The Architecture of Uttar Pradesh is renowned for its variety of various religious monuments. The architecture of Uttar Pradesh is mainly developed by Islamic Architecture. It includes palaces, fortresses, buildings and various mausoleums. After falling under Muslim rule in the 12th century, many Hindu temples were destroyed and their mosques were built.
Many architectural creations in Uttar Pradesh are a mix of Hindu and Islamic architectural elements. Excellent archaeological heritage can be preserved in the town of Fatehpur Sikrit , Taj Mahal and Fort Agras . Huge architectural Hindu architects can be found in Brindavan and Varanasi . Hindu architecture of Uttar Pradesh is mainly composed of that temple. The most important places of Uttar Pradesh’s architectural beauty are Laknau , Varanasi , Agra and Vrindavani .
The Mogulans, who ruled most of the Indian subcontinent, made Agra and Delhi their capitals, while the third mogul emperor, Akbari , sought to maintain the harmony between Hinduism and Islam. He also tried in mixed architecture the practical sciences of Hinduism with Islamic Architecture Styles. It included column construction technology and Hindu Architectural Style and developed its unique style of architecture. This style is reflected in his grave in Sikandra, outside Agras and in the new city he built, named Fatehpur Sikri . Mogule Gardens built by Babur in Agra are a prominent example of Uttar Pradesh’s Islamic Architecture. The main elements of Mogule’s architecture were sandstone and marble. Taj Mahal ‘s architecture is the most impressive monument of Uttar Pradesh. Laknau , the capital of Uttar Pradesh is a depot of Islamic architecture with Imambarat of Lucknow as Bara Imambara , Chota Imambara and Friday Mosque Masjid Masjid .
Vrindavani is a place of Hindu architecture in Uttar Pradesh . Most of the Vrindavan temples were built under the rule of the emperor mogul Akbar , so in these temples are introduced some Islamic architectural elements. In Varanasi there is a mix of Rajput, Hindu and Muslim architecture.
British colonial buildings built for administration, courts, hospitals, police stations, railways, banks, etc. are still seen in most cities; their architecture in most cases is simply functional. The architectural panorama of Uttar Pradesh is a generous union of Hindu and Islamic architecture.
Most of the ancient buildings and structures at Sarnath were damaged or destroyed by the Turks. However, amongst the ruins can be distinguished:
The Dhamek Stupa; it is an impressive 128 feet high and 93 feet in diameter.
The Dharmarajika Stupa is one of the few pre-Ashokan stupas remaining, although only the foundations remain.
The Ashoka Pillar erected here, originally surmounted by the “Lion Capital of Asoka” (presently on display at the Sarnath Museum), was broken during Turk invasions but the base still stands at the original location.
The Sarnath Archaeological Museum houses the famous Ashokan lion capital, which miraculously survived its 45-foot drop to the ground (from the top of the Ashokan Pillar), and became the National Emblem of India and national symbol on the Indian flag. The museum also houses a famous and refined Buddha-image of the Buddha in Dharmachakra-posture.
For Buddhists, Sarnath (or Isipatana) is one of four pilgrimage sites designated by Gautama Buddha, the other three being Kushinagar, Bodh Gaya, and Lumina.
Famous temples are Kashi Vishwanath Temple in Varanasi and Krishnajanmabhoomi in Mathura.
Atala Masjid of Jaunpur shows a lot of influences of Hindu architecture. In fact, there is a clear resemblance of Hindu style of architecture, in the entire Masjid. The reason for such similarity is because the Atala Masjid is situated on the site of a temple of Atala Devi. Hence the Atala Masjid, Jaunpur also gets its name from this Hindu Temple.
Uttar Pradesh has three World Heritage Sites: Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and the nearby Fatehpur Sikri. Allahabad Fort stands on the banks of the Yamuna near the confluence with the river Ganges. It is the largest fort built by Akbar.
Lucknow, the capital of the state, has several beautiful historical monuments such as Bara Imambara and Chhota Imambara. It has also preserved the damaged complex of the Oudh-period British Resident’s quarters, which are being restored.
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