With the popularity of fans in daily life, the fan industry has developed in different regions. The early fan industry center was in the Qi and Chu areas, so there is a saying of Qi Qi Chu Zhu. The fan industry in the Song Dynasty, especially the fan industry in the Southern Song Dynasty, the capital city of Lin’an (Hangzhou) is the most concentrated and most famous place, and even the fan street of Changli Erli. To the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Sichuan and Jiangnan are undoubtedly the most developed areas of the fan industry. The famous Jinling fans and Gusu fans are famous throughout the country. The folding fan skills and production scale in Hangzhou are second to none.
Unit 3: China Fan Industry
3·1: Distribution of China’s fan industry
Perhaps it is related to the climate. Although the Chinese fan industry has risen in northern China, the main producing areas of the fans are mainly concentrated in the areas of Jiangnan, Guangdong and Sichuan. Due to the characteristics of natural resources, different sectors are used in different regions, which makes the Chinese fan industry have different regional characteristics. This point can be seen from the six famous fans in China today.
3·1·1: China’s six famous fans
·Hangzhou Wang Xingji black paper fan
Founded in 1875, Wang Xingji Fan was founded on the basis of the essence of the Hang Fan. The black paper fan was made with exquisite materials and fine workmanship. Through the decorative arts such as painting and scrapbooking, the fan taste was greatly improved, not only as “ The tribute to the tribute court is also deeply loved by the people.
At the beginning of the Republic of China, Wang Xingqing, the son of Wang Xingzhai, succeeded his father. On the basis of retaining the traditional black paper fan, he absorbed the advantages of Japanese and French women’s fans and developed a sandalwood fan, which was used to pull flowers. The “hot flower” and “painting” techniques are unique in style and unique in style. The advent of Wang Xingji Sandalwood 绢 绢 fan not only won the domestic market, but also exported to Hong Kong, Nanyang and other places, Wang Xingji fans and thus famous overseas.
In 1929, the black paper folding fan of the West Lake Expo won the gold medal, and the sandalwood fan handle was awarded the third prize. It was even more famous. Many famous painting and calligraphy masters made poems on the Wang Xingji fan. Wang Xingji purchased materials from Zhejiang, Jiangsu and other places, processed into a variety of exquisite fan bones, coupled with celebrity paintings and fans, so that the fan is worth a hundred times. By 1936, Wang Xingji had seized most of the market. During the Anti-Japanese War, Wang Xingji moved to Shaoxing Keqiao, and when he returned to Hangzhou in the late period of the Anti-Japanese War, he had already executed the ear of the Hang Fan. In May 1952, after Shu Lianji and Ma Xueji collapsed, Wang Xingji became the only surviving representative and descendant of Hang Fan.
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Wang Xingji’s production scale has achieved unprecedented development, becoming China’s famous multi-variety fan production base, with an annual output of more than 12 million fans.
Wang Xing Ji Fan has 15 major categories, more than 400 varieties, more than 3,000 suits, among which black paper fan and sandalwood fan are the most famous. The black paper fan production process requires 86, exquisite craftsmanship, unique style, and then painted “hang painting”, the picture is full and gorgeous, very expensive, especially the black paper is really golden, praised by the world; sandalwood fan uses technology The extremely difficult drawing, hot flowering and painting “three flowers” craftsmanship are exquisite and elegant.
·Suzhou sandalwood fan
Since the Ming Dynasty, the Suzhou folding fan industry has a large number of famous artists. For example, there are Fangs who are good at making fans, and those who are good at bones are Ma Xun, Ma Fu Brothers, Jiang Sutai and so on. The sandalwood fan is made of a folding fan, and the fan bone is made of sandalwood.
In the 1920s, the Suzhou fan workshop represented by “Zhang Duo Ji” Fan Zhuang began the production of sandalwood fans with a large scale. Due to the innovation in craft production, many new fancy varieties were produced, and the styles were novel and beautiful. A wide variety of process technologies have become increasingly popular in Southeast Asia and other Southeast Asian countries, and have gradually replaced the traditional status of bamboo folding fans. The production workshops of Suzhou sandalwood fans have gradually increased.
In the 1930s, the famous “Wang Xing Ji”, a company famous for operating fans, chose several Japanese female fans sold in the international market, and commissioned Suzhou Sandalwood Fan Workshop to process sandalwood materials. This is the famous Hangzhou “Wang Xing Ji”. Sandalwood fan, because the trade name is in Hangzhou, so use Hangzhou scenic spots, such as “Jade Belt”, “Shuangfeng”, “Xiqi”, etc., as the name of all kinds of sandalwood fans.
