In Japan’s electricity sector wind power generates a small proportion of the country’s electricity. As of 2015, the country had a total installed capacity of 3,167 MW. Government targets for wind power deployment are relatively low when compared to other countries, at 1.7% of electricity production by 2030. It has been estimated that Japan has the potential for 144 GW for onshore wind and 608 GW of offshore wind capacity.
In Japan, diffusion has not progressed as much as Western countries. The reason is that if you install a windmill capable of withstanding typhoons, the cost will rise compared with the West and the difficulty in securing a flatland enough to install a large number of windmills, originally Japan has emphasized solar power as clean energy There is history and the like. Also, as Japan has a high degree of reliance on nuclear power generation as well as France, its dependence on wind power is weak, and in contrast, the United States and Germany have stopped policymaking the establishment of nuclear power plants in the United States and Germany, Increasing the dependence of.
Japanese electric power companies are reluctant to wind power generation projects, but projects such as “municipal windmill” by local governments and “citizen windmill” by citizen groups are advancing. .
In January 2006 a wind power plant was added as one of the map symbols. There is also a balloon wind power generation that utilizes the westerly wind.
Development / dissemination situation
The cumulative introduction volume of wind power generation (output 10 kW or more) in Japan is about 1400 as of March 2007, the total installed capacity is about 1.68 million kW, the power generation amount is the standard nuclear power plant (around 1 million kW) It is a fraction. In FY 2007, the introduction volume fell to less than half compared to the previous year. Looking at the output per unit, in 2007 the model with the installed capacity of 1 MW or more began to occupy the majority. Major wind power companies are Eurus Energy Holdings (Former Tomen Powerholders) (a joint venture between TEPCO and Toyota Tsusho), Japan Wind Power Development, Power Development, Eco Power (a subsidiary of Cosmo Oil), Gas and Power (Osaka Gas’ Subsidiary), Clean Energy Factory and others. With regard to large machines of 2 MW or more, which were independent places of overseas machines, the development of domestically produced machines is progressing. Most of the wind power generation facilities are imported products, and the proportion of domestically produced machines in fiscal 2007 is 16% on the basis of equipment capacity and 23% on the base.
In recent years, Japanese companies and research institutes are actively developing windmills suitable for the Japanese environment. As of 2014, there are about 2000 units nationwide, total generation capacity is about 2.5 million kilowatts.
Offshore wind power generation
As Japan has wide territorial waters and exclusive economic zones, expectations are directed towards wind power generation at sea.
Also, because of the deep water places, methods using a floating foundation are also being studied at the maritime technical safety research institute and IHIMU. For offshore wind power generation at offshore (offshore wind power generation), since it is difficult to transmit electricity to land, we produce hydrogen by electricity generated, compress it, transport it by adsorption to organic hydride, etc. It is expected that this will solve the problem of power fluctuation. In March 2002, the Institute of Science and Technology Policy announced “Proposal on methanol production utilizing deep ocean wind power generation”, and around Okinotorishima, Sanriku off Pacific, Northwest off Hokkaido Nihonkai etc. As a promising marine area, we propose a large-scale system that can cover all the energy demand in Japan, estimate its economic efficiency, etc., and said it can be put into practical use.
Costs per unit electricity generation in Japan (excluding expenses such as global warming cost etc) are set to 10 to 24 yen / kWh as of 2001, and if the conditions are good in Japan, practical level 9 to 13 There are some facilities reaching yen / kwh. However, although wind turbines in Europe and the United States are generally efficient with large diameter of 2500 – 5000 kw, Japanese windmills have difficulties in trading funds shortage and elongated plastics onshore transportation, and as of 2013, 400 – 1500 kw The reason is that poor efficiency due to small and medium caliber diameters and failure cases that purchased a windmill made in Europe that does not assume typhoons or lightning strikes (due to the appreciation of the yen) and failed due to a typhoon or lightning strike caused a failure are doing.
As of 2013, as wind power becomes more advantageous against thermal power in the yen depreciation policy, Japanese domestic wind turbines designed on the premise of Japanese typhoon and lightning will be less expensive than imported windmills, so Japanese wind power generation It is expected that it will regain the delay of construction and large caliber for Europe and the United States.
