and Bacharch. Medallions on bilateral carpets are usually diamond-shaped with hooks on the edges, less often – hexagonal in the form of honeycomb cells, inside the hexagon pattern is composed of triangles or rhombuses, also having hooks along the edges. At opposite corners of diamonds, pairs of hooks are usually located, which are called “mutton horns”. Between the horns and inside the diamond is usually located a cross. In such carpets, patterns are large. The surface of the two-sided carpet is covered with a diverse composition, which has some similarity with the composition of the Armenian “khachkars” (stone crosses or as they are called “cross stones”). The two-sided carpet in the sense of the textile technique is very light and accessible and is the most common kind of carpets. Work on it is facilitated by the fact that you can first weave the main pattern – medallions, and then weave the background. On the sides of large medallions are arranged small patterns: eight-pointed stars, cross patterns, triangles, abstract figures of animals, birds and people. that at first you can weave the main pattern – medallions, and then weave the background. On the sides of large medallions are arranged small patterns: eight-pointed stars, cross patterns, triangles, abstract figures of animals, birds and people. that at first you can weave the main pattern – medallions, and then weave the background. On the sides of large medallions are arranged small patterns: eight-pointed stars, cross patterns, triangles, abstract figures of animals, birds and people.
In bilateral carpets, the colored threads that form each pattern pass between the warp threads from right to left and return from left to right until the entire pattern is filled. Between the pattern and the background, as well as between adjacent patterns, there are linear gaps – gaps. According to Serik Davtyan, a well-known expert on Armenian carpets, “motifs and patterns similar to carpet and carpet are found in Urartian wall paintings found in various regions of the Armenian Highland. Similar and coloring: red and blue colors, a bit buffy, a little white and a thin edging in black. This color scheme is persistently preserved, only some color is added occasionally ”
The richest and most varied patterns and ornaments, many of them archaic, were preserved on bilateral carpets. In everyday life, these carpets have a different purpose, with which their names are related. Carpet fabric is used for making road toll bags (hurjins), bedding (mafras), patterned bags for salt and grain, curtains. The carpets spread to the floor, they covered the ottoman and adorned the walls. “In all cases, carpets, being a universally common and traditionally decorative product in the life of the people, attached a purely national character to the interior of his dwelling”
Complex in technique of textile
The remaining groups of carpets are distinguished by more complex textile techniques.
Shulal spreads only on the face, as the ends of the working threads leave for the purl. In Transcaucasia, this type of carpet is called sumka izili from the name of the modern city of Shemakha. In the carpet of the type, both the base and the weft thread were shuffled, the same as in the bipedal carpet, but for the textile weaving the soft threads are taken, as for the carpet nap. Fabric shulala resembles embroidery forward with a needle, a set. As S. Davtyan writes, however, “no embroidery on top of the carpet is made, not to mention the fact that embroidery would require a huge and long work to cover the large surface of the carpet. In fact, she was in the carpet shulalbackground and patterns are weaved simultaneously. Patterns are woven with the help of sticks, on which the warp threads are typed. Then they overlap with a color theme and in the next row a new number of threads are drawn onto the stick, according to the requirement of the pattern. For shulala she needs exact count of threads and intense attention during work. Patterns shulae are smaller, diamonds from the outside have additions in the form of horns or beaks. Due to soft threads, the patterns are prominently displayed above the main background of the carpet. Sometimes the patterns occupy such a large area that the background is also a pattern of a darker color, combining colored relief medallions in a single tightly welded composition. In the middle of diamonds triangles, a tree of life, crosses, beetles “.
In view of the density of carpet tissue such as shulal, it is made of hurdjin, bedding, patterned bags for salt and grain, spoonmills, etc.
Carpets in a wrap
With the similarity of the technique of carpet weaving in wrapping, a number of characteristic rpznaks differ from each other. In them, the working thread is wound around one or two warp threads in each row. The patterned thread, as it were, embraces the warp thread with its own loop: the multi-colored thread of the pattern, and the dark thread of the background twists around the warp threads, so that the dense surface of the carpet is everywhere of equal height. In the carpet, the patterned thread moves forward straight and with stitches, the filaments look as if they were superimposed on the surface of the shulala, while threading moves slowly, wrapping around each or a pair of warp threads. With this method of textile, each stitch lies flat or oblique.