·Sichuan Zigong Gong Fan
Gong Fan was created by Gong Jue Wu of the Qing Dynasty and has a history of more than 100 years. On Guangxu’s “Saibao Club” in Chengdu, “Gong Fan” was praised by the emperor for its fan-like appearance. In addition to the gold medal, he also gave the name “Palace Fan”. Gong fan is made of high-quality materials and carefully woven into fine bamboo threads. The bamboo fan is peach-shaped, the fan surface is thin like a flap, the color is yellow, the light is translucent, the soft and delicate, the brocade, the pattern is on the top, the lifelike, or the landscape characters, or the flowers and birds, the fish, all the ivory, plus the ivory or the cow The fan handle made of bone, the silk fan pendant, is exquisite and exquisite, and is exquisite. It is called the world’s fine bamboo.
·Zhejiang Huzhou feather fan
It is said that Huzhou has produced feather fans during the Three Kingdoms period. When Yan Zhenqing was the governor of Huzhou in the Tang Dynasty, he recorded the Wu Xing (Huzhou ancient name) Yao Yiwei fan in “Shi Zhu Ji”, indicating that the Huzhou feather fan was well known in the Tang Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the feather fan industry in Huzhou Fucheng was quite prosperous. During the Daoguang period, Huzhou founded the Qiu Yifeng Lufan Store. During the Guangxu and Xuantong years, it opened the old fan shop of Yan Zhengtai and Yan Yitai. From 1918 to 1927, it was the most prosperous period. There were 13 fan shops and 85 fan workers, with an annual output of 200,000 feather fans.
·Guangdong Xinhui Kwaifan
In the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the New Society planted palmapple and processed sunflower fans on a large scale, and in the Ming Dynasty, it flourished and was listed as a “tribute”. During the Xianfeng period of the Qing Dynasty, glass fans were created; in the Tongzhi years, a fire-painted sunflower fan was created; before and after the Revolution of 1911, a bamboo fan was created. At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, the sales volume of Xinhui Kwaifan was 120 million per year. In the 18th year of Guangxu (1897), it was exported to Russia, Britain, the United States, France, Cuba, Colombia, Peru, Chile and other 24 countries and regions in Europe and America, and won the gold medal at the Panama International Fair in 1915. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the “Three Ridge Fire Painting Fan” was awarded the “White Flower Award” and the “Quality Product Award” by the Ministry of Light Industry for three times.
·Sichuan Rongchang Xiabu Fan
Rongchang folding fan has a long history and has a history of 450 years. It is one of the three famous fans in the country and is known for its craftsmanship. Rongchang folding fan is divided into 10 categories, with more than 160 varieties of flowers, especially the whole Nan silk fan, Quan Nan carved silk fan, bamboo silk fan, brown jade silk fan. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, it was listed as a court tribute. For more than 400 years, Rongchang folding fans have been sold well all over the country and are famous overseas.
3·1·2: a variety of fans
From the perspective of shape, the fans used in daily life mainly include two types of screens with short handles and folding fans with no handles. The difference is whether they can be folded and folded at will. The screen fan and the folding fan are different in structure. The screen fan is fixed with a handle in the middle of the fan surface, and the folding fan is fixed on the fan bone. Since the fan bone is connected by a nail, it can be opened and closed at will. From the material point of view, due to the variety of materials, the type of fan presents a variety of characteristics. Common in life, there are lupin, bamboo fan, fan, straw fan, puffer fan, paper fan (and) with a variety of craft fans made with precious materials.
3·2: Production of flat fan
The flat fan is a traditional style of the Chinese fan. It consists of a fan and a fan handle fixed in the middle, and the handle is used as a hand-shake part. Since the structure of the flat fan is fixed, it cannot be folded. The production of flat fans mainly consists of making fan and fan handles and then combining the two. Due to the different fan materials, the production methods of various flat fans are also very different.
