Travel Guide of Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Trieste located in the northeast of Italy, is the capital of the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. Trieste was once a very influential and powerful centre of politics, literature, music, art and culture under Austrian-Hungarian dominion. Beautiful and cultured, Trieste is Italy’s most cosmopolitan city. There are still echoes of the glorious Habsburg past that made it “the little Vienna on the sea”, and in its characteristic mixture of languages, peoples and religions one easily senwwses its combined Central European and Mediterranean souls.

Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, belonging to it from 1382 until 1918. In the 19th century the monarchy was one of the Great Powers of Europe and Trieste was its most important seaport. As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (after Vienna, Budapest, and Prague). In the fin de siècle period at the end of the 19th century it emerged as an important hub for literature and music.

The incredible development that the city underwent in the 19th century thanks to its free port, led a multitude of workers from Italy to move here as well as many businessmen from all over Europe. This whirlwind growth led in just over a century the population to grow from a few thousand to more than 200,000 people, scattering the city with churches of all the major European religions.

The city, which lies at the intersection of Latin, Slavic, Germanic and Greek cultures, where Central Europe meets the Mediterranean Sea, is considered one of the literary capitals and was often referred to as an early New York City because of its diverse ethnic groups and religious communities. Since the 1960s, Trieste, thanks to its many international organizations and institutions, has been one of the most important research locations in Europe, an international school and university city and has one of the highest living standards among Italian cities.

Trieste is often forgotten and underestimated city, with a quiet and lovely almost Eastern European atmosphere, several pubs and cafes, some stunning architecture and a beautiful sea view. It was also, for a while, the residence of the famous Irish writer, James Joyce. Its artistic and cultural heritage is linked to its singular “border town” location. You can find some old Roman architecture (a small theatre near the sea, a nice arch into old city and an interesting Roman museum), Austrian empire architecture across the city centre (similar to stuff you can find in Vienna) and a nice atmosphere of metissage of Mediterranean styles.

The heart of the city is the most beautiful and most symbolic of all its squares, Piazza Unità d’Italia. The buildings around it perfectly summarise Trieste’s history. However, the most spectacular side of the square is the one facing the sea, from which a pier, the Molo Audace, extends for over two hundred metres. From here, the view sweeps beyond Piazza Unità and on to the monumental palazzi and the Greek Orthodox Church of San Nicolò on the Trieste Canal Grande (Grand Canal), the centre of the neighbourhood built at the behest of Maria Theresa of Austria. The churches in this district testify to the harmonious coexistence of different religions. In the distance, one can glimpse the white profile of Miramare, the romantic castle of Maximilian and Charlotte of Hapsburg.

Trieste is also the city of coffee. A free port for coffee imports from the 18th century onwards, the port of Trieste is still the busiest in the Mediterranean. In Trieste, coffee rhymes with literature: the city has numerous beautiful literary cafés, time, honoured coffee houses with a retro charm that were once the haunt of great novelists such as James Joyce, Italo Svevo and Umberto Saba and are still the preferred watering-holes of writers and intellectuals. Taking a break in one of Trieste’s old cafés is an unmissable ritual.

The Trieste region has been inhabited since the second millennium BC. During the imperial period the walls were built, partly still visible, the Forum and the Theater.

The city was witness to the Battle of the Frigidus in the Vipava Valley in AD 394, in which Theodosius I defeated Eugenius. In 788, Trieste submitted to Charlemagne, who placed it under the authority of their count-bishop who in turn was under the Duke of Friùli. From 1081 the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of Aquileia, developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th century. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Trieste became a maritime trade rival to the Republic of Venice which briefly occupied it.

The city maintained a high degree of autonomy under the Habsburgs, but was increasingly losing ground as a trade hub, both to Venice and to Ragusa. Following an unsuccessful Habsburg invasion of Venice in the prelude to the 1508–16 War of the League of Cambrai, the Venetians occupied Trieste again in 1508, and were allowed to keep the city under the terms of the peace treaty.

