The rustic architecture in Switzerland refers to methods traditional to building of houses rustic in Switzerland that differ according to the geographical location where one can distinguish the Swiss plateau, the Jura and the Alps.
The peasant house is the main building of the farm which also includes farm buildings. The high diversity of natural areas in Switzerland (Alps, plateau and Jura) is reflected in the building materials (hardwood, conifers, stone, clay, straw) used in the Middle Ages. The separation of habitat operations building was originally the rule: the various rural activities were carried in separate buildings, aggregation (multi-purpose farm Dreisässenhäuser German) spread from the xi th century.
In the early days the Ständerbäuten timber constructions were assembled with tenons and ridge bea the spaces being filled with straw or mud plaster in most areas of the plateau. In the Prealps, one builds in Blockbau, houses of solid coniferous wood stripped of their bark with the joints filled with foam. Later, the woods were grinded to improve the joints and then, in the late Middle Ages, sawn timber was cut with Strickbau saw. In the alpine valleys near the southern regions, where stone is built, are the houses of the Gotthardbuilt of wood on a stone base.
To the east and northeast of the country, as in the cities of the same region, develop timbered houses while the north and west stone construction is spreading from the xi th century and xii th century. South of the Alps, dry stone is built. In contrast, wood construction has continued on the central plateau Aargau and Bern until xix th century.
The roofs in the Alps and the Alps are in Satteldach shingles often weighed down with stones. On the plateau, hipped roofs are straw or reeds or tavillons n 1. In the north of Ticino, the roofs are stone laid on a framework of tree trunks. In the south of Ticino and in French-speaking Switzerland, hollow tiles.
Among the few surviving medieval houses are Ulrich Zwingli’s birthplace in Wildhaus, made of squared tree trunks and the home of Nicholas of Flue in Flühli.
Various regional house types appeared at the xiii th century or xiv th century, differentiated by the use of buildings, the construction method and structure of the facades. In kitchens, hoods and chimney appeared only in the xvii th century, even in the xix th century in the poor regions. Closed economic stoves replace open fire stoves. Rural houses of the north and center of the Alps had from the xiv th century at the latest, a chamber heated by a stove.
In the isolated Alpine valleys, the typical construction is the Gotthardhaus (Gotthardhaus) which is a Blockbau wood construction resting on a stone base surrounding the cellar and the kitchen. This construction is widespread in Switzerland, upper valleys of Ticino, Valais and Graubünden (Walser), but also in the French and Austrian alpine regions,.
The Valais house is an example of this type of construction on stone base that can be found in the center of Valais as in Val d’Hérens. These wooden houses, which form towers on several floors, are home to several families forming a clan. One side is bricked up to the roof to allow the installation of several homes. The very flat Tätschdach roof is weighed down with 5 tones. The house of Obergo1718), located in Selkingen, is representative of the Valais house,.
In Ticino, the alpine house built in rough rubble replaces the Gotthardhaus: the Ticinese house (intended either for housing in the cellar or for the barn) is entirely in gneiss available on site as well as with lime, sometimes without mortar. The roofs are in stone slabs placed on a frame of tree trunks. The only other wood elements are the balconies and balustrades used for fruit drying.
The Engadin house includes housing and exploitation under the same roof. In Guarda are examples of the xvii th century this building. The frames of skewed windows as well as the facades decorated with murals and Sgraffite are characteristic,.
Unique in Switzerland, in Brusio in Val Poschiavo, there are the Crott, round constructions consisting of stones stacked without wood or mortar up to 4 meters in diameter and serving warehouse.
In the Bernese Oberland, peasant houses are solid wood worked at the saw, Strickbau or planks square, cut with an ax 5, decorated with wood carvings and paintings (especially in the xviii th century.
The Stöckli are small cottages in which the peasants used to grow old while the younger generations took over the operation and housing of the main farm. The Stöckli are part of the estate, so the older generations participate in the life of the farm without assuming any responsibility.
In eastern Switzerland and in central Switzerland, the slope of roofs is more pronounced and the windows are equipped with small awnings (Klebedächer) as protection against rain. In Appenzell, the bases of the ground floor are equipped with windows because they are work premises, they house the weaving.
Plateau’s agricultural regions
In the countryside Bernese, farre equipped with huge roofs rump which at the xvii th century, are reduced to half hilltops or ridges called “lame” in order to install a gallery and continuous windows overlooking rooms. The frames are largely carved and embellished with patterns.
The Argovian cottages are typical of the central plateau. Few houses still have their thatched roof, hundreds of them, having lost their original agricultural function, are now covered with tiles. The walls are made of fir planks.
On the eastern plateau and in Zurich, the buildings are half-timbered, the visible parts of which are painted brightly colored. The gaps between the woods are filled with stone masonry painted white.
In North-West Switzerland and on the Romand Plateau, the multi-purpose far Dreisässenhäuser) are built of stone,.
Jura massif area
The Jura far with multiple uses, have large facades gable entirely limestone lime. Sometimes the galetas are closed by vertical planks. The windows are framed in cut stone and until xvii th century, decorated with motifs Gothic or Renaissance. The gable roofs are slightly inclined and have a device to keep the snow.
The region of Mendrisio is located in the Po Valley. The farre Lombard type. The facades are plastered, several buildings are grouped together. Like the La Pobbia farm in Novazzano, the estate is run by several families. The farm is large shared between the different farms: more than 44 meters in length with galleries of loggias, several buildings with more than 50 living and operating rooms. The roofs are covered with tiles.
Source from Wikipedia