When straight, the stitches fall straight and in two rows, lying on top of each other, form tiny squares. When oblique wrapping stitches are superimposed obliquely, when moving from right to left they have one direction, while moving from left to right is the opposite. If you want to keep a single direction of stitches on the entire surface of the carpet weave always in one direction. With a straight thread on the wrong side, the stitches lie obliquely, and with the oblique straight.
Carpet cloth in the wrap is very dense, work on it is time consuming, since after each row of wrapping passes an additional thread of the duck nailed by a beater, but in the fabric an additional duck thread is not visible, as with a pile carpet. The same number of wool fibers are used to make carpets in wrapping, as on a pile carpet of the same size.
Carpets-bedding, hurjins, horse blankets and bedspreads were made by the way of cloth in the wrapping. From the first quarter of the 20th century, this method began to be forgotten. The preserved carpet samples are wrapped in deep, rich red or crimson color in combination with dark blue, dark green, golden and beige-walnut brown.
A special group of carpets in oblique wrapping is “odzakarpety” – “snake carpets” (in Armenian carpet we know medieval “vishapagorgi” – “dragon carpets with pile”).
Carpets with partial pile
Carpets with partial pile are known in Armenian carpet weaving, when a pile pattern is woven in some parts on a flat surface of a two-sided carpet, while the threads of the pile are either cut, as in the weaving of a pile carpet, or they are weighed, as in the weaving of terry cloths. Patterns on a smooth background appear as a reddish multi-colored carpet pattern.
Based on the analysis of the technique of the Armenian carpet weaving, S. Davtyan suggested that dzhejms and mesars are a transition from tissues to carpets, and carpets with partial nap – the transition from the lint-free carpet to the pile carpet.
Classification of Armenian carpets by design
According to their purpose, Armenian carpets are divided into carpets that were hung on walls, spread to the floor, used as veils in temples, in doorways, as well as bags and saddles, elements of national costume and for other purposes.
From ancient times it was believed that, hanging on the wall in the house a carpet with sacred signs, defended the family, bestowed success and prosperity. Of course, such carpets did not spread to the floor or to the table. Floor carpets and carpet-tablecloths, although they might have some defensive and lucky signs, but did not have the symbols of God, ancestors, light, etc., because by such symbols to walk or eat from them would be sacrilegious. It is important to note that the carpets were not hung on any wall, but on the “main”, which in ancient times also hung weapons, and later – portraits and photographs of ancestors.
Carpets were widely used as decoration of Armenian churches, and they were also used during worship services to decorate altars. Leonard Helfgott cites the testimony of Robert Murdoch Smith, who in 1873 – 1883, commissioned by the London Museum of Victoria and Albert, collected works of art in Iran to replenish the museum’s collection. R. M. Smith wrote that somehow during the survey of the Armenian Cathedral of St. Savior in New Julfa (in the vicinity of modern Isfahan) Under the modern rugs he saw the ancient carpets, age, according to the monks, it was equal to the age of the church, built in 1603 – 1605 years. Realizing the high value of these carpets, Robert Smith several times tried to start a conversation about their acquisition, but he did not succeed. Not wanting to offend the religious feelings of church officials, Robert Smith stopped these attempts, as these carpets were perceived as sacred objects.