By the 18th century Trieste became an important port and commercial hub for the Austrians. In 1719, it was granted status as a free port within the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Charles VI, and remained a free port until 1 July 1791. The reign of his successor, Maria Theresa of Austria, marked the beginning of a very prosperous era for the city. Serbs settled Trieste largely in the 18th and 19th centuries, and they soon formed an influential and rich community within the city, as a number of Serb traders owned important business and had built palaces across Trieste.

Trieste was briefly occupied by troops of the French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars on several occasions. Following the Napoleonic Wars, Trieste continued to prosper as the Free Imperial City of Trieste, a status that granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government. The city’s role as Austria’s main trading port and shipbuilding centre was later emphasized with the foundation of the merchant shipping line Austrian Lloyd in 1836, whose headquarters stood at the corner of the Piazza Grande and Sanità.

The modern Austro-Hungarian Navy used Trieste as a base and for shipbuilding. The construction of the first major trunk railway in the Empire, the Vienna-Trieste Austrian Southern Railway, was completed in 1857, a valuable asset for trade and the supply of coal.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Trieste was a bustling cosmopolitan city. Trieste has a somewhat different history from Italy, to which it was annexed only in 1918. Italy, in return for entering World War I on the side of the Allied Powers, had been promised substantial territorial gains, which included the former Austrian Littoral and western Inner Carniola.

After a brief German occupation during World War II, in 1947, Trieste was declared an independent city state under the protection of the United Nations as the Free Territory of Trieste. In 1954, in accordance with the Memorandum of London, the city of Trieste joined Italy.

In the second half of the 20th century Trieste was able to reaffirm its identity as a multiethnic and multicultural city thanks to an artistic and literary heritage of international value and thanks also to the role played by the University, becoming also a popular tourist destination.

The Port of Trieste is a trade hub with a significant commercial shipping business, busy container and oil terminals, and steel works. The port is part of the Silk Road because it can also be used by container ships with very large drafts. During the Austro-Hungarian era, Trieste became a leading European city in economy, trade and commerce, and was the fourth-largest and most important centre in the empire, after Vienna, Budapest and Prague.

The economy of Trieste, fell into a decline after the city’s annexation to Italy at the end of World War I.However, since the 1970s, Trieste has experienced a certain economic revival. The real estate market in Trieste has been growing in recent years. This is due on the one hand to the Silk Road Initiative, the emerging urban tourism, the very good quality of life and on the other hand the comparatively low prices. Properties in the historical center close to the sea, especially in Barcola with its swimming and leisure opportunities, and on the surrounding coast are particularly sought after.

In 2004, together with other European countries, Slovenia became part of the European Union, and in 2007, it joined the Schengen Convention, thus eliminating the figure of Trieste as a border city. In particular, the convention regulates the opening of borders between the adhering countries; since 2007, therefore, the Italian-Slovenian borders have ceased to be an impediment to the free passage of goods and people.

Main Attractions
The center of Trieste is not very extensive and all the attractions of the historic center can be visited on foot. The surroundings (well connected by public transport) offer a very interesting variety of monuments, naturalistic areas and sports activities. In 2012, Lonely Planet listed the city of Trieste as the world’s most underrated travel destination.

Influenced by the Habsburg domination, the geographical position, towards the Balkans, make Trieste a particular city, with a strong Mittle-European character. Located in the extreme north-east of Italy, in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste has been, for centuries, a frontier place whose mark is revealed in elegant historical, artistic and architectural masterpieces.

A tour in Trieste can only start from the magnificent Piazza dell’Unità d’Italia, with the neoclassical and Viennese style of its palaces and the suggestive view that it offers opening, on one side, to the gulf: one of the largest squares in Europe overlooking the sea. The square is home to several buildings of interest: the Government Palace, former palace of the Austrian Lieutenancy and now the seat of the Prefecture, splendid for its balcony covered with Murano glass and white stone mosaics; the Palazzo Stratti with its historic Caffè degli Specchi; the town hall dominated by the bell tower and with the fountain of the Continents opposite; the very white building of Lloyd Triestino, formerly Palazzo Pitteri, now the seat of the Region.

