The fan is a tool for cooling off in summer, and the shape mainly includes two types: screen fan and folding fan. Fans have a long history in China, and the relevant literature can be traced back to the days before or after the Xia Dynasty. The early popular long-handled fan was mainly a tool for aristocratic travel, and the self-sustaining short-handled fan had the meaning of today’s fan. The Qin and Han dynasties descended, and the group fan appeared, becoming the basic style of the fan. The fan of the Northern Song Dynasty was introduced from Japan. Because of its open and close, it was widely used in the Ming Dynasty and became a fan-shaped fan. In the years that lasted for thousands of years, in addition to attracting the wind and cooling, the fan has a close relationship with social politics, folk customs, and artistic creation, and has become a carrier that carries people’s ideas and emotions, and has developed riches. Chinese fan culture with distinctive ethnic characteristics. The craftsmanship and ingenious design of the fan craftsmen, together with the inscriptions of the literati artists, make the small fan face a thousand miles between the weather. The charm is long and elegant, and it has become a dazzling pearl of human cultural heritage.
Unit 1: The Origin and History of Chinese Fans
1·1: Early fan
Ancient people have to process plants or feathers for the purpose of recruiting wind and cooling, and driving insects and mosquitoes. It should be the most likely way of fan origin. However, this statement has neither physical evidence nor literature. The earliest record of China’s fan is that Emperor Sui made a “five-ming fan.” In the Yinzhou period, there was a “tailtail fan” made of pheasant tail feathers. These are all long-handled fans, mainly used for aristocratic travel and shade, and appear in the court’s ceremonial ceremonies; late in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the self-used short-handled fan is found in the records, including bamboo face and feather fan.
1·1·1: long handle fan
The long handle fan is not for the fan’s own use, but a tool for the slave to serve the owner. The most important function of the long handle fan is the obstacle dust day, so it is also called the “palm fan” or “barrier fan”, which becomes the tool for the “baffle” when the dignitaries travel. Since the long-handled large fan mainly served the upper echelons of society, it gradually developed into an instrument of ceremonies showing the nobles and emperors. It was not until the Ming and Qing Dynasties that it withdrew from the historical stage.
1·1·2: Lupin and bamboo pole
The short-handle fan is mainly used by fans. Because of its convenience and compactness, it has the effect of “leading the wind and the heat” and is favored by people. The short-handled fan of the pre-Qin period mainly consisted of two kinds of feathers and bamboos, so there are two different names of “fan” and “sh”. The former refers to a fan made of feathers, so the word “fan” is used for feathers, while the latter refers to a fan made of bamboo, so the word “Shà” is from bamboo. Another said that “fan” and “Shà” are differently called by dialect. After the fan era came, the fan and bamboo fan were still active in people’s daily life, and together with the group fan formed a screen fan system.
1·2: Group fan era
In the Han Dynasty, a change that had a profound influence on later generations was that the fan handle on one side began to move to the middle, becoming a screen fan with a fan handle as the central axis, bamboo and wood as the frame, and bilateral symmetry, which resembled a full moon. When people use silk as a fan, this fan is called a “fan”, because it is mostly round, also known as “Acacia fan” or “group fan.” After the emergence of the symmetrical screen fan, it became the fan of traditional Chinese style. It flourished in the Western Han Dynasty to the Song Dynasty for more than a thousand years. After the Song Dynasty, it was also driven by the folding fan. It was deeply loved by the ladies and literati. People usually refer to all kinds of screen fans as group fans. Chinese fans entered the era of fan fans.
1·2·1: group fan
The fan is made of bamboo and wood, and the fan is matched with plain white enamel, Luo, gauze, pipa, pipa, etc. It is said that it was from the Western Han Dynasty (32 BC to 7 BC). At that time, there was a saying of Qi Qi Chu Zhu, that is, the group fan made with Shandong Yi and Hunan bamboo is the best. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, there were many kinds of fan fans, and the production process was fine. The ancients used the “male mans” to describe the bamboo fan bones, and the “wings” to compare the light yarn of the group fans. The selection of the handle of the fan handle is also very particular. It is often made of lacquer, white bone, ivory and bamboo. With the development of papermaking technology, paper dough fans are also popular.
1·2·2: The group fan is sent to Japan
At the beginning of the 7th century, the ruling Prince of Japan (574-621) sent several ambassadors, and the fan was likely to be introduced to Japan during this period. During the Northern Song Dynasty, group fans began to export as handicrafts. Among the commodities exported from Quanzhou Port at that time, there were paintings and paintings. After the group fan was introduced to Japan, it was always enjoyed by the court nobles. It was not until the end of the Heian period that the general people were allowed to use it. Soon, Japan has been able to mold from local materials and began exporting to neighboring countries at the end of the 8th century.
