Fashion in the period 1660–1700 in Western European clothing is characterised by rapid change. Following the end of the Thirty Years’ War and the Restoration of England’s Charles II, military influences in men’s clothing were replaced by a brief period of decorative exuberance which then sobered into the coat, waistcoat and breeches costume that would reign for the next century and a half. In the normal cycle of fashion, the broad, high-waisted silhouette of the previous period was replaced by a long, lean line with a low waist for both men and women. This period also marked the rise of the periwig as an essential item of men’s fashion.
The men of that time suit is characterized by its scope and the sumptuousness, the extreme diversity and extravagance of detail.
From 1650, the costume turns its back on the sobriety of the reign of Louis XIII. Under Louis XIV appears the rhingrave. It is a panty whose legs are very wide with many folds. This piece is so wide that it looks like a skirt; the rhingrave is lined with lace and ribbon loops very abundant. On the shoes, the roses succeed to knots in wings of mill. The rhingrave reaches its maximum in width in France, in Germany and in England whereas Spain seems not to be influenced by this mode.
After 1680, these fluffy breeches became less and less wide until they became tights.
The doublet is shortened and opens on the front to let glimpse between it and the breeches the baggy puff shirt. The sleeves are very short. The costume is overloaded with trimmings (especially ribbon loops called geese). Then the leotard 6 makes its appearance and is worn on the jacket. The jacket, formerly called the doublet, is a garment underneath. The front and the sleeves of the jacket are in rich fabric and the back in common fabric. Over time, the jacket is reduced in length and loses its sleeves to become the vest.
The hat is felt and plumed, fashion followed in the street with a pheasant feather in garnish.
The wearing of the leotard spreads; it is generally made of good quality cloth, in velvet or silk. In the male costume, there are two main changes: the pockets, before realized vertically, become horizontal. Secondly, the leotard’s basques stiffen and increase in hollow folds separated by a buttoned slit.
With the end of the Thirty Years’ War, the fashions of the 1650s and early 1660s imitated the new peaceful and more relaxed feeling in Europe. The military boots gave way to shoes, and a mania for baggy breeches, short coats, and hundreds of yards of ribbon set the style. The breeches (see Petticoat breeches) became so baggy that Samuel Pepys wrote in his diary: “And among other things, met with Mr. Townsend, who told of his mistake the other day to put both his legs through one of his Knees of his breeches, and so went all day.” (April 1661) The wide breeches that made such an error possible were soon being gathered at the knee: Pepys noted, 19 April 1663 “this day put on my close-kneed coloured suit, which, with new stockings of the colour, with belt, and new gilt-handled sword, is very handsome.” This era was also one of great variation and transition.
In 1666, Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, following the earlier example of Louis XIV of France, decreed that at court, men were to wear a long coat, a vest or waistcoat (originally called a petticoat, a term which later became applied solely to women’s dress), a cravat, a periwig or wig, and breeches gathered at the knee, as well as a hat for outdoor wear. By 1680, this more sober uniform-like outfit of coat, waistcoat, and breeches became the norm for formal dress.
Coat and waistcoat
The unfitted looser fit of the 1640s continued into the 1650s. In the 1650s, sleeves ranged from above to below the elbow. The sleeves could be slashed, unslashed, or dividing into two parts and buttoned together. The length of the coat reached the waist but by the late 1650s and early 1660s, the coat became very short, only reaching the bottom of the rib cage, much like a bolero jacket. During the 1660s, the sleeves varied a lot from elbow length to no sleeves at all. The coat could be worn opened or buttoned in the front. One common factor were many yards of ribbon loops arranged on the shoulders and the lower parts of the sleeves.
A longer and rather baggy coat (still with sleeves rarely going below the elbow) made an appearance in the early 1660s and as the decade progressed became the most popular coat. By the late 1660s, an upturned cuff became popular although the sleeves had still remained above the elbows. By the 1670s, a vest or waistcoat was worn under the coat. It was usually made of contrasting, often luxurious, fabric, and might have a plain back since that was not seen under the coat. It was a long garment which by the 1680s reached just above the knees. With the end of the 1670s the sleeves became longer and the coat more fitted. The 1680s saw larger upturned cuffs and the waist of the coat became much wider. The coat could have lapels or none. This coat is known as the justacorps. The pockets on both sides of the coats were arranged horizontally or vertically (especially the mid to late 1680s) until the 1690s when the pockets were usually always arranged horizontally. The waistcoat could be sleeveless or have long sleeves. Typically, a long-sleeved waistcoat was worn in winter for added warmth. By the mid-1680s, ribbons were reduced to one side of the shoulder until by the 1690s, they were gone.