According to the announcement of Wind Farm of the third sector Aoyama Takahara Wind Farm, which is a part of Chubu Electric Power’s facility subsidiary Seatec, Iga and Tsu Investment Co., Ltd., which is engaged in wind power generation projected to become Japan’s No. 1 wind power generation facility in 2015, 40 Total cost of construction of wind turbines and wind substation for wind power generation with capacity of 10,000 kW is expected to be about 20 billion yen.
Policy · Introduction target quantity
In the “New Energy Subcommittee Report” by the METI ‘s investigation committee in June 2001, the installed capacity capacity target until 2010 was set to 3 million kW, and the Ministry of the Environment also announced the “Global Warming Promotion Outline “We set the target until 2010 to 3 million kilowatts but it is difficult to achieve together and it is difficult to reconsider various regulations and the fishery right does not become an obstacle to installation The offshore offshore wind power generation that can be installed in places of several tens of kilometers deep into the water There was also an opinion that technology development should be hurried. In addition, an increase in the target number of introduction of the RPS method was also examined.
There are cases where large-scale wind power generator makers in Japan increase their production in response to demand increase both inside and outside and export actively. Industry organizations can introduce 7.6 million kW in 2020 (of which 1.4 million kW for offshore) and 11.8 million kW in 2030 (of which 5.6 million kW for offshore) can be introduced. In addition, the target of 20 million kW (land 700 mW, offshore 13 MW) in 2030 is being considered as a more aggressive incorporation of future technology development. In the 2030 energy mix shown by the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy in 2015, the target of wind power generation was 10 million kw including offshore wind power of 820,000 kW.
Impact on health
Complaints from residents living near the windmill (see next section) mostly concerns the influence on sleep. The Ministry of the Environment conducts an epidemiological survey on sleeping effects for 747 residents around 34 wind farms around the country and 332 residents in the control area. The influence of sleeping due to windmill noise is often chronic, which directly leads to a disease called “sleep disorder (environmental sleep disorder)” caused by windmill noise. According to the survey results of the Ministry of the Environment, the relationship between the prevalence of environmental sleep disorder and the noise level of wind turbine noise was analyzed and the relationship with the noise level is shown. According to it, a statistically significant rise in sleep disorder prevalence has been detected in areas with outdoor noise level of wind turbine noise of 41 dB or more. Regarding the effects of windmill noise on sleep, numerous epidemiological findings, including systematic reviews and meta-analyzes, have been reported.
The Ministry of the Environment shows guidelines for evaluating the influence of wind turbine noise in May 2017. In the report of the study meeting that was the basis of the guidelines, some epidemiological surveys carried out by the Ministry of the Environment itself have been cited, but “Windmill noise is a possibility of causing sleeping effects associated with troublesome (anoyuans) Although there is little possibility that it directly affects human health “. By inserting the word “directly” the conclusion that misunderstanding that windmill noise is “the possibility of affecting human health is low” is stated. Although it can be said that sleep disorder due to windmill noise occurs via perception of sound and it can be said that it has no direct influence, pollution diseases such as Minamata disease caused by fish and shellfish and atmosphere and Yokkaichi asthma are also included , It is a characteristic of pollution diseases that indirectly cause health effects. Despite the fact that direct and indirect are not important for causal judgment of pollution diseases, we excluded sleeping effects due to windmill noise from “direct health effects”, denying the causal relation between windmill noise and health effects.
After the Ministry of the Environment has issued guidelines, there is a reply from the business operator that “the possibility of direct impact on human health is low”, but this response includes diseases such as sleeping effects due to windmill noise and environmental trouble sleeping disorders Note that it does not contain.
Impact on the living environment
Occurred from a windmill installed close to the house, neighboring residents complained about complaints and health injuries, and the Ministry of the Environment has sought to investigate. Additionally, addition to the environmental assessment target project was examined in 2009 in terms of legislative system.