1·3: Folding fan era
There are different views on the origin of the folding fan in the academic world. Some people think that the folding fan was invented in China. The basis is that the book “Nan Qi Shu” records that Situ Yiyuan had a waist fan when he entered the DPRK. Hu Sansheng explained in “Tongjian”: “The waist fan, which is worn by the waist, is called the folding fan.” ) indicates that China has a folding fan in Nanqi (479-502). Some scholars have pointed out that the folding fan was first invented in Japan and introduced to China in the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty. In the Yuan Dynasty, the fan-shaped fan was slightly folded, and the folding fan was gradually welcomed by people because it was easy to fold and easy to carry. During the Yongle period of the Ming Dynasty, due to the advocacy of the royal family, the folding fan gradually replaced the fan to become the mainstream of the fan.
1·3·1: The origin of Japanese folding fans: fan and bat fan
Japan’s folding fan appeared in the middle of the eighth century, and it is likely to evolve on the basis of the pilgrimage (hù). From the material point of view, it is divided into two types: panel fan (fan fan) and paper fan (bat fan). The original invention was mainly used for court gifts. After the Edo period, it began to be popular in the lower middle of society as a practical tool.
1·3·2: Folding fans into China during the Northern Song Dynasty
Song Taiping Xingguo eight years (983), Japan’s Nara Dongda Temple name (diao) into the Song Xianshu. Song Yuxi three years (986), full of the Buddha statues of the scriptures of Taizong. A few years later, the disciples, such as Jia Yin, Qi Gan and others, expressed their gratitude to Song Taizong and offered a variety of treasures. According to the book “Song History · Japanese Biography”, including the gold and silver enamel painted fan, a collection of 20 tassel fans, two bat fans. I am convinced that the “Yongyan two-year-old Wuzi is on February 8th”, and it is inferred that the Japanese folding fan was first introduced to China no later than the Northern Song Dynasty Archery (988). The folding fan was also introduced to China via North Korea. After the Japanese folding fan was introduced to North Korea, it was molded in North Korea. In the 7th year of Xi Ning in the Northern Song Dynasty (1074), when the North Korean envoy came to China, he brought a folding fan made of crow blue paper with figures, animals and flowers and birds.
1·3·3: Popularity and imitation of folding fans in Ming and Qing
Although the folding fan was introduced to China in the Song Dynasty and molded, it was really popular, but it was in the Ming Dynasty. During the Yongle period, the North Korean tribute to the fan, Ming Chengzu Zhu Xi was deeply attracted by the characteristics of its volume and comfortable, and ordered the craftsmen to copy it. Driven by the palace, the folding fan quickly spread to the folk, becoming an indispensable tool for the summer. In the middle and late Ming Dynasty, the folding fan was popular for a while, and it was a great substitute for the fan. Sichuan Rongchang and Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces have become the center of folding fan manufacturing. In the Qing Dynasty, the folding fan industry was also quite developed, and the Hangzhou fan industry was particularly eye-catching.
Unit 2: Chinese Fan Culture
2·1: Fan and society
From the ancient Chinese literature, the advent of the fan is first of all due to the needs of social politics, which is doomed to the mission of carrying social responsibility. For a long time, the fan was part of the court etiquette. At the same time, it is also given the supernatural ability to become a spell device. The type and method of use of fans vary according to occupation and identity, making the fan a status symbol reflecting people’s social status. In China, the fan and the intimate relationship with ancient women have received special attention from artists.
2·1·1: Symbol of hierarchy and authority: “Imperial fan”
The fan appeared in the ceremonies of the noble emperors from a very early age and became an integral part of Chinese ritual politics in the history of more than a thousand years. The long-handle fan not only protects the day from the imperial obstacles of the travel, but also has the effect of ensuring that the emperor of the Nine-Five Respect does not easily reveal his face and modify his majesty. In the historical development of China, the ceremonial fan has strict regulations and grades in terms of quantity, specification and texture. It is not only a symbol of the status and status of the ruler, but also a halogen book of the court.
2·1·2: The Power of Supernatural: Fans in Myths and Religions
In ancient Chinese mythology and folk beliefs, fans are not only given the function of exorcism and demon, but also as a symbol of power. This nature of the fan has become an important part of Chinese fan culture, appearing in oral art and literature.
2·1·3: Beauty covers: Fans and ancient Chinese women
In ancient China, fans and women had a unique love. The ancient Chinese woman gave the fan more space for imagination and creation, and the fan also fulfilled the colorful life of the ancient Chinese women’s life. The reason why the fan has become a favorite of women, and thus evolved into a kind of spiritual sustenance and dependence, in addition to the softness and elegance of the fan itself, the cultural connotation hidden in it is also an important reason. It is a kind of grievance culture that is inclusive of the talents of the ancient Chinese multiculturalism. In the poems of the later generations, it has become a symbol of the fate of the young and the loss of the beautiful. Throughout the ages, painters and poets use fans to express women’s emotions, interpretation of women’s destiny, and constantly enrich the connotation of fan culture.