Shirt, collar and cravat
The ruffled long-sleeved white shirt remained the only constant throughout the period, although less of it was seen with the advent of the waistcoat.
During the early to mid-1650s, a rather small falling collar was in fashion. This increased in size and encompassed much of the shoulders by 1660. Cravats and jabots around the neck started to be worn during the early 1660s (initially with the falling collar). By the mid-1660s, the collar had disappeared with just the cravat remaining, sometimes tied with a small bow of ribbon. Red was the most common color for the bow, although pink, blue, and other colors were also used. By the 1670s, the bow of ribbons had increased in size and in the 1680s, the bow of ribbons became very large and intricate with many loops of ribbon. By the mid-1690s, the very large bow of ribbons was discarded. Also, a new style of cravat made its appearance in the 1690s, the Steinkerk (named after the Battle of Steenkerque in 1692). Before, the cravat was always worn flowing down the chest; the Steinkerk cravat looped through a buttonhole of the coat.
Breeches and stockings
The previous decade saw Spanish breeches as the most popular. These were stiff breeches which fell above or just below the knee and were rather moderately fitted. By the mid-1650s, in Western Europe, much looser, uncollected breeches, called petticoat breeches became the most popular. As the 1650s progressed, they became larger and looser, very much giving the impression of a lady’s petticoat. They were usually decorated with many yards of ribbon around the waist and around the ungathered knee on the outside of the leg. Alongside the petticoat breeches, a collected but still loose fitted breeches called rhinegraves, were also worn. By the early 1660s, their popularity surpassed petticoat breeches. They were usually worn with an overskirt over them. The overskirt was heavily decorated with ribbon on the waist and the bottom of the skirt. Its length was usually just above the knee, but could also extend past the knee so that the rhinegraves underneath could not be seen and only the bottom of the stocking-tops was visible.
With the rising popularity of the longer coat and waistcoat, the large collected rhinegraves and overskirt were abandoned in favor of more close fitting breeches. By the late 1670s, close fitted breeches were worn with the stockings worn over them and on or above the knee, often being gartered with a garter below the knee. With the long waistcoat and stockings worn over the knee, very little of the breeches could be seen. A possible reason that the stockings were worn over the knee, was to give the impression of longer legs since the waist coat fell very low, just above the knee. The breeches tended to be of the same material as the coat. The stockings varied in color.
Footwear and accessories
Shoes again became the most popular footwear during the 1650s, although boots remained in use for riding and outdoor pursuits. Boothose, originally of linen with lace cuffs and worn over the fine silk stockings to protect them from wear, remained in fashion even when boots lost their popularity. Boothose lasted well in the mid-1660s, attached right under where the rhinegraves were gathered below the knee, or fashionably slouched and unfastened. Shoes from the 1650s through the 1670s tended to be square toed and slightly long in appearance. Usually the shoes were tied with ribbon and decorated with bows. By the 1680s, the shoe became a bit more fitted; the heel increased in height (with red heels being very popular, especially for attendance at Court), and only a small ribbon if any remained.
The baldric (a sword hanger worn across one shoulder) was worn until the mid-1680s, when it was replaced by the sword belt (a sword hanger worn across the hips).
Throughout the period, men wore their hair long with curls well past the shoulders. The bangs (fringe) were usually combed forward and allowed to flow over the forehead a bit. Although men had worn wigs for years to cover up thinning hair or baldness, the popularity of the wig or periwig as standard wardrobe is usually credited to King Louis XIV of France. Louis started to go bald at a relatively young age and had to cover up his baldness with wigs. His early wigs very much imitated what were the hairstyles of the day, but they gave a thicker and fuller appearance than natural hair. Due to the success of the wigs, other men started to wear wigs as well. By 1680, a part in the middle of the wig became the norm. The hair on either side of the part continued to grow in the 1680s until by the 1690s two very high pronounced points developed on the forehead. As well, during the 1680s, the wig was divided into three parts: the front including the center part and the long curls which fell well past the shoulders, the back of the head which was combed rather close to the head, and a mass of curls which flowed down the shoulders and back. The curls of the wig throughout the 1660s until 1700 were rather loose. Tighter curls would not make their appearance until after 1700. Every natural color of wig was possible. Louis XIV tended to favor a brown wig. His son, Monseigneur was well known for wearing blond wigs.