3·2·1: Lu fan
The feather fan has been around for 3,000 years and is the oldest fan of China. The original lupin directly used the bird wing, and later the lupin made with the bird feather appeared. Most of the early lupin fans were long-handled fans, and later developed a self-sustaining short-handle fan. It is said that Zhuge Liang of the Three Kingdoms and Gu Rong of the Jin Dynasty were all slain by the commanding fan of the Qianjun Wanmao. Therefore, the “Yuan Fan Lun” has always been praised as a symbol of calmness and wisdom. There are many areas where lupins are produced in China, among which Huzhou is the most famous in Zhejiang, followed by Jiangsu Gaochun and Hubei Honghu.
3·2·2: 绢 Palace fan
The gong palace fan, also known as 纨 fan, group fan, Luo fan, appeared behind the fan, before the folding fan. The group fan was popular in the Western Han Dynasty to the Song Dynasty for more than a thousand years. After the Song Dynasty, it was also driven by the folding fan. It was deeply loved by the ladies and literati. Most of the ancient gongs and lanterns were made in fine and beautifully decorated.
3·2·3: Gong Fan
Gong Fan can use bamboo silk to compose the landscape of Bada Shanren, the flying sky in Dunhuang murals, and the flowers and birds painted by Qi Baishi. Gong fan also has a wonderful effect: the front is looking at the light, the fan is white, the birds and flowers are flickering in the shackles; to the left, the pattern is flashing blue, the leaves are white; to the right, the pattern is white, the leaves Flashing cyan, amazing.
3·2·4: Pu Kui fan
Pu Kui is an evergreen tree of palm family. It has large leaves and long stems. It has good toughness and folding resistance. It is prolific in Guangdong and Fujian. Pu Kui fan is a fan made of palmetto, which has two categories: “three flag fan” and “glass sunflower fan”. Pu Kui leaves three leaves at each harvest, cutting the middle leaves, hence the name Sanqi. The Sanqi fan is a large sunflower fan that is seen every day; the glass sunflower fan is made of soft, smooth, crystal-clear white sunflower leaves. It is a valuable craft.
3·2·5: straw fan
In the Qing Dynasty, Wang Tingding wrote in the “New Record of the Fan Fan”: “The wheat fan: the straw is made into a flat belt, which is wide and the volume is made into a regular shape. If the basin is large, the bamboo piece is used as the handle on both sides. Sticking five-color enamel satin a small circle, embroidered mountains and waters, characters, very fine, golden and moist, light and convenient, two Zhejiang people used for Yanju. There are also thin bamboo for a circle, densely packed wheat straw, convergence In the handle, the picking of the gardenia, the ancient money, the shape of the scorpion, all the children pass the Yan fan.” He said that the wheat fan is a wheat straw fan, also known as wheat straw fan, wheat straw fan.
3·3: Production of folding fan
After the folding fan was introduced from the Northern Song Dynasty, some people started to copy, but the scale of production was after Ming Chengzu. The folding fan imitation of Sichuan Rongchang was quite influential in the Ming Dynasty. Since then, the center of folding fan production has been transferred to Zhejiang and Jiangsu, especially the Hangzhou fan. It is perfected on the basis of Japanese folding fans and the quality is more lean. The manufacturing process of the folding fan mainly includes making a fan bone, pasting the fan surface, and then fixing it with a nail.
3·3·1: paper fan
The fan of the folding fan is useful for crepe and yarn, but the most commonly used material is paper. Paper fans are divided into white paper fans and colored paper fans. The most important paper fans are black paper fans and gold paper fans. The white paper fan is made of multi-layered rice paper, and there is also a middle-lined “leather” and “continuous history” as the backing paper. The black paper fan is made of brown bamboo and mulberry paper. Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Hangzhou’s paper fan production has been well-known, especially Wang Xingji’s black paper fan. The craftsmanship is fine, the decoration is exquisite, combined with painting, engraving, inlaying and scrapbooking techniques, which greatly enhances the artistic position of the fan.
3·3·2: Sandalwood fan
The sandalwood fan is a kind of folding fan, because the fan bone is made of sandalwood. Sandalwood is an evergreen small tree with a fragrant and refreshing heart. In the 1920s, the Suzhou fan workshop, represented by Zhang Duoji, was started to take shape. At that time, all kinds of sandalwood fans produced in Hangzhou and Suzhou were distributed by Hangzhou Wangxingji Fanzhuang, and were respectively named as “Jade Belt”, “Shuangfeng” and “Xiyu”. The various folding fans made of sandalwood are small, exquisite, exquisite and decorative, and are very popular among women.
