Architecture of Georgia

The Architecture of Georgia refers to the styles of architecture found in Georgia.

Georgian architecture is influenced by a number of architectural styles, including several each for castles, towers, fortifications and churches. The Upper Svaneti fortifications and the castle town of Shatili in Khevsureti are among the finest examples of medieval Georgian castles.

Georgian medieval churches have a distinct character, though related to Armenian and Byzantine architecture, typically combining a conical dome raised high on a drum over a rectangular or cross-shaped lower structure. Often known as the “Georgian cross-dome style,” this style of architecture developed in Georgia during the 9th century. Before that, most Georgian churches were basilicas. One distinguishing feature of Georgian ecclesiastical architecture, one which can be traced back to a high emphasis on individualism in Georgian culture, is reflected in the allocation of space inside the churches. Other examples of Georgian ecclesiastic architecture can be found overseas, in Bulgaria (Bachkovo Monastery built in 1083 by Georgian military commander Grigorii Bakuriani), in Greece (Iviron monastery built by Georgians in the 10th century) and in Jerusalem (Monastery of the Cross built by Georgians in the 9th century).

Other architectural styles in Georgia include the Hausmannized Rustaveli Avenue in Tbilisi and that city’s Old Town District.

Early Christian day
The main architectural and urban principles of Georgian architecture, as well as planning and spatial types of buildings and structures, have been formed.

The oldest cities of Georgia – the first capital of Mtskheta, Tbilisi, which became the capital of the VI century, and Ujarm as the second royal residence surrounded by walls with towers, had an isolated acropolis – a separate fortified upper city with the residence of the ruler. The best preserved ruins of the fortifications of the time Ujarm – on the active relief.

The oldest Christian churches in Georgia are trinovye basilicas with side open galleries for the public (Sioni Basilica in Bolnisi 478-493).

The characteristic early medieval monastery of Zedazeni is high in the mountains with the archaic triennial basilica of the IV century (without galleries, without any decor). The development of this type is the dome basilicas, in which the ductless elastic archs rely on internal christs in terms of the pylons (Church in Crom 626-634).

The appearance of tetrarch-type temples. In the V and VI in the Christian East, within the limits of the Eastern Roman Empire of great development, the construction of brick dome christenings – baptistery. It was here that the first time a classical tetraconkoy composition originated, which was already in VI. gave such grandiose buildings as the tetrankhos in Bosra 513 and in Apameya on the Oronta in the middle of VI century. These buildings in northern Syria over the centuries could be repeated by Armenian architects in the temple of Zvartnots in Echmiadzin 641-661. According to this model, several more buildings were erected in the Caucasus, in particular the church of the middle of the VII century. in the village of Bana in Georgia.

These colossal open-air tetragonhes with a roundabout effect on the development of the architecture of the entire Mediterranean – from Constantinople to Lombardy. However, the type of openwork altitude (about 38 m high to the zenith of the dome) of the tetragonchia with a roundabout turned out to be an architecturally-constructive system, too complicated in tectonic terms and statically unsafe. In the opinion of the architect-engineer O. Kuznetsov, this constructive task “was not tectonically resolved, and such a solution is logically hardly possible.” Therefore, it is no coincidence that most such structures disappeared in ancient times, mainly due to earthquakes. So the temple of Bana is now in ruins. The development and transformation of the tetraconic type is the temple type of Jvari.

In the same day the classical type of the baptismal single-dome temple was formed – Samtsevsy Rossi VII century.

One of the oldest sacral complexes in Georgia is the Shiomqvime monastery in the mountains near Mtskheta: prehistoric caves, dome temple of the 560s, the church of the hall type of the XII-XVII centuries, the refectory of the XIV century.

Arabic era and early Middle Ages
By the era of Arab domination and the early Middle Ages belong:

two-packed basilica of Quel’acminda in Gurjaan VIII-IX centuries.;
triennial, with a developed transept, a multi-convent temple in Osh 960;
Temple of Samtavisi in Kartli, 1030;
The temple of Bagrata in Kyatias in 1003 (destroyed by the Turks and at the end of the seventeenth century, survived in ruins).
In general, domination of temples of the cross-type type is characteristic of this age.

Golden Medieval
XII-XIII gave outstanding monastic complexes outside of Mtskheta: the monastery of Gelati with the main temple 1106; Bethany Monastery, end of XII – early XIII centuries: cross-temple temple of vertical elongated proportions with the fresco image of Tsarina Tamara in the interior. This temple is the foundation of King David the Builder and Queen Tamara.

The two main centers for the development of Georgian architecture are Mtskheta and Tbilisi.

Mtskheta is located at the confluence of the two main rivers of Georgia – Kura and Aragvi. Above the city, in the valley and over the entire landscape, dominated the temple of Jvari on a high mountain (translated – cross), 587-604. This temple (octagonal dome is based on 8 pillars) of the type of “inscribed tetraconha” – one of the most prominent monuments of Georgian architecture.

Near Mtskheta is a brick fortress of the Bebris-Tsike of the VIII-XVIII centuries, which controlled a great path through the Caucasus Range.