Hats and headgear
Hats vary greatly during this period. Hats with very tall crowns, derived from the earlier capotain but with flat crowns, were popular until the end of the 1650s. The brims varied as well. Hats were decorated with feathers. By the 1660s, a very small hat with a very low crown, little brim, and large amount of feathers was popular amongst the French courtiers. Later in the 1660s, very large brims and moderate crowns became popular. Sometimes one side of the brim would be turned up. These continued fashionable well into the 1680s. From the 1680s until 1700, various styles and combinations of upturned brims were in fashion, from one brim upturned to three brims upturned (the tricorne). Even the angle at which the brims were situated on the head varied. Sometimes with a tricorne, the point would meet over the forehead or it would be set at a 45 degree angle from the forehead.
Style gallery 1650s–1660s
1 – 1654
2 – 1658
3 – 1661
4 – 1661
1.Coat of 1654 has many tiny buttons on the front and sleeves, which are left unfastened below the chest and upper arm. A collared cloak trimmed with braid is worn casually over one shoulder.
2.Dutch fashions, 1658. White boothose, petticoat breeches
3.1661. The short coat is worn over a voluminous shirt with wide ruffles at the cuffs and flat, curve-cornered collar, petticoat breeches.
4.Young Louis XIV wears a lace-bordered linen collar, sash of an order of chivalry, and a voluminous wig over his armor, 1661.
5.Carl X Gustav (1626–1660), King of Sweden 1654–1660, wears ruffled sleeves, armour, small cravat and flat-lace collar.
Style gallery 1670s–1690s
1 – 1671
2 – 1673
3 – 1684
4 – c. 1690
5 – c. 1690
1.Dutch fashions, 1671
2.Wedding suit of James II of England, 1673, Victoria and Albert Museum No. 2-1995 T.711:1
3.Don Luis de la Cerda, later IX Duke of Medinacelli wears the long justacorps of c. 1684
4.Artist Thomas Smith, c. 1690
5.A student of Leipzig in an elaborate wig, c. 1690
In 1661, due to the death of the Chancellor Mazarin who long dominated the French political circle, Parentship of Louis XIV, the fashion leader representing the 17th century, will begin. Around this time, the sleeve length was about two thirds as compared with the beginning of the 17th century, and the dress length was about half and the pool pool was extremely short. For cold weather, the relaxing pants called drawers, chemisoru chemise wearing under the chemise, juke call developed jack call developed from the mantle of the soldier, long sleeve lining called Vest wearing as a room wear, And pool pools will decline. Louis XIV also boasts that the legs are beautiful at all times, highlighting the length of the legs with high heels. The wig started to wear by Louis XIII where hair was thin was changed to a grand priest called “Aaronju” which raised the curl up long in the back and chest by Lewy XIV which was small but raised high. Respondant cap began to fold back a wide brim, which disturbed the wig, and changed to “Tricorn” (triangular cap). Thus, in the 1680s, a grand fashion settled through a series of changes to the revolutionary period of the 18th century, a set of Just Call-West Culottes representing France court costumes and a high-heeled Tricorne.
Clothing of common people
Farmers and prayers roughly raised the arm of Chemise through the 17th century, and wear old-fashioned “hose” (long pants) or bleeches (short pants like knickerbocker). The farmers sometimes suffered a hood and had tightened a short apron convenient for putting rice and wiping hands during seeding. In addition, I sometimes wear jacket-style clothing for cold weather, among German farmers I called these jackets “rock” and in the UK “Jacques”. Rock is also a soldier ‘s warm clothes, and in France it calls the soldier’ s mantle “Cajac” and gets widely worn, which later becomes the origin of the court mantle named “Justcol”. Hair stretching long for a long time was a privilege of aristocracy, so the hair was trimmed almost briefly. The shepherds who chase the sheep under the lords protect the old-fashioned clothes, and wearing an old-fashioned loose-headed poolpian over Schmizz and wearing a briefs. For winter we wore a cloak (long bell-shaped mantle), wearing boots, wearing a flat crown (part of the hat’s head, a hat mountain) and a felt hat with a narrow brim. A milk store going to sell milk purchased from a farmer to the town, wears a crown in a jacket, a boots with a large button and a flat hat, a long apron to cover the knee to load and unload the milk canister from the wagon I gave it. Among the people who live in rural areas, the mother of making wine was wearing a knee-length Brie ches to pool poan, tightened apron of leather, and wearing a rigid collar like a priest throughout the 17th century was correcting herself. This is because the wine-making craftworkers were respected to some extent and wealthy because wine is an important item used for rituals of the church.