3·4: Fan City and Fanzhuang
The ancient Chinese fan industry mostly adopts the family-style arranging form. This kind of slabs follows the traditional pattern of the former shop and the back square, and the scale is not large. If the market prospects are good, many shops will be gathered to form a centralized production and sales center. Hangzhou Fan Street in the Southern Song Dynasty has a typical representation. In some areas, there has also been a special fan market, which has become a time to concentrate on selling fans in a certain month of each year. This also reflects the development of the ancient Chinese fan industry. Every summer, the bells of the fansmiths come from the streets and alleys, and the broken fans pass their dexterous hands and become light and smart.
3·4·1: Chengdu Fan City
Song Zhaoxuan’s “Ancient and Modern Collections of Chengdu” records: Chengdu has a market every month for twelve months in a year; May is “fan city.”
3·4·2: Fan Street in Hangzhou
The fan industry in Hangzhou in the Southern Song Dynasty flourished. The famous fans include “fine-painted fan”, “fine-colored fan”, “drain-washing fan”, “hetero-color flower fan”, “Meizhu fan painting”, “Zhangren painting landscape fan”, etc. The fan shop has “Xu Majia’s fan shop in front of Zhongwazi”, “Qingqiao fan shop under the charcoal bridge”, “Zhoujia folding fan shop” and “Chenjia painting group fan shop”. There is a one-mile fan lane between Jincheng and Qingtai Street in Hangzhou, which is the focal point of the fan-making workshop that year, and it has become a colorful landscape in the southern city of Hangzhou in the summer. The name of Fanzi Lane has not changed since the millennium.
3·4·3: Jingcheng Fanzhuang
In order to attract business, Fanzhuang in Beijing has a plaque in front of the store, which is similar to the cloth in the cloth shop, the wine cellar in the hotel, and the medicine in the pharmacy. At that time, several well-known large fan villages in Beijing were concentrated in the area outside the front door polishing factory, such as the 300-year-old “Dai Lianzeng”, “Tianyi”, “Tiancheng” and later “Changshengzhai” and “Juyuan” Zhai, “San Yi Zhai”, “Ford Thick”, and so on.
3·4·4: Beijing City repair fan
The scholars of the Southern Song Dynasty wrote in the “Wulin Old Things” that Hangzhou’s “Alleys in the Lanes” often have the craftsmen who repair the folding fans to carry the burden, walk the streets and alleys, and point out that this “repair fan” industry is not in other cities. of. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the repair fan industry can be seen in many cities, especially in the capital city. Every summer, there are a number of craftsmen who repair the folding fan, commonly known as “plugging the fan.” Although they walked down the street but did not drink, they only used the “beep” sound from the bells on the small box to attract business. From Li Xia to Li Qiu, it lasted for three months, and the bells of the fan workers rang in the evening, which was a monotonous but rhythm. These fan skills are comprehensive and superb. Not only can load and unload, paste the fan, but also repair the fan bones, sharpen the silver or the old copper fan nails, and replace the fan sac. In the summer of Beijing, the old streets and lanes, as long as you hear the ringing of “Hualang”, you know that the fan is coming.
Unit 4: Superb fan art
4·1: Chinese fan art appreciation
Chinese fan art is a combination of folk artists and literati artists. In the long process of development, the fan art shape and the fan style range from single to changeable, the fan craft from simple and practical to finely crafted and elegant, and the folk crafts are merged with poetry, books, paintings and sculptures. the result of. Although the materials of the fans are different, almost every kind of fan is trying to surpass the practical basis to make itself more beautiful and more excellent. It is this kind of effort that makes Chinese fans a masterpiece of craftsmanship that is world-famous.
4·1·1: Appreciation of fans in the past
The hard work of the craftsmen and artists has produced many fan products. Some are the result of exquisite craftsmen, and some are the crystallization of famous artists. It is their great creation that makes the fan transcend the practicality and become an artistic masterpiece that brings us aesthetic enjoyment. These fans, although different in materials, different in craftsmanship, somewhat elegant, somewhat luxurious, and somewhat simple, are undoubtedly craftsmen and artists.
4·1·2: precious craft fans of all ages
When the boutique of the fan became the object of appreciation and collection, a craft fan mainly used for appreciation came into being. These fans are made of precious materials, such as ivory, bovine bones or enamel, which have been carefully crafted and crafted by skilled craftsmen to become a masterpiece of craftsmanship.