On 29th March 2010, the Ministry of the Environment measured noises and low frequency sounds characterized by 160 to 200 Hz in a residence 350 m from wind power generation facilities in Tahara City, Aichi Prefecture, and about 210 m and 240 m in Ikata Town, Ehime Prefecture We also announced that 31.5 Hz and 160 to 200 Hz were measured in two separate houses too. Also on October 7, 2010, “Survey on Actual Conditions of Noise and Low Frequency Sounds” was announced, and questionnaires were obtained from 186 enterprises in 40 prefectures exceeding output of 20 kW, 25 complaints continued, complaints concluded 39 cases, totaling 64 places announced that there were complaints of noise and low frequency sound. According to the summary result by output / distance, the proportion of continuing complaints is 36% in the range of 300 to 600 m, 29% in the range of 600 to 900 m for the single machine output of 2000 to 2500 kW with many information obtained at that time, , And it was 20% at 900 ~ 1200 m. In the range of 300 to 600 m, the proportion of continuous complaints has risen remarkably as the output of single unit increases. In this survey, since we investigated the existence of complaints only for the house closest to the windmill, the rate of complaints occurrence in dwellings exceeding 1200 m is unknown. In the environmental assessment, quoting the results of this survey, businesses’ responses such as “there are no continuing complaints beyond 1200 m” are incorrect.
Impact on ecosystem
Since wind power generation is outside the application of the Environmental Impact Assessment Law (Environmental Assessment Law) in Japan, preliminary surveys also rely on the voluntary efforts of business operators, and there are also many insufficient environmental impact assessments. In addition, preliminary survey tends to qualitatively predict literature and other examples, making accurate evaluation difficult. Evaluation based on highly accurate data is often obtained only by a post-survey after installing the windmill. Therefore, some prefectures have established environmental standards by their own ordinance (see Bird Strike # Wind Power Generation Facilities).
Aoyama Takahara Wind Farm (60 units, 91 units in Aoyama plateau as a whole) There are voices where tourism resources decline due to tree cutting accompanying construction and deterioration of landscape due to the turbulence of large wind turbines, like a hill and wind hill park. Meanwhile, there is a movement to make a majestic sight of a large windmill forest as a new tourist resource, for example wind power plants in Horonobe-cho, Hokkaido (28) are popular with touring riders.
Moreover, while the Ministry of the Environment is positioned as actively promoting wind power generation, regarding the location in the natural park, examination criteria are examined by establishing a study group on how to install wind power generation facilities, and at the present time the preventive position We are taking a generally cautious stance from. Regarding this, many opinions are asked for deregulation with public comment etc, and as in other countries, there is always room for discussion. As a public installation standard, the Natural Park Law Enforcement Regulation was partially revised in the spring of 2004, and it was enforced on April 1 of the same year.
Renewable energy purchase system
Since renewable energy other than hydroelectric power is orders of magnitude less diffuse than existing thermal power plants and nuclear power plants and it is disadvantageous in terms of price competitiveness, etc., there are some forms of grant renewable energy such as introduction of carbon tax We need measures (see Renewable Energy # Diffusion Policy).
The RPS law, which has been held in Japan, is a method that obliges electric power companies to introduce them at a fixed rate and is classified as a fixed frame (quota or green certificate trading) system. Although this method shows a certain effect at the beginning of the introduction, it has been pointed out that disadvantages such as the fact that the risk of the power generation company side is high in actual results in each country, and the substantial reduction effect of the power generation cost is low. As a result, even in the UK where wind conditions are considered good, diffusion does not proceed, cost has stopped high, etc. As a result, initial objectives have not been achieved. In addition, under the existing system in Japan, electric power companies also showed a negative attitude towards purchasing wind power generation by giving priority to their own existing power supply, which is advantageous in terms of power procurement cost, and the opportunity for entry by wind power companies is set by a power company Problems such as being limited by bordered frames and irregular bidding have been pointed out. In 2008 Kyushu Electric Power announced expansion of the introduction frame.