Costumes of craftworkers living in the town were similar to each other, but there are some differences for each occupation. Occupation wears a briefs in a short poolpoan, tightened aprons, and covered a conical hat. Although shoemakers are not too different from each other in appearance, black leather shoes are trademarks, and when going out they are wearing Jucoskol. The butcher crowded the sleeves of Chemise and was characterized by wearing a sleeveless le
Upstream citizen’s clothing
In Morieres ‘s ” hostage school ” announced in 1661 when the parents of Louis XIV began, there was a one act to celebrate a brother-in-law brother with a sturdy SUALLENAL YOUNG like to wear fashionable clothing. A steady brother wears an aucteous shoes perfectly covering his belly, but his older brother wears a small hat and wears a long blonde wig and a short poolpoan that does not cover the abdomen, jabo from chemise (collar) On a chair while hanging over the table as long as it gets on the table, a crowd of gorgeous lace and canon (knee ornament) matching. I am amazed at my younger brother whether he is wearing a petty coat.
This would be a wide pants which looks like a skirt with a glimpse of “rungrave” derived from the Belgian Flanders region which had been in fashion since the 1650s. Although there is the theory that it was a completely skirt type, there is also a theory that Samuel Peps is a funny story of the city in the diary, while keeping both legs through one of the cylinders of “Petty Court • BRITCHES (English name of rangruve)”, It is better to think that it is a form close to the contemporary Culottes skirt from the fact that I write down the rumor story of a man who did not notice day. On the hem and the waist of the rungrave, it’s more feminine as I was decorating plenty of ribbon bundles called “Gallants” meaning color preferences and gentlemen. By around 1656, 500-600 ribbon knots are attached to trendy clothes up and down set, it is said that even if you buy a ribbon with a length of 300 ele (less than 2 meters), it is said that it is not enough for the necessary number. In the 1680’s, the fashion seemed to have gone down, and in 1682’s “Mercure Gyaran”, it was accused that “Rungrave and Kanon have no patience.”
Upper class dress
At the Court, Spanish style apparel was used as a formal dress for a long time even after Spanish style clothes were gone from everyday arrival. Testimony that the delegation sent to Vienna from Naples in 1688 still wears Spanish style clothes inside the Court. The socks are more often used with cotton knitted fabrics.
However, outside court rituals and masses, even more daily clothes as well as social occasions such as ball dancing among nobles, such as the more upright appearance introduced in the item of upstream citizens was common. At Molière ‘s comedy “Don Juan” in 1675, there is a curtain that farmers who helped the aristocrat Don Juan who fell into the water are amazed at his clothes. Don Juan’s clothes are a crown of Cummy’s that swelled nearly twice as much as those of farmers, wide pants like “Run Grave” that two human beings put in, and pool pools with a low collar belly There is no sleeve on top short enough to cover it, and it is tightening a long “cravat”. Moreover, wearing lace cuffs and knee ornament “Kanon”, she is binding a bunch of ribbons everywhere. This bunch of ribbons has become popular until around the 1690s and is called “Gallant” meaning Date Men. In addition to using colors of their choice, the color got a color in a horse race game transmitted to generations and a favorite color of a lady of intention.
When the pool pole became extremely short, men wore a long-sleeved long length jacket ” Vest ” tailored for luxurious fabrics in the room to prevent the body from getting cold. Vest settled as a liner arriving under the crown afterwards. In the late seventeenth century, gown of Indian gift called “Andyenne” was popular as a room wearing. In Molière’s “town aristocrat”, the expensive Andyenne’s room wears for the reason that the prenatal long-earned money is like a green razor and a red velvet trousers with a flashy appearance “prevalent among nobles” There is a scene to bother to bother. Men refined the court “soldier” worn by a soldier as a coat and called it “Just Call” which means clothes that fit perfectly. It was a knee – length jacket with a dart in the back and side of the back, squeezing the waist, and spreading the hem by putting a cheek on both sides of the hem. For horseback riding, on the back a backbone similar to the current center’s Vinci of the suit comes in, the cuffs spread out in funnel shape, folded back greatly, often decorated with a mall. The mall that came to appear frequently in the fashion world since the 17th century was the latest fashion which was prevalent through Turkey’s deeply related Italy, which was a class chapter of the Turkish army. The gorgeous costume in this court rolled something like a scarf called Kravat. This is a cloth of white linen or muslin with a width of 30 cm and a length of 1 m, and the length has extended to about 2 m later. When the shoe store visited Louis XIV who visited Bordeaux in 1660, the toe was square and the heel gave a red high heel, it became very popular with the king and became surely worn at the court. The aristocrat masculine imitated the taste of the king, declaring that wearing a red heel of the heel against the upper citizen who wears luxurious clothes was declared as a noble family’s privilege.
Source from Wikipedia