Worth visiting is the fourteenth-century Cathedral of San Giusto, the result of the union between the Romanesque church of the same name and that of the Assumption. The church, with its mosaics, the splendid Gothic rose window and the adjacent bell tower, dominates the historic center of the city. Not far away is the fortress-museum of the Castle of San Giusto. Historical evidence from an older period is offered by the Arch of Richard, from the 1st century. A.D., and by the Roman Theater, from the II century A.D., today used for summer theatrical performances.

On the Gretta hill, the imposing Faro della Vittoria, a monument of Istrian stone from Vrsar and karst stone from Gabria, dedicated to the fallen of the First World War. Definitely worth a visit is the white Miramare Castle, which seems to have come out of fairy tales, surrounded by a green park and overlooking the sea. Among the other points of interest of the city there is the Grand Canal, an extension of the port of the city center, closed at the bottom by the neoclassical facade of the church of Sant’Antonio Nuovo; the Basilica of San Silvestro, one of the oldest places of worship in the city, the Synagogue and the beautiful Serbian Orthodox Temple of the Holy Trinity and San Spiridione, evidence of the cultural and religious melting pot of the city.

But Trieste is not just monuments, churches, museums and palaces. Much visited by tourists are its historic cafes, such as those in via San Nicolò, symbols of the Trieste passion for coffee and therefore meeting places and literary ferments, where writers and poets of the caliber of James Joyce, Italo Svevo, Umberto Saba, politicians and businessmen, gathered for readings and debates. A city alive today as yesterday, to be experienced by day and by night.

Religious architectures

Cathedral of San Giusto
The Cathedral Basilica of San Giusto is the main Catholic religious building in the city of Trieste. It is located on the top of the homonymous hill overlooking the city. As reported by most Trieste historians, the current appearance of the basilica derives from the unification of the two pre-existing churches of Santa Maria and the one dedicated to the martyr San Giusto, which were incorporated into a single building by Bishop Rodolfo Pedrazzani da Robecco. between the years 1302 and 1320 to provide the city with an imposing cathedral.

The first news regarding the cathedral dates back to the year 1337, when the bell tower of the former church of Santa Maria was covered with a thick wall to support the new building. The work on the bell tower was completed in 1343, but those on the church lasted until the end of the 14th century. The bell tower was originally higher, but in 1422 it was struck by lightning and was reduced to its current height. After the definitive dedication of the city to Austria (1382), the then emperor Leopold III of Habsburg appointed the first German bishop of Trieste, Enrico de Wildenstein, who on 27 November1385 consecrated the main altar of the cathedral putting an end to the works. In November 1899 Pope Leo XIII raised the sacred building of Trieste to the dignity of a minor basilica.

Serbian Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity and St. Spyridon
The Serbian Orthodox temple of the Holy Trinity and San Spiridione is the church of the Serbian Orthodox community of Trieste. Work of the architect Carlo Maciachini (1869), it stands on the site of the pre-existing church of San Spiridione, which was built in 1753. The architectural complex, located in the Borgo Teresiano near the Grand Canal of Trieste, reflects a Byzantine taste which is characterized by a dome higher than the four bell towers, due to the blue hemispherical caps and the large mosaic decorations that adorn the external walls. The façade is decorated with nine large statues by the Milanese sculptor Emilio Bisi.

Synagogue of Trieste
The synagogue of Trieste, inaugurated in 1912, located between via San Francesco, via Donizetti and via Zanetti in Trieste is considered one of the largest Jewish religious buildings in Europe, second in size only to the Great Synagogue of Budapest, reflecting its economic importance, cultural and social aspects of the Jewish communities within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With the first annexation of Trieste to Italy, which took place in 1920 at the end of the First World War, the Julian city became, together with the synagogues of Rome, Genoa and Livorno, one of the four great synagogues of the twentieth century on Italian soil.