On the other hand, the fixed price buying system (FIT system), which is increasingly adopted, obligates electric power companies to purchase electricity and legally guarantees the purchase price, thereby reducing the risk of the power generation businesses. While introducing the quantity promptly according to the market principle, the slower installing company gradually reduces the purchase price, adjusts the total cost, and encourages competition among equipment manufacturers. It is said that introduction promotion and cost reduction effect are high for the other methods from the past record, and it is now adopted by many countries in Europe. For this reason, civil society organizations have submitted opinions to introduce and consider in Japan too. Political parties and administrations also moved, following the introduction of a new purchasing system for photovoltaic power generation in 2009, introduction of other renewable energy including wind power was also considered and introduced from 2012 Fixed price buying system # see Japan).
Subsidies dependence issue
Japan’s wind power generation has been promoted based on subsidies from the Special Energy Countermeasure, but as of 2010, 60% of the wind power generation is in the red. Direct cause is due to institutional destruction due to lightning strike and lack of availability due to lack of air volume, but due to the lack of cost consciousness of developing companies and local governments relying on national aid, is there.
In response to such a situation, the government’s administrative reform conference showed that subsidies were not effectively utilized, and called for reduction of budget.
Preliminary survey and power generation forecast
In Japan, long-term power generation forecasting is possible in advance by implementing wind condition survey by NEDO etc., development of prediction technology, accumulation of actual data. Also, in actual installation, actual measurement using wind turbines for measurement and simulation based on peripheral terrain are also used. The annual variation in the annual total power generation amount is reported to be about ± 2 to 10% by the survey over 10 to 15 years, and if the wind condition investigation is carried out sufficiently, the risk of the wind regime seen in the long term is In many cases it does not cause problems in business.
In the case of incompleteness in the wind condition survey, the amount of electricity generation is smaller than the original forecast, and there are cases where it is in the red. In a famous example, Tsukuba city entrusted to Waseda University and the amount of windmill power set up for 300 million yen at elementary school etc was considerably less than expected due to the preliminary wind condition prediction being sweet It evolved into a lawsuit.
Although it is difficult to move parts driven into the ground, for example, when the situation is such that it does not deserve to continue operation due to circumstances such as the amount of electricity generation falling below the forecast, or when replacing with a more sophisticated model, the wind power prime mover at the top Basically it can be relocated or resold. In recent years the used market for wind power generators has also expanded in Europe and elsewhere.
Wind power plant in Japan
|Name of power plant||location||Total output||Business owner|
|Wind farm with no surprise||Wakkanai, Hokkaido||14,850 kW||Power supply development|
|Soya Cape Wind Farm||57,000 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Otonglui wind farm||Horonobe-cho, Hokkaido||21,000 kW||Horonobe wind power generation|
|Tomamae Green Hill Wind Park (Tomamae Wind Farm)||Tomamae-cho, Hokkaido||20,000 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Tomamae Winvilla Power Station||30,600 kW||Power supply development|
|JEN Kunitomori Wind Farm||Nemuro, Hokkaido||10,000 kW||Enex Power|
|Date Wind Farm||Date, Hokkaido||10,000 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Date Golden Wind Farm||34,000 kW|
