Landshövdingehus is a building type for three-storey multi -family house , which has been named as the former governor of Gothenburg Albert Ehrensvärd, the elder , who sanctioned the first drawings. The type is characterized by the ground floor being built in stone , while the second and third floors are made of wood . It is primarily a characteristic type of house for some areas in Gothenburg, where the first district councils were also built, but there are also other types in Sweden, such as Örebro .
Housing construction in Gothenburg during the 19th century was regulated so that only two-storey residential buildings were built in wood. These rules had been added to fire safety. Because it was expensive to build multi-storey houses in stone and economically to build only two-storey houses, a proposal was made to build a hybrid house with a stone downstairs and two upper floors of wood.
With reference to the current housing shortage, the cooperative housing company, the Employers Building Association, applied by its chairman, handland and carpenter Johannes Nilsson on September 15, 1875, to build two three-storey wooden houses on the Albogatan in southern Annedal, with the first floor in stone 133 and 134. The association had bought in the plots 120-135, a total of 16 pieces. The application requested for the first time to raise the floor of the cellar to the whole of the ground, which was rejected by the committee with reference to the building scheme, paragraph 29, that if a stone floor was built with one or more floors of wood, the building would be considered a wooden house and, according to section 55, not built higher than two floors.
Two of the members of the Board, City Attorney G Svanberg and Gros Koch, wanted to approve the application and received support from the urban architect Victor von Gegerfelt . This argued that under section 39 of the building scheme a wooden house should be laid on a foundation wall and in order to protect the wooden house against soil moisture, the house must be provided with stone base or so-called foot wall according to paragraph 34. The basement was then formed by the foundation wall and the wall of the wall. In the building scheme no provision was made for the height of the foot / basement but in section 55 only that a wooden house could not be built for more than two floors or 34 feet (using the duodecimal system as a base where a tool is 2,4742 cm x 12 = a Swedish foot, ie 34 feet = 10.08575 meters). This must be interpreted, according to Gegerfelt, that there was no obstacle in the building scheme to construct a wooden house with 10 feet (about 3 meters) of high footage about this along with the two floors of wood held the house within 34 feet. He meant that the stone foot would look like a basement above ground. This was an “sanitary” advantage in view of the moisture of the building, regardless of whether the basement was used for “salubos, workstations or living rooms”. Gegerfelt did not consider that paragraph 29 was applicable, as it applied when a wooden floor was built on a stone house. The current construction was a two-storey wooden house with higher or lower stone feet. He also referred to the fact that older wooden buildings in the city had been built with a foot wall of 8 to 10 feet, and that later new buildings had a foot wall of 3.4 to 6 foot altitude.
The bad reason for blistering was a problem, but by lifting the basement above the ground, it needed the top and firmer soil layers not to be shaken away so much and thus weakened, ” where the room is either used for salibos, workshops or living rooms through the basement of the basement above ground obviously wins in a sanitary sense, when otherwise it is more or less buried in the damp clay. ”
Those who filed the application were the lawyers of the board; the chairman, including the mayor, Dickman and the councilor Melin. The submitted drawings did not occupy housing on the ground floor, but the rooms were called “laundry”, “bod” and “workshop”. Building Committee Motivation for Refusal Solved ” ” Then, pursuant to section 29 mom. 4 of the current building scheme, stone house, which is built with wood flooring, is considered as a wooden house, and the house in which the lower floor is to be built of stone and built with two floors of wood, which must be attributed to wooden houses, but according to § 55 In this order, wooden houses can not be built to a height greater than two floors, found that the building board application can not be accepted. ”
Handling Nilsson appealed against the decision of the board of the county administrative board and appended drawings “from which the king’s order of command should not only obtain the appropriate, both in the sanitary and in the other respects, but also in the device.” The County Administrative Board granted a dispensation by decision of the landmaster Ehrensvärd on November 10, 1875. Only 1895, the District Court was legal without dispensation, then amended in the Local Building Ordinance for the City of Gothenburg, § 25, item 4; stone house with ground floor of stone and two upper floors of wood.
There are several indications that it may have been Gegerfelt himself, who designed the first district court house on site 133, as the lines have the slimness and sensitivity that characterizes his way of drawing. The text of the drawings is partly by Gegerfelt and partly by FS Magnusson. But the drawings are not signed by him but by the editor “FSM”, Frans Salomon Magnusson, who was also a member of the Board of Directors of the Workers’ Association for many years.