Church of Santa Maria Maggiore
The church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, better known as the church of Santa Maria Maggiore, also known as the baroque church of the Jesuits, has a baroque style. Built in the 17th century by the Jesuit company, it has been managed by the Franciscan friars since 1922. The church is located in via del Collegio, at the foot of the San Giusto hill and near the basilica of Christ the Savior (formerly known as the basilica of San Silvestro), in the immediate vicinity of the historic center of Trieste.

Church of Sant’Antonio Taumaturgo
The church of Sant’Antonio Taumaturgo, commonly called the church of Sant’Antonio Nuovo, is the main religious building in the Borgo Teresiano and in the center of Trieste. The church project dates back to 1808, but the works did not begin until 1825. The facade of the building is characterized by six Ionic columns. Also on the main facade, in the attic, there are six statues sculpted by Francesco Bosa in 1842, depicting San Giusto, San Sergio, San Servolo, San Mauro, Sant’Eufemia and Santa Tecla. The church is located in the square of the same name, close to the Canale Grande.

Marian shrine of Monte Grisa
The national temple to Mary Mother and Queen (in Slovenian Svetišče na Vejni), the original name of the religious building which was later elevated to a sanctuary, is a Catholic church north of the city of Trieste, located at an altitude of 330 meters on the mountain Grisa (in Slovenian Vejna), from where you have a spectacular view of the city and the gulf. It was designed by the architect Antonio Guacci on a sketch by the bishop of Trieste and Koper Antonio Santin: the triangular structure evokes the letter M as a symbol of the Virgin Mary. The construction took place between 1963 and 1965, while the inauguration, by the bishop himself, took place on May 22, 1966.. The sanctuary is characterized by an imposing reinforced concrete structure, with the presence of two superimposed churches.

Church of San Pasquale Baylon
The church of San Pasquale Baylón is a Catholic place of worship in Trieste. It is located in the Chiadino district, inside the large park of the noble villa of Baron Pasquale Revoltella, in via Carlo de Marchesetti 37. The church, in neo-Romanesque style with a Greek cross plan, was built between 1863 and 1866 on project by the architect Giuseppe Josef Andreas Kranner of Prague and was consecrated on 17 May 1867 by bishop Bartolomeo Legat. The church of San Pasquale Baylón stands on a base under which there is a crypt where two sarcophagi are buried which preserve the bodies of Baron Pasquale Revoltella and his mother Domenica. A testamentary disposition of 13 October 1866 by Baron Pasquale Revoltella constituted a Pious Foundation with the obligation, for the chaplain, of the school education and spiritual assistance of the villagers of the place as well as the celebration of two masses every year in suffrage for himself and his mother (one on May 17, the feast of Saint Pasquale Baylón, and one on August 15, the feast of the Assumption).

Civil architectures

Post Office Building
The Palazzo delle Poste di Trieste is an important historical building of the Julian city. The main entrance is in Piazza Vittorio Veneto. Inside is the Trieste headquarters of the Italian Post Office and the Postal and Telegraphic Museum of Central Europe. The Palazzo delle Poste di Trieste was built between 1890 and 1894 by the architect Friedrich Setz. The area occupied by the Customs (built on the ancient salt pans that once occupied the area on which the Borgo Teresiano currently stands) was destined for the new building. The building, arranged on a rectangular area of almost 7 100 square meters, was conceived from the beginning to house both the post and telegraph offices, and those of finance, so the interior is structured in two distinct bodies of 3 500 square meters each. Currently the building houses the Trieste branch of the Italian Post Office on the side of Piazza Vittorio Veneto and on the ground floor the Postal and Telegraphic Museum of Central Europe.

Justice palace
The Palace of Justice is a judicial building in Trieste which is located near the Foro Ulpiano. In February 1895, during the Austro-Hungarian era, the Provincial Diet of Trieste and the Civic Magistrate decided to build a single architectural complex that contained all the judicial offices, prisons and the archive of the Tavolari Books, at the time located in different areas of the city, including in via Santi Martiri (now via Duca d’Aosta), in via della Sanità (now via Armando Diaz) and in the Bordeaux building. The Austrian government asked for financial help from the municipality of Trieste which, after an initial refusal due to lack of funds, agreed to sell to the Treasury a land of 37 214 m 3 at the subsidized price of 324 919 Austro-Hungarian florin, with contract signed on 25 July 1898.

