Categories: ArchitectureCulture

Architecture of Hong Kong

The architecture of Hong Kong features great emphasis on Contemporary architecture, especially Modernism, Postmodernism, Functionalism, etc. Due to the lack of available land, few historical buildings remain in the urban areas of Hong Kong. However, Hong Kong has become a centre for modern architecture as older buildings are cleared away to make space for newer, larger buildings. It has more buildings above 35m (or 100m) and more skyscrapers above 150m than any other city. Hong Kong’s skyline is often considered to be the best in the world, with the mountains and Victoria Harbour complementing the skyscrapers.

Pre-sincisation architecture
Back in the day of the Nanyue kingdom, Hong Kong was already inhabited. Baiyue peoples in the area demonstrated some level of sophistication in architecture. An example is the Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb.

Local and Lingnan architecture
Prior to the British settlement of Hong Kong in 1841, architecture in Hong Kong was predominantly Cantonese. With the majority of the population being fishers at the mercy of typhoons and pirates, numerous Tin Hau Temples were dedicated to their patron Goddess Mazu. Likewise farmers built fortified villages to defend themselves from bandits.

After the British established the entrepôt of Victoria City (now Central and Western District on Hong Kong Island), the local population increased substantially, and as a result Tong Lau (tenement common in Southern China, especially Lingnan) began to appear. These were three-to-four-storey buildings, tightly packed in city blocks, and combining Southern Chinese and European architectural elements. The ground floor were typically shops, with apartments and small balconies upstairs. These buildings had stairs but no elevators, and sometimes had no toilet facility. These Tong Lau remained the mainstay of Hong Kong architecture until at least World War II; a number of these building survive to this day, albeit often in a derelict state.

Hong Kong walled villages
There are a lot of Wai Villages in the New Territories of Hong Kong (Yue Pin: Wai 4 cyun 1 ) – There are stone walls surrounding the villages around the village. Drainage origins around the 15th century . There are a lot of pirates on the coast of the South China Sea , and the re-enactment days are like walking in Hong Kong. At that time, Hong Kong residents scolded their pirates for the protection of their generous house prices. At the beginning, Wai Wai Tsuen mainly talked about the heads and vowed to behave in a crowded manner. After that, there were so many people from Lingnan who moved to Hong Kong. There are already several types of villages around the village today – the heads of the people and the Hakkas. Have their own generous customs around the village culture. Most of the people who know about the local area (Guahan: Bun 2 dei 6 wai 4 ) are surrounded by villagers living in generous villages. Every household has a separate room and there is a high wall of generous walls around the village. The foundations will be solidified with hemp stones , and the walls themselves are mostly made of blue bricks, and the walls of four sides have shots. Surrounding the building with neat construction, there will be a prominent central axis, and the shrine hall will be the end of the line with the ancestral hall . The outer side of the road will be dug around the moat, and most of the gates will be connected with iron gates or wooden crossbars – The structure of the lotus roots reflects that the lotus roots are a kind of style for self-defense.

Pang uk
The family members of the family who lived and lived in muddy waters from the sheds above (Paper 4 uk 1 ) are also a characteristic building in Hong Kong. The canal system was invented by the generous fishermen of the family from the 18th to 19th centuries. Traditionally, Drainage Houses have traditionally used to live in Dangshui, and they have been more than willing to go ashore. They even feel that they are making a good affair with the land. Therefore, they change the name of a person to be called “waterman”. In the 21st century, because of the relationship between urbanization and natural disasters, the family members began to integrate themselves into the mainstream society in Hong Kong, and they started to find out that the sheds in Hong Kong began to be deserted.

Classical Lingnan architecture in Hong Kong
After the 13th century, the southern part of Lingnan , which was buried in Hong Kong, was transformed into 7788. The classic Lingnan architecture (Guo din 2 ling 5 naam 4 gin 3 zuk 1 ) is basically in the shape of a figure, when Hong Kong is governed by Xinan County of Guangdong Province . Due to geographical relationships, Hong Kong’s generous architectural features and other places in the south of the Lingnan are indifferent to the traditional Cantonese temples , village houses , and Wai villages – while the classical Lingnan architectural styles, Guangzhou, Foshan, Gansu, Lingnan, and the Hong Kong capital there are a lot. This kind of style has good local characteristics . Compared with the northern part of the Central Plains , the warm climate in the Lingnan region is hot and wet, so you can relocate the Central Plains building. As a result, the Cantonese set up a set of architectural styles with the Central Plains. Classical Lingnan architecture is usually frivolous, and it will be picked up with transparent and anti-mold materials. The colored water will be more grayish or greenish and soft. In terms of structure, classical Lingnan buildings usually have multi-storey slope tops and buried square pillars, and because the weather is frozen in the north, people in the south of the Lingnan Mountains are willing to go outside – so the classical Lingnan residential architecture develops a lot of terraces. Generous structure, and others have been desolate. In general speaking, the features of this style make the classic Lingnan style buildings look lighter and cool.