Classification based on the presence or absence of inscriptions
There is a fairly large group of Armenian carpets, with textile inscriptions in Armenian, which distinguished Armenian carpets from carpets woven by carpet-makers-Muslims. Presumably this type of carpet appeared in the seventeenth century, and the earliest of the remaining carpets with the inscription is a carpet, conditionally called “Goar”. The dating of carpets and the placement of inscriptions is anomalous according to Islamic traditions, however for an Armenian to be identified in a vast world was a matter of priority. The inscriptions were woven directly into the central part or along the edges of the carpet. Among the inscriptions on the carpets are: the indication of the date (often indicated by Armenian letters according to the Armenian calendar), the names of the weaved carpet, the donor or the one to whom the carpet was given. Also, with the help of inscriptions, the memory of a person or an important family event was perpetuated, the carpets whose inscriptions repeated prayers were often. The presence of Armenian inscriptions on carpets greatly facilitates their identification. For a long time it was even thought that there were no Armenian carpets without such inscriptions.
Armenian inscriptions located on a typical Anatolian leather heybe, on carpets and kilims that despite the existence of them Armenian inscriptions identified as Shirvan, Cuba, Sivas, Erek, Bakhtiari, Kurdish, Shakar Mahal Lilihan and even a fragment of the XVI century of carpet, called Ladik. However, according to Tom Cooper, the production of most carpets of these types was done by Armenians.
Being Christians, Armenians sometimes included and still include in the carpet pattern a religious symbol, for example the Armenian letter Arm. Տ (T), which means arm. ՏԵՐ – Ter, that is, the Lord, images of different sizes of crosses, as well as short phrases from the Gospel.
On some Armenian carpets with inscriptions that were weaved as a gift, there were original “donations” indicating that such a carpet-gift was presented to a friend, or the carpet was woven on the occasion of a wedding, a birth or in memory of the deceased.
According to the professor of Armenian Studies from the National Institute of Oriental Languages and Civilizations (INALCO – Institut national des langues et civilizations orientales), Paris, France, Tigran Kuimdzhyan, the inclusion of textile inscriptions in the field or the framing of carpets is explained by the Armenian tradition that exists in almost all kinds of Armenian applied art. The various contents of the inscription (dedications or colophons) can be seen in miniatures in the early medieval Armenian manuscripts, on the salaries of manuscripts, on products made of wood or metal, on ceramic or textiles. This tradition was strictly adhered to by Armenians, unlike other peoples of the East.
At the same time, there are quite a few Armenian carpets without inscriptions, as often carpets were tied for sale.
Classification based on ornamentation and ornamental composition
Patterns and symbols of Armenian carpets
Ornamentalism and the stylistics of Armenian carpets are closely intertwined with the Armenian pre-Christian faith and probably have their roots back to the oldest beliefs, when people first began to portray symbols of God, protection, luck, glory, sacrifice, ancestors, etc. on their apparels from skins of wild animals. With the invention of weaving, it all went seamlessly to the fabric. Sacred (divine, solar, astral and other) symbols and ornaments were depicted as much as on clothes, and on carpets, but still carpets were distinguished by special holiness. The basis of most of the motifs of the Armenian ornament is the concrete material original causes – natural and social forces. In the early stages of developmentArmenian applied art they had a certain meaning and practical significance, but over time, in the process of gradual processing, the ornaments moved away from their material foundation – the original form, becoming the basis for a new variety of ornamental ornaments. The origin and formation of the main motifs of Armenian ornamental art are rooted in the pagan period. At the initial stage, geometric, vegetative, animal and other patterns and symbols (celestial bodies, architectural structures, etc.), so characteristic of ornamental culture and other peoples, especially for the indigenous population of the Ancient East prevailed in it.
The most common symbols depicted on Armenian carpets are the symbols of God, which in the ancient Armenian faith was often identified with light, and then with the sun and stars. These symbols are a cross and cross marks (including a swastika and multi- pointed stars). Another common symbol is the vishap – dragon. Vishap is not always considered a symbol of evil and evil forces. In the Armenian pre-Christian faith, there was no concept of absolute evil at all. Vishap embodied only the elements, which could be evil, but could also turn out to be good. There is a separate subspecies of Armenian carpets – vishapagorg, that is, “dragon carpets”, carpets depicting dragons. Of course, the dragon was represented symbolically – in the form of peculiar millipedes. The main cult goal of vishapagorh was, most likely, the protection of the house and the repelling of malicious forces. Comparison of Armenian carpets of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Armenian typography, stone carvings and other decorative and applied art with the “dragon carpets” of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries allowed scientists to establish their place of manufacture as Armenia.