2·1·4: Life props: fan and social identity
Different fans and their different ways of use usually reflect the user’s social status and identity: the fan is used by everyone; the palace fan is used as an ceremonial ceremonial, showing the emperor and the king’s supremacy; the fan is a peasant woman, a servant, a matchmaker, The bearer used it; handsome Xiaosheng took the painting and folding fan, which seemed elegant and elegant; the big flower face Li Wei swayed the big folding fan, and there was a little bit of Sven in the mighty; and the goose feather fan in Zhuge Liang’s hand was a symbol of calmness, wit and wisdom.
2·2: Fan and life
In the daily life of people, fans first appear as “cool friends.” But in addition, the fan also acts as a messenger of love and friendship. Although the fan often serves as a gift to the courtiers of the king, but giving a fan between the scholars usually contains the meaning of encouraging the wind of benevolence. In some areas, fans are also a comfort to the loved ones.
2·2·1: “Fan-fan”: a fan in an ancient wedding
In the history of China, there are records of brides using masks. Before the appearance of the hijab, the fan once played a decisive role in the process of women’s marriage. When a woman marries, she must cover her face with a fan. At the wedding, she can move her face, which is called a fan. This custom was formed during the Northern and Southern Dynasties and was still popular in the Tang Dynasty. Therefore, the “fan” may be the previous life of the “hidden head”, but the custom of the fan is still an important ritual in the wedding.
2·2·2: Fengyang Renfeng: a fan as a gift
In ancient China, fans were often used for rewards between monarchs and ministers. From the Tang Dynasty, the fan was used as a gift to neighboring countries. The prevalence of folding fans is also related to the court’s courtesy of fans. In some rural areas in the south of the Yangtze River, there is a custom of giving fans a gift between friends and relatives during the Dragon Boat Festival. The fan is also a gift from the literati. Because this is a very personal item, accompanied by year-round, gradually become a favorite. Therefore, sending it as a fan is a symbol of precious friendship. In Chinese history, there are many friendships that are transmitted through the use of fans.
2·2·3: Hani funeral fan dance
In some ethnic groups, the fan also bears the function of sending away relatives and mourning. For example, in the funeral fan dance of the Hani people, dancers dressed in white are dancing with feather fans and become an important part of the funeral activities.
2·3: Fan and Art
Since the popularity of the folding fan in China, it has not only become a world of craftsmanship, but also became a world of literati and painter poetry and painting, and has become a world of artistic creation. At the same time, fans have also entered the stage of drama and become a performing artist. An expression of the props.
2·3·1: Fan and painting art
The fan, once the literati and the painter’s hand, has an indissoluble bond with the painting and calligraphy. In the early days, most of the fans were not books. With the rise of the literati paintings in the Song Dynasty, the situation of painting and painting began to increase. Finally, poetry, books, paintings, and prints were integrated into the same fan, forming a colorful and unique A distinctive Chinese fan culture. Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the scholars of the literati have been inscriptions on the fan, “Ming 4”, “Qingliujia”, “Qingsi”, “Jinling Eight”, “Yangzhou Eight Monsters”, to the modern Ren Bonian, Qi Baishi, Xu Beihong, Zhang Daqian, etc., have a large number of fan works handed down. The painting and fanning has become a dazzling “otherpiece” in the treasure house of Chinese painting and calligraphy.
2·3·2: Fan and Performing Arts
“The Bashu Dancer” is a fan dance, indicating that fan-in dance has begun in the Han Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty was influenced by the Western Regions, and the dance flourished. Many of the dances used fans as props. In the Song Dynasty, the fan began to enter the opera as a prop, and became an indispensable expressive object in the opera stage in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. In traditional operas, there are many kinds of fans, and the styles are different. Among them, the folding fans are especially used, and the ugliness can be used.
Chinese Fan Museum
The China Fan Museum is one of three national-level museums (China Knives and Sword Museum, China Umbrella Museum, China Fan Museum) funded by the Hangzhou Municipal Government. The site is located in the West Historic and Cultural Street of Gongyu Bridge, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province. It is planned to be Xiaohe Road in the west, west to the bridge in the east, Tongyuanli in the south, and Tongheli in the north (the three major venues are in the same position).
The function of the museum is mainly to publicize and promote the long-standing fan skills of our country, to discover and protect traditional handicrafts, and to take into account the display and collection. The museum has become a national-level museum with professional characteristics, Hangzhou characteristics and canal features, integrating collection, research, display, education, publicity, entertainment, shopping and other functions, and strives to build it into a “domestic leading, world.” A state-of-the-art, state-of-the-art museum.
There is a Ming and Qing fan street in the museum, and a glass visual interpretation system is set up. Standing in front of the display window of the folding fan, the glass surface is sensed and the corresponding commentary is projected. At the same time, the museum also uses the robot to explain and some people pass by. The sensor can detect that the robot dressed as a fan shop staff will greet.