Tong laus in Hong Kong
Guangdong’s generous culture – Lingnan culture – influenced by Tang Dynasty’s generous Chinese culture. At the beginning of the 20th century in Hong Kong, the Chih Lin Nunnery was given a boarding ceremony for the construction of the Sui and Tang dynasties . The Qu Tung Don King Hall designed with reference to the frescoes of the Ming Dynasty and the Japanese Imperial Palace Phoenix Hall. It is like with the group of Jinfo Temple in Kyoto , Japan (both of which are based on the Sui and Tang dynasties architecture). The architectural style of this building is red, gold and outward. The same color, water and light, and the classic Lingnan architecture form a strong contrast, and the building is very difficult to see – because It is as if the Mongolian people and the Manchus had been invaded by the large-scale invasion and destruction of the Hu -man, and many of the ancient Chinese culture had survived.

In the early days of Kaiyuan, the population of Hong Kong increased rapidly and there were a lot of Chinese-style buildings in the Tang Dynasty – a mix of Cantonese and Western styles. The Tang Building (Yantong: Tong 4 lau 4 ) is a building type that began to appear in the Lingnan region in the 19th century. When Hong Kong was immersed in Macau, Western European culture affected the generous and generous places. Drainage channels are mainly used by civilians on the lower berths. Most of the Hong Kong Tang buildings have three or four floors, each about four meters high. At the beginning of the drainage channel, mainly the use of green bricks began, and in the 1930s, it began to become concrete. After World War II, the generous population of Hong Kong began to rise. At that time, many people in the Tang Building lived in the entire room . Generally speaking, there will be one household responsible for the “flat charter” in the Tang House, and the Cantonese-language Hong Kong-style will have more words for “chartering the public” and “chartering the bride”.

The tenants living in the tenement house will be able to enjoy the unique features of Hong Kong and Macau, and the TV dramas will come to the fore.

European and American architecture
After the reclamation, the British brought a lot of architectural styles to Western Europe —especially the period of Victorian Edwardian architecture. Hong Kong also has very few Western architectural styles other than British architecture, such as the Italian Renaissance, the Chicago School, or the Bauhaus of Germany .

British architecture
Meanwhile, the British introduced Victorian and Edwardian architecture styles from the mid-19th century onwards. Notable surviving examples include the Legislative Council Building, the Central Police Station and Murray House. One building that has since been demolished was the Hong Kong Club Building; it was built atop a smaller structure designed in Italian Renaissance Revival style in 1897. The building was the subject of a bitter heritage conservation struggle in the late 1970s, which ultimately failed to save the building.

The first building in Hong Kong to be classified as the first high rise was constructed between June 1904 and December 1905. It consisted of 5 major buildings, each stacking 5 to 6 stories high. The structures were raised by the Hong Kong Land company under Catchick Paul Chater and James Johnstone Keswick.

Most high rise buildings to be built afterwards were for business purposes; the first true skyscraper in Hong Kong was built for HongkongBank in 1935, which was also the first building in Hong Kong to have air conditioning; however this has since been replaced with the HSBC Main Building, Hong Kong of 1985. Likewise the few examples of 1930s Streamline Moderne and Bauhaus architecture in Hong Kong, such as the Central Market and the Wan Chai Market, are facing imminent demolitions despite protests from heritage conservation groups.

In the residential sector, multi-story buildings did not appear until the Buildings Ordinance 1955 lifted the height limit of residential buildings. This change was necessitated by the massive influx of refugees into Hong Kong after the Communist revolution in China in 1949, and the subsequent Shek Kip Mei slum fire in 1953. Public housing estates, originally seven-storeys high with notoriously cramped conditions, public bathrooms and no kitchens, were hastily built to accommodate the homeless; meanwhile private apartments, still tightly packed into city blocks like the Tong Lau of old, had grown to over 20 stories high by the mid-1960s.

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The private housing estate began in 1965 with Mei Foo Sun Chuen. The first major private construction came from Swire properties in 1972 with the development of middle-class estate of Taikoo Shing. With little space wasted on statues or landmarks that consumed unnecessary real estate, Taikoo Shing’s design was the new standard.

Hong Kong has been a row in the British colony, and Hong Kong is heavily tied to a prime period in Hong Kong. Therefore, Hong Kong naturally takes advantage of a large British-style building (Jing 1 sik 1 gin 3 zuk 1 ). In general, Hong Kong’s generous British architecture has scored four generations :

The first generation of buildings was dominated by Victorian architecture (between the middle of the 19th century and the first century, the style of Queen Victoria during her reign). The buildings are mainly used for military purposes and they are designed by architects. They are composed of military officers and soldiers. Therefore, the conversation is good and beautiful, just like Stanley’s apartment, Murray House is practical and complete.唔 Conversation is artistic;
The second generation of architecture is based on the style of Edward (referring to Queen Victoria’s Queen Edward VII ). In a period of time, there were architects who specialized in the industry, so that when Europeans started building, they began to pay attention to aesthetics. They appeared to resemble Queen Anne Revival and Edward Baroque (English: Queen Anne Revival). ) In style, the shape of the building will begin to change into a magnificent one. There will be two or more high-level giant orders, a triangular pediment in the same building, and a dome. Or Towers, such as the Court of Final Appeal, are tied;
The third generation of buildings began to greet after World War I, and the monarchs were nominated by monarchs. When the Westerners clamored to re-enact the classical architectural styles of Greece and Rome, they began to embrace the modern design revolution and create new styles. Hong Kong has also affected the market. There are two styles in this period: Stripped Classicism and Art Deco. In the former, the classical style and extra ornaments were taken away, emphasizing simplicity and majesty. The architects will use the government buildings to build the buildings. The Art Deco style can be seen again and again, simplifying the decoration to the design of the triangulation or simple lines.
The fourth-generation architecture is dominated by the Modern Architecture. This kind of tactics emphasizes that the beauty of a building must be derived from the use of channels and functions, and it can be completely irrelevant to decorate it. It makes the shape of a building simple and neat, and it is even slightly redundant. Generous lines or geometric patterns are paralyzed. It’s so common in buildings and in Central .