|Yuta Wind Power Station||Shutosho cho Hokkaido||14,550 kW||Kusatsu-machi|
|Setana Rinkai Wind Power Station||Hokkaido Senta Town||12,000 kW||Power supply development|
|Ueno Wind Farm||Hokkaido Kamonokuni cho||28,000 kW||Power supply development|
|Esashi Wind Power Station||Esashi Town, Hokkaido||21,000 kW||Esdag Wind Power|
|Esburg Wind Farm||19,500 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Ooma Wind Power Station||Oma-machi Aomori Prefecture||19,500 kW||Power supply development|
|Iwaya Wind Park||Higashidō village in Aomori||27,000 kW||Eco Power|
|Iwaya Wind Farm||32,500 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Blunt Wind Farm||19,250 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Odanosawa Wind Farm||13,000 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Euras Hitz Kitanozawa cliff wind farm||12,000 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Mutsu Ogawara wind farm||Rokkasho village in Aomori Prefecture||31,500 kW||Eco Power|
|Rokke village wind power plant · Second wind power plant||32,850 kW||Japan Wind Power Development|
|Rokkasho village Niba wind farm||51,000 kW|
|Mutorya Wind Power Station||10,000 kW||Aomori wind power development|
|Fukigoshi Terrace Wind Power Development Center||20,000 kW||Japan Wind Power Development|
|Soyoda Wind Farm||Yokohama Town Aomori Prefecture||10,500 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Nobeki Wind Farm||Aomori Prefecture Nozomi cho||50,000 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Ichiura Wind Power Station||Aomori Prefecture Goshogawara shi||15,440 kW||Kuroshio Wind Power Generation|
|Fukaura wind power plant||Fukaura Town, Aomori Prefecture||20,700 kW||West wing wind power generation|
|Green Power Kazumaki Wind Power Station||Iwate Prefecture Kuzumaki Town||21,000 kW||Power supply development|
|Kamaishi wide wind farm||Iwate Prefecture Kamaishi City , Tono City , Otsuchi Town||42, 900 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Noshiro Wind Power Station||Noshiro City, Akita Prefecture||14,400 kW||Tohoku Electric Power Co.|
|Hakuzu wind farm||Mikamachi, Akita Prefecture||25,500 kW||M wins|
|Oga Wind Power Station||Akita- shi Oga-shi||28,800 kW||Oga Wind Power Generation|
|Akita Harbor Wind Farm||Akita City, Akita Prefecture||18,000 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Nishigami Wind Farm||Yurihonjo city, Akita prefecture||30,000 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Yuri Highland Wind Farm||51,000 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Yurihonso Coastal wind power plant||16, 100 kW||Power supply development|
|Nigahara Takahara wind power plant||Nakaho-shi, Akita-ken||24, 750 kW||Power supply development|
|Yusa Wind Power Station||Yusa Town Yamagata Prefecture||14,560 kW||Shonai wind power generation|
|JRE Sakata Wind Power Station||Sakata City, Yamagata Prefecture||16,000 kW||Japan · Renewable · Energy|
|Koriyama Kobei Takahara Wind Power Station||Koriyama city Fukushima prefecture||65, 980 kW||Power supply development|
|Hayama Highland Wind Power Station||Tamura city , Fukushima prefecture · Kawauchi village||28,000 kW||Power supply development|
|Takine Koijin Wind Farm||Fukushima-ken Tamura-shi / Iwaki-shi||46,000 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Aizu Wakamatsu wind farm||Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture||16,000 kW||Eco Power|
|Satomi Wind Farm||Hitachiota City, Ibaraki Prefecture||10,020 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Summit Wind Power Kashima Power Station||Kashima city, Ibaraki prefecture||20,000 kW||Summit Wind Power|
|Hazaki Wind Farm||Kamisu city, Ibaraki prefecture||15,000 kW||Eco Power|
|Kamisu Wind Power Station||10,000 kW||Mitsuroko Green Energy|
|Wind / Power Kamisu 1st offshore wind farm||14,000 kW||Komatsuzaki city development|
|Wind / Power Kamisu 2nd offshore wind farm||16,000 kW|
|Choshi wind farm||Choshi City, Chiba Prefecture||10,500 kW||Eco Power|