4·1·3: Appreciation of fans in the past
Throughout the fan paintings of the past, some fine needles are dense, some are chic and unrestrained; some are faint and flat, some are thick and simple; some use the hook method, some use the bone method; the panoramic view. The painters skillfully use the luster of gold and cold gold to make landscapes, flowers, birds, and characters, and the inks blend together to make the fan face shine; the viewers are eye-catching. Often the fan surface exhibits an effect that is not achieved on a conventional paper basket. Make it a special item in the treasure house of Chinese painting and calligraphy. This is also the main reason why the fan-storing fan has been in the air for generations.
4·1·4: Appreciation of the ancient fan bones
The other part of the fan is the fan blade. In history, the fan-shaped handle has appeared very early, and the folding fan-bone carving process is also an important aspect of it as a work of art. From the Ming Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty, it was generally the literati painter who created the fan face, and the skilled craftsman applied the skill to the fan bone. Until the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the artist participated in the painting, calligraphy and engraving of the fan bone, so the price of the fan bone doubled and even became a fan. Independent artwork.
4·1·5: Appreciation of fans’ accessories
In addition to the fan and the fan bones, the accessories of the fan, such as the fan pendant, the fan scorpion and the fan sac, have also been influenced by art. “But I want to fan the art, and let me fan the bottom wind.” Since ancient times, fans have used their words to make more sense, and fans are judged for their beauty. From a small fan, people see an invaluable and precious art culture. The Chinese fan’s temperament, charm and interest have been widely infiltrated into life and constantly expanded and enriched. This is what fans have long appreciated. And the reasons for harmonious integration into modern society.
4·2: National fan art appreciation
Japan is one of the earliest users of the Chinese fan, and it is also an important birthplace of the folding fan. Together with the Japanese people’s excellence, the Japanese fan art has a very high appreciation value. European fan art started late, but its different cultural backgrounds and craft styles make the European fan art unique and unique aesthetic interest, especially the Spanish folding fan, which conquers people’s vision and wins the world with its brilliant enthusiasm. The market favors.
4·2·1: Japanese fan art
Japan is a fan-loving country, and every household uses a fan as a daily necessities. The Japanese paper fan is a unique breed of Japan, which fully reflects the exquisite and small aesthetics of the Japanese nation. The appearance of the fan is extremely small, and the workmanship can be said to have reached a peak in the fan process. The paper including it is specially made to meet the requirements of the fan. The Japanese fan has evolved from the Chinese fan, but the form is more diverse and the workmanship is more refined. The group fan is also a unique breed in Japan. It is a special fan for women in Japan, which inherits the small and delicate features of Japanese fans.
4·2·2: European fan art
The Chinese imitation fan with dense fan-shaped and double-sided stickers flows into Europe through India and becomes the ancestor of the European folding fan. European imitation folding fans are mainly popular in the expensive, so the decoration is extravagant, and more expensive materials such as ivory and tortoiseshell are used as fan bones, and European-style carvings are applied. The Spanish fan is the oldest and most culturally rich series in the European fan series. Its materials and its emphasis, fan bones generally use sandalwood, ebony, mother-of-pearl, enamel, ivory, fan material is cloth, paper and all kinds of feathers. The processing technology adopts various techniques of drawing, engraving, inlaying and painting, which embodies the essence of fan making.
Chinese Fan Museum
The China Fan Museum is one of three national-level museums (China Knives and Sword Museum, China Umbrella Museum, China Fan Museum) funded by the Hangzhou Municipal Government. The site is located in the West Historic and Cultural Street of Gongyu Bridge, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province. It is planned to be Xiaohe Road in the west, west to the bridge in the east, Tongyuanli in the south, and Tongheli in the north (the three major venues are in the same position).
The function of the museum is mainly to publicize and promote the long-standing fan skills of our country, to discover and protect traditional handicrafts, and to take into account the display and collection. The museum has become a national-level museum with professional characteristics, Hangzhou characteristics and canal features, integrating collection, research, display, education, publicity, entertainment, shopping and other functions, and strives to build it into a “domestic leading, world.” A state-of-the-art, state-of-the-art museum.
There is a Ming and Qing fan street in the museum, and a glass visual interpretation system is set up. Standing in front of the display window of the folding fan, the glass surface is sensed and the corresponding commentary is projected. At the same time, the museum also uses the robot to explain and some people pass by. The sensor can detect that the robot dressed as a fan shop staff will greet.