Galatti Palace
Palazzo Galatti, commonly called the Palazzo della Provincia, is a nineteenth – century palace in Trieste, located in the city center, in Piazza Vittorio Veneto but with accesses also from the streets of Rome, Galatti and of the Geppa. The building consists of three floors above ground. Until 30 September 2017, the date of suppression of the institution, it was the registered office and the most important operational headquarters in the province of Trieste. Following the implementation of the Regional Law 26/2014 Reorganization of the Region – Local Authorities system in Friuli Venezia Giulia. Arrangement of inter-municipal territorial unions and reallocation of administrative functions, the property passed to the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia-Giulia for which it houses the offices of the Presidency, Social Services and Policies and Higher School Building of the UTI Giuliana.

State Railways Building
The Palazzo delle Ferrovie dello Stato is a nineteenth – century palace in Trieste, located in the city center, in Piazza Vittorio Veneto but also with accesses from the Milan, Galatti and Filzi streets. The building consists of five floors above ground. Currently, following the implementation of a plan to move the offices of the Railways to other structures, the building is empty and has been put up for sale. The building of the Departmental Directorate of the State Railways was built between 1894 and 1895 on a project by the architect Raimondo Sagors. The building housed some commercial activities on the ground floor including Ignazio de Brull’s shop, while in the rear part of the building complex, in the Fascist era, there was the Teatro del Dopolavoro Ferroviario, which became Cinema Vittorio Veneto, inaugurated in 1949.

Palace of the Austrian Lieutenancy
The palace of the Austrian Lieutenancy, or the palace of the Prefecture of Trieste, is one of the most important buildings dating back to the Habsburg rule present in Trieste. The main and monumental entrance is in piazza dell’Unità d’Italia, but the building also overlooks piazza Verdi and via San Carlo. Formerly the seat of the Austrian Lieutenancy, today it houses the seat of the Prefecture of Trieste. The palace stands on the site of the old Palazzo Governiale, built in 1764 by order of Maria Theresa of Austria according to the design of Giovanni Fusconi, where the offices of the Arsenale were once locatedimperial of Trieste. Originally the structure consisted of only two floors, to which a third was added in 1825. Demolished in 1899, the old palace gave way to the new construction built between 1901 and 1905 on a design by Emil Artmann.

Town Hall Building
Immediately after the decision to bury the old mandracchio, a stretch of water reserved for the mooring of small boats also present in the port of Trieste (the relative works then took place between 1858 and 1863), the square was subject to a total redesign. In fact, the idea of a space completely open to the sea prevailed, surrounded by buildings and with the town hall placed as a front base, with the consequent demolition of the walls and buildings that then closed the square from the sea side. On the place designated to build the modern Town Hall there were several houses, a loggia and some buildings. In 1875the Trieste architect Giuseppe Bruni won the tender for the design of the new building. The new building consisted of a single monumental body surmounted, in the central part, by a tower. The Town Hall is dominated by the bell tower on which two Moors are installed, friendly called by the Trieste residents Micheze and Jacheze (from the Slovenian Mihec and Jakec), also designed by Bruni, who since 1876 mark the passage of time every quarter of an hour., as well as the civic bell with the town halberd.

Model Building
The building, located between the Palazzo del Municipio and Palazzo Stratti, was also built by the architect Giuseppe Bruni between 1871 and 1873, taking the place of the old churches of San Pietro and San Rocco that were located in the same place. The building was designed on the instructions of the municipality of Trieste and was nicknamed “Model Building” because it was to serve as an architectural example for the restructuring that was taking place in the then Piazza Grande. At the beginning Palazzo Model was used as a hotel, later called Hotel Delorme, which stopped operating around 1912. In place of the hotel business, part of the municipal offices found space. In 2007, following the devastation caused by a fire, the municipality of Trieste sold it to the then municipal company AcegasApsAmga with the aim of creating its new headquarters. On the top floor of the building you can see telamons, or male statues intent on holding up the tunic.