|Choshi Wind Power Station||13,500 kW||Japan Wind Power Development|
|JEN Tennoin Wind Farm||Tennai City, Niigata Prefecture||20,000 kW||Enex Power|
|Suzu Wind Power Station||Suzu City, Ishikawa Prefecture||45,000 kW||Japan Wind Power Development|
|Wajima Community Wind Farm||Wajima-shi, Ishikawa||20,000 kW||Noto Community Wind Power|
|Fukuura wind power plant||Shiga Town, Ishikawa Prefecture||21,600 kW||Japan Sea power generation|
|Magome peak wind power plant||Nanao city, Ishikawa prefecture||15,000 kW||Hokuriku Power Station|
|Awara Kitagawa wind power plant||Awara City, Fukui Prefecture||20,000 kW||Power supply development|
|Izu Thermal River Wind Farm||Higashiizu-cho, Shizuoka Prefecture||15,000 kW||Clean Energy Factory|
|Higashi Izu wind farm||Higashi Izu-machi , Shizuoka prefecture · Kawazu-machi||18,370 kW||Tokyo Electric Power Company|
|Kawazu wind farm||Kawazu-cho, Shizuoka Prefecture||16,700 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Iroyazaki wind farm||Minamiizu-cho, Shizuoka Prefecture||34,000 kW||Power supply development|
|Omaezaki Wind Power Station||Omaezaki City, Shizuoka Prefecture||22,000 kW||Chubu Electric Power Company|
|Enshu Kakegawa Wind Power Station||Kakegawa City Shizuoka prefecture||15,970 kW||Kuroshio Wind Power Generation|
|Hamamatsu wind farm||Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Prefecture||20,000 kW||Fuso wind power generation|
|Tahara Coastal Wind Power Station||Tahara City, Aichi Prefecture||22,000 kW||Power supply development|
|Atsumi Wind Power Station||10,500 kW||Japan Wind Power Development|
|Aoyama Takahara Wind Power Station||Mie Prefecture Tsu city · Iga city||15,000 kW||Aoyama Highland Wind Farm|
|Shin Aoyama Highland Wind Power Station||80,000 kW|
|Wind Park Kaori||38,000 kW||Sea tec|
|Windpark Misato||Mie Prefecture Tsu city||16,000 kW|
|Okinawa Wind Farm||Mie Prefecture Deguchi Town||28,000 kW||Eco Power|
|Awaji Wind Power Station||Awaji-shi, Hyōgo Prefecture||12,000 kW||Kansai Electric Power Company|
|South Awaji Wind Farm||Minami-Awaji-shi, Hyōgo Prefecture||37,500 kW||Clean Energy Factory|
|Arita River Wind Farm||Aritagawa Town , Wakayama prefecture · Hainan City · Arita City||13,000 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Hirokawa · Hidakagawa wind farm||Wakayama prefecture Hirokawa cho , Aridagawa cho||20,000 kW||Eco Power|
|Hirokawa Akishama Wind Power Station||Wakayama prefecture Hirokawa cho , Yura cho||16,000 kW||Gas and power|
|Yura Wind Power Station||Yura cho Wakayama prefecture||10,000 kW||Gas and power|
|Hakuba Wind Farm||Hidakagawa Town, Wakayama Prefecture||30,000 kW||Golden brown|
|Hojo sand dune wind farm||Hokuei Town Tottori ken||13,500 kW||Hokuei Town|
|Tohaku Wind Power Station||Kotora-machi Tottori ken||19,500 kW||Japan Wind Power Development|
|New Izumo Wind Farm||Izumo City, Shimane prefecture||78,000 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Ezu East Wind Farm Wind Power Station||Gotsu Shimane Prefecture||22,000 kW||China Wind Power|
|Ezu Koyasan wind farm||20,700 kW||Shimane Prefecture|
|Wind Farm Hamada||Hamada-shi, Shimane Prefecture||48, 430 kW||Green Power Investment|
|Shirataki mountain wind farm||Yamaguchi ken Shimonoseki||50,000 kW||Golden brown|
|CEF Toyokawa Wind Farm||25,000 kW||Clean Energy Factory|
|Toyoura Wind Power Station||20,000 kW||Fuso wind power generation|
|Okawara Wind Farm||Tokushima city, Tokushima prefecture||19,500 kW||Eurus Energy Holdings|
|Seto Wind Hill Power Station||Ikata-cho, Ehime Prefecture||11,000 kW||Seto Wind Hill|
|Misaki Wind Park||20,000 kW||Misaki Wind Power|
|Iyo Wind Farm||18,000 kW||Eco Power|
|Minami Ehime Wind Power Station||Uwajima-shi, Ehime Prefecture||28,500 kW||Power supply development|
|Hayama wind power plant||Tsuno cho Kochi Prefecture||20,000 kW||Gas and power|
|Otsuki Wind Farm||Otsuki Town, Kochi Prefecture||12,000 kW||Green Power Investment|
|Hibikinada Wind Power Station||Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture||15,000 kW||Japan Wind Power Development|
Source from Wikipedia