The main temple of Georgia is the Svet-Tskhoveli Cathedral of 1010-1029’s, built by the architect Arkuskidze. Went in the XIV century., Rebuilt in the early XV century. In the XIX century destroyed exterior galleries on the longitudinal facades, resulting in the composite features of the dome basilica. The place of burial of the Georgian kings. Surrounded by fortified walls with towers (ХVІ-ХVІІ centuries).

Not far from the Svet-Tskhoveli complex there is a more chambered scale Tsar Temple complex Samtavro of the XI century: a cross-vault church, a two-tier bell tower and a small chapel, the miniaturization of which emphasizes the monumentality of the temple.

Tbilisi The city became the capital of Tsar Vakhtang Gorgasalu. Lies in the valley of the Kura River on both its banks, clamped on both sides of the high slopes of the mountain plateau. A city of linear type, developed along the river. Narī-Kala dominates the city (the old fortress) of the IV-XVIII centuries. It has a citadel, an irregular (landscape) plan, double walls, stone and brickwork, plastic tower shapes.

Metechi Temple – the most prominent in the city, built in the V century., In 1278-1289 he restored after the destruction of the Mongol-Tatar, in the XVIII century. reconstruction of the dome was carried out. Consequently, the temple now has the form of a cross-shaped, triple-shaped, single-coil. Near the temple is a monument to Tsar Vakhtang Gorgasalu, who moved the capital from Mtskheta here.

Sion Cathedral VI century was originally a bez-dome basilica. Later reorganizations transformed the temple into a crucifix; in 1710 – the facade was faced with a new stone. Bell Tower 1425, rebuilt in the XVIII century. The second bell tower – 1812 (stylistics of Russian classicism).

Other architectural monuments of Tbilisi: the style of classicism is represented by the palace of the Russian Governor-General on Rustaveli Avenue in the middle of the XIX century.; historicism and modernism is represented by the building of the opera house in 1896, designed by the famous architect A. Schreter in the Moorish style. A little stylized in the old Georgian traditions, the church of the late XIX century. is the dominant Mtatsminda – a pantheon of prominent Georgians on the upper reaches of the mountain above Tbilisi. It contains the graves of I. Chavchavadze, Lado Gudiashvili and others.

The Architecture of the Soviet Occupation
Architecture at the time of the Bolshevik domination is represented by the masterpiece of architect O. Shchusev – the building of the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute (IMEL) on Rustaveli Avenue, 1938.

The last third of the XX century. (1970’s – until 1990) in the Georgian architecture has affected the extremely high level of architectural creativity, including the restoration of architectural monuments and the reconstruction of historical buildings, especially in the center of Tbilisi.

Civil architecture
Georgian civil architecture is influenced by numerous architectural styles, including castles, towers, fortifications and civil buildings. The fortifications of Upper Svanetia and the castle town of Shatili in Jevsureti are among the best examples of medieval Georgian castles.

Already during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Georgian architecture was influenced by foreign currents but giving them a characteristic touch, as with neoclassicism and art nouveau.

Other architectural styles in Georgia include the Haussmann style of Rustaveli Avenue in Tbilisi, the Old Tbilisi district and the local architecture based on Georgian wooden painted balconies.

Popular Architecture
Georgian architecture is influenced by many architectural styles, including several for castles, towers, fortifications and churches. The fortifications of Upper Svaneti and the castle town of Chatili in Khevsoureti are among the best examples of medieval Georgian castles.

Military Architecture
Svanetian tower, or Svane tower

Religious architecture
Georgian ecclesiastical art represents one of the most fascinating aspects of Georgian Christian architecture, combining classical dome style with the original basilica style. Also known as the “cross-domed Georgian style”, this style of architecture developed in Georgia in the 9th century. Before that, the majority of Georgian churches were basilicas. An important feature of Georgian ecclesiastical architecture, which can be traced back to the importance of individualism in Georgian culture, is the distribution of space within churches. Other examples of Georgian ecclesiastical architecture can be found abroad: in Bulgaria (the Bachkovo Monastery built in 1083 by the Georgian General Grigori Bakuriani), in Greece (the Iveron Monastery built in the 10th century by Georgians ) and Jerusalem (the monastery of the Cross built in the 9th century).

List of cathedrals of Georgia
Unesco tentative list 1
Alaverdi Cathedral ( October 24, 2007 )
Ananuri ( October 24, 2007 )
Colchis Wetlands and Forests ( October 24, 2007 )
David Gareji Monasteries and Hermitage ( October 24, 2007 )
Dmanisi Hominid Archaeological Site ( October 24, 2007 )
Grem Church of Archangels and Royal Tower ( October 24, 2007 )
Kvetera Church ( October 24, 2007 )
Mta-Tusheti ( October 24, 2007 )
Nicortsminda Cathedral ( October 24, 2007 )
Samtavisi Cathedral ( October 24, 2007 )
Shatili ( October 24, 2007 )
Tbilisi Historic District ( October 24, 2007 )
Uplistsikhe Cave Town ( October 24, 2007 )
Vani ( October 24, 2007 )
Vardzia-Khertvisi ( October 24, 2007 ).

Architecture and Town Planning
Other architectural styles of Georgia include the Haussmann Avenue Rustaveli in Tbilisi and the district of Old Tbilisi.

Source From Wikipedia