Contemporary architecture
the late 1990s, the primary demand for high-end buildings was in and around Central. The buildings of Central comprise the skyline along the coast of the Victoria Harbour, a famous tourist attraction in Hong Kong. But until Kai Tak Airport closed in 1998, strict height restrictions were in force in Kowloon so that aeroplanes could come in to land. These restrictions have now been lifted and many new skyscrapers in Kowloon have been constructed, including the International Commerce Centre at the West Kowloon reclamation, which has been the tallest building in Hong Kong since its completion in 2010.

Many commercial and residential towers built in the past two decades are among the tallest in the world, including Highcliff, The Arch, and The Harbourside. Still, more towers are under construction, like One Island East. At present, Hong Kong has the world’s biggest skyline with a total of 7,681 skyscrapers, placing it ahead of even New York City, despite the fact that New York is larger in area. Most of these were built in past two decades.

Hong Kong’s best-known building is probably I. M. Pei’s Bank of China Tower. The building attracted heated controversy from the moment its design was released to the public, which continued for years after the building’s completion in 1990. The building was said to cast negative feng shui energy into the heart of Hong Kong due to the building’s sharp angles. One rumour even went so far as to say that the negative energy was concentrated on the Government House as a Chinese plot to foil any decisions taken there. The two white aerials on top on the building were deemed inauspicious as two sticks of incense are burned for the dead.

One of the largest construction projects in Hong Kong has been the new Hong Kong International Airport on Chek Lap Kok near Lantau, which was the most extensive single civil engineering project ever undertaken. Designed by Sir Norman Foster, the huge land reclamation project is linked to the centre of Hong Kong by the Lantau Link, which features three new major bridges: the world’s sixth largest suspension bridge, Tsing Ma, which was built in 1997, connecting the islands of Tsing Yi and Ma Wan; the world’s longest cable-stayed bridge carrying both road and railway traffic, Kap Shui Mun, which links Ma Wan and Lantau; and the world’s first major 4-span cable-stayed bridge, Ting Kau, which connects Tsing Yi and the mainland New Territories.

After World War II , with the development of society, Hong Kong has a lot of high-rise buildings. In addition to office buildings, there are a lot of public and private houses, and the core business district has a lot more skyscrapers .

Recent trends
In recent years, the new architectures in Hong Kong tend to be focused on providing more public green spaces that combine environmentally friendly concepts together with cultural exchanges, aiming to improve the quality of life of people. Besides green space, there are also the developments of unused old spaces by turning them into cultural hubs that nurture creativities and innovations. Architects have also explored more energy-efficient design.

West Kowloon Cultural District
Located at the headland of Kowloon, the West Kowloon Waterfront Promenade is a quiet haven in the busy city. Stroll along the boardwalk and find yourself surrounded on all sides by Hong Kong’s iconic waterfront scenes. The promenade includes an area for cultural exchanges, where live music is played during the weekends. A nice cycling and jogging path provide citizens an amazing harbour view while doing exercises.

A design hub which utilises old, unused spaces to create platforms for a variety of start-ups to showcase their best innovations and products for the public to get access to. After two years of renovations, the former police married quarters in Aberdeen Street, Central, has been reborn as PMQ.

Although studio spaces are small (about 450 sq ft), the hub is a great venue to foster a community. Spacious open-air corridors in front of each unit will be used for exhibitions and pop-up events; there will be a co-working space and units for overseas designers-in-residence. The PMQ’s entrepreneurial focus is the best chance for young Hong Kong designers to become successful, since the hierarchical nature of most local companies stifles innovation.

Hong Kong Science Park
It is a project which set to promote high end technologies and innovation ideas exchange. The development is a key infrastructure projects that integrates with Hong Kong’s advancement as a regional hub for high-tech innovation. The Hong Kong Science Park is located at Tolo Harbour and comprises three phases. Phase I site is divided into three zones: Core, Corporate and Campus. The Core Zone is centrally located and consists of communal and recreational facilities, meeting and conference rooms, exhibition halls, shops, dining areas as well as office spaces for small size companies. The Corporate Zone is located along the waterfront and is reserved for large size corporate companies who wish to operate in a building solely owned by them. The Campus Zone is situated by the Tolo Highway and is designed to accommodate medium size companies in multi-tenants buildings.

Source From Wikipedia