The first tenure houses in Gothenburg were built in 1876 in the Ananasen district in the district of Annedal . The neighborhood was demarcated by the streets; Västergatan, Albogatan, Carl Grimbergsgatan and Snickaregatan. The first two houses, for which the application was submitted in 1875, were Albogatan 13 and 15. These houses were demolished in 1972. Each house cost the company SEK 15,000 in land purchase and conduct. The houses were made of prefabricated elements, consisting of plank, spun on the edges and short ends; “The building is conveniently carried out by Bark & Warburg’s mechanical joinery in Gothenburg by standing quadrilateral shelf. The edges of the planks are double-folded together. Even the top and bottom of the shelf walls are co-ordinated by means of double slabs that engage in noted sills and reports. and the window frames were enclosed in the walls by means of double struts. The corners connect the outer planks with iron bolts with nuts. Saddles and hammers are made of beams to win the required strength for the inclusion of the golf beams, which sediments consist of high planks. ”
The neighborhood consisted of twenty-four rowed three-story houses with a tree-planted economic data throughout the neighborhood. When the buildings had no basement, a number of shelters were built on the farm side for storage of dabs at an angle to the houses. With a few detail deviations, the same plan has been used for all houses. The ground floor was built in tiled brick , which was later painted with oil paint. The wooden floors were clad with standing locklist panels, but the attic lacked panel coverings. The roof was a saddle roof with moderate rise, which was covered with bricks. “Alboallén” was the tree-lined play street or economic data that shared the neighborhood.
In the 1890s, landshövdingehus began building other Middle Sweden cities than Gothenburg, for example in Örebro in 1904. In the districts of Öster and Väster in Örebro there are preserved a large number of Art Nouveau houses from the period 1906-1918. Unlike their equivalent in Gothenburg, their wooden floors are exclusively refurbished .
In 1856, John Nilsson emigrated to California and ended up in the newly founded city of Stockton, California , ten miles east of San Francisco , during the gold rush that started there in 1848. After a few years, the family joined Sweden and then he was employed as a founder of the city’s founder Captain Weber . It has been speculated whether Nilsson during his time in America had influences to the county governors. New construction in America was hard, but Nilsson went well. However, an explosion accident in 1862 changed everything, he was invalidated hard and in 1864 the family moved back to Gothenburg, where Johannes started a wooden goods company. Later he became involved in a variety of political and social engagements and started the Workers’ Confederation in 1872 (dissolved in 1898).
Landshövdingehus is characterized by the fact that the ground floor is built of stone, while the second and third floors are made of wood . Most of the county governors were built for the working class and the apartments usually consisted of a room and kitchen. Up to fifteen people lived in these apartments. The houses were built with inner courtyards and the apartments often had incoming light from two distances; a window in the kitchen facing the courtyard and one to two windows facing the street.
Independent companies designed and built the majority of landshövdingehusen and sometimes drawings were used by architects. Different owners could divide a courtyard into sections with the fence. Today most of the townships are owned by Majorna and Kungsladugård of Familjebostäder, but in some courtyards, with sparse ownership, one can still see section divisions.
Number of landshövdingehus in Gothenburg
In 2001 there were 1 380 landshövdingehus in Gothenburg, built in the 1870s and 1940s and 1 in the 1990s. During the 1930s, 52% were built, in the 1920s 25%, and from the 1910s 12%. In the years 1900-09, 42 houses were built, corresponding to 3% of 2001 stock. About the same number is from the 1940s, 41. In the period 1890-99, the houses constitute just over 2%. Few governors from the rest of the 19th century remain; from the 1870s 6, from the 1880s 28 pieces. The 19th century last district court house was built at Lindholmen in 1997.
Because landshövdingehus was built for such a long period (1875-1947), they show a wide variety of building styles. The first tenement houses, built between 1875-80, have a classic strict style with a few decorations. The houses, built between 1880-90, attempted to imitate high-rise buildings of stone and usually had a flat panel and are richly decorated. For example, these houses often got corner corners and the ground floor in stone was rusticized.
During the 1920s when the style was art noveau and jugend , the houses got a darker color scale – often reddish brown. The facades were decorated with portals and balconies.
When functionalism came in the 1930s, the facades became cleaner and many houses were built with standing panels to make the facade have a stricter surface. During this period, the stone wall was often put on the lower floor to make it even smooth.
End of an era
In 1936, the building board in Gothenburg decided not to allow new areas for housing with landshövdingehus, but only permission was given to supplement existing landshafts housing. In 1945 all buildings were banned with landshövdingehus. The reason was the risk of extensive firebreaks in the event of war . Depending on the building permits already granted, the last state-owned houses were built as late as 1947. In total, 3,290 houses were built and accounted for about 20 percent of the property portfolio and 42.5 percent of the apartment stock. Nearly half (47%) of the city’s inhabitants lived in these houses.
During the 1960s and 1970s , a large number of landshövdingehus were demolished instead of being renovated. The fact that there is still so much depends greatly on the massive protests during these years against the demolition of the houses (see also the article on buses ). The Nordic project The Nordic Treasury , led by the architect historian Göran Lindahl , was of great significance for the debate on the preservation of landshövdingehusen .
Gothenburg’s oldest remaining landshövdingehus is located in the district of the Cadet at Mellangatan in Haga . It is from the year 1876.
New production in a similar style
JM planned 2016 new construction in the same format to harmonize with the surroundings with the change that the top wings in wood became three in number. The portfolio comprised 79 apartments in the Kungsladugård area, Gothenburg .
Source From Wikipedia