The Armenian Soviet ethnographer VS Temurdzhyan in his book “Carpet weaving in Armenia”, which remains to this day one of the best studies of Armenian carpet weaving, writes:
«Motives reflecting the initial ideas: eagles, as a symbol of the sun, a dragon associated with the cult of water, although still in the nature of ornaments, still exist, in Armenian carpets, in the style typical of Armenian national art. ”
With the adoption of the Christianity in Armenia in 301, decorative and applied art immediately turned to the use of ancient patterns, symbols and ornaments. Religious structures, sacred vessels, carpets, curtains, cloister attires, staffs and other items, as well as manuscripts, in particular the Gospel, the Bible, the Counselor, the Trebnik and others, were decorated with ancient ornamental patterns, their recycled new forms and miniatures. According to the ConocernJim Allen, “it’s time to expand the definition of Armenian carpets to include those products that have symbolic, technical or geographic links with Armenia or refugee and immigrant Armenians. I see a symbolic connection between some Caucasian carpets containing small Christian crosses masterfully introduced into their design, and their Armenian origin. I am sure that in some areas of carpet production, for example in Karabakh, Armenian carpet makers often identified their belonging to the Christian faith and their Armenian origin with tiny Christian crosses. Also, often the design included stars, animals and human figures “. One of the distinctive features of Armenian carpets is the image of people of different sizes (full-length, facet, profile) on them. If figures of people are depicted on a carpet from the South Caucasus, it is more likely that this carpet was woven by an Armenian weaver than by a conservative Muslim villager.
Jim Allen suggests that we should single out a new type of Armenian carpets, in which minimalistic crosses are included in the carpet design. “A minimalistic Christian cross is a cross that is extended by an additional knot to the bottom of the article (the beginning), metaphorically towards the earth, like a real cross. Many of these carpets were the products of Armenian carpet weavers, and they need to be identified, cataloged and preserved ”
“In this context, there is a large number of Caucasian carpets with small crosses of six knots that illustrate this assumption. These crosses are so small that only the intentions of the carpet maker give them significance. It can not be said that all Garabagh carpets with crosses of six knots are Armenian, but it can be assumed that most of them are like that “. “Recently, Murray Island published demographic data on the Caucasian mountains of the late 19th century in the book” Ways: An inscribed Armenian carpet. ” Murray’s data show that Armenians in Karabakh at the end of the 19th century were much more numerous than any other group “. Another form of depiction of the cross, as a symbol of the Christian faith, which the carpet weaver professed, is the inclusion of the image of the cross in the ornament of the star, circle and other elements.
Patterns and symbols on Armenian carpets and works of other kinds of Armenian applied art
To determine the affiliation of each particular carpet to a particular national culture, various researchers consider a number of characteristics that are characteristic of the traditions of each individual ethnos. So, according to David Tsitsishvili, the analysis of the same type samples, provided that they will be arranged in chronological order, can lead to certain conclusions. Consequently, the ornamental composition of any carpet, regardless of whether it is considered in its integrity or in terms of its various components, should be examined from the point of view of its origin. Moreover, according to D. Tsitsishvili, it is desirable to find an analogue in other types of art for each type of ornament. In the case of a lint-free or tufted carpet, miniatures can be used for comparison in ancient manuscripts, decorative trimmed carved steles, silver jewelry, embroidery or textiles, the evolution of which can be traced for a long time from the X to the XVI century. In conclusion, it is necessary to calculate the frequency with which each type of carpet pattern was reproduced in one or another locality, which is often difficult to perform.
The following two classifications based on ornamentation and ornamental composition, typical for Armenian carpets (lint-free and pile) were developed by the chief expert of the Department of the Protection of Cultural Property of the Republic of Armenia and the head of the Department of Art Textiles of the State Museum of Ethnography of the Republic of Armenia Ashkhunjem Pogosyan.
Source from Wikipedia