Carciotti Palace
Palazzo Carciotti is an eighteenth – century palace in Trieste, located in the city center, at the beginning of the Grand Canal of Trieste. The building was built on the aforementioned area once used as salt pans. The client was the Greek merchant Demetrio Carciotti, who settled in Trieste in 1775. Enriched with the trade of clothes from Bohemia, at the end of the eighteenth century Demetrio Carciotti bought the five houses that were located on the right side of the canal entrance. For the construction of this palace, Demetrio Carciotti entrusted the architect Matteo Pertsch, who presented his project in 1798. Immediately began the construction works, which Giovanni Righetti supervised, which lasted until 1805.

Palazzo del Tergesteo
Palazzo del Tergesteo in Trieste is an important building in the city. The main entrance is in piazza della Borsa, but the building also overlooks piazza Verdi. Formerly the seat of the Trieste stock exchange, it has been renovated several times, the last of which between 2009 and 2011. In 1838 the land where Palazzo del Tergesteo now stands was sold by Giuseppe Brambilla to the Tergesteo company, established with the aim of erecting a majestic multifunctional building in the center of Trieste. The company structure is divided into 1 500 shares, among which the shareholders of Austria Karl Ludwig von Bruck and Baron Pasquale Revoltella are remembered. Construction work began in 1840 and ended in 1842.

Lloyd Triestino Palace
The Lloyd Triestino building in Trieste is an important construction of the city. The main entrance is in Piazza dell’Unità d’Italia, but the building also overlooks via dell’Orologio, along the Mandracchio bank and via del Mercato Vecchio. Formerly the headquarters of the shipping company Lloyd Triestino di Navigazione, later Lloyd Triestino, it has been renovated several times, and now houses the offices of the presidency and the council of the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The Lloyd, established in 1833, was the first seat in the square Tommaseo, then moved to the square of the bag.

Trieste maritime station
In 1924 the administration of the General Warehouses decided to build a maritime station for passengers in Trieste. The Fascist government included this construction among the public works of immediate execution, given its importance. The Trieste maritime station, which was designed by Umberto Nordio and Giacomo Zammattio, was built between 1926 and 1930. The building, which is located on the Molo dei Bersaglieri, is the result of the transformation of a simple warehouse in the port of Trieste, which during the Habsburg domination was mainly intended for the storage of wines imported from Italy.

Aedes Palace
Palazzo Aedes, commonly called the Rosso skyscraper, is a twentieth – century palace in Trieste, located in piazza Luigi Amedeo Duca degli Abruzzi, or rather at the meeting point between the Grand Canal of Trieste and the banks. It was built between 1926 and 1928 next to the Gopcevich palace on a project by the architect Arduino Berlam. The building is inspired by the new skyscrapers of New York red brick, and is known as the first true skyscraper built in Trieste.

Gopcevich Palace
Palazzo Gopcevich houses the Carlo Schmidl Civic Theater Museum. The building, with its characteristic white and red plaster, is located in the center of the city, in the Borgo Teresiano, on the bank of the Grand Canal of Trieste and was built in 1850 on a project by the architect Giovanni Andrea Berlam on behalf of the Serbian shipowner Spiridione Gopcevich, hence the name of the building. The façade overlooking the canal, with an eclectic style, composed of a red and yellow Greek design, is also enriched by statues, friezes and medallions that recall the protagonists of the battle of the Piana dei Merli, fought on 15 June 1389, the day of San Vito, fromarmy of the alliance of Serbian kingdoms against the Ottoman army, in the Plain of Blackbirds, a plain in today’s Kosovo. The interior of the building has rooms of considerable refinement, both in the furnishings and in the inlaid floors, as well as in the decorated ceilings. The last radical restoration of Palazzo Gopcevich dates back to 1988.

Terni-Smolars House
Work of the architect Romeo Depaoli, it was designed in 1906. It is considered one of the best examples of Triestine liberty.

Bank building in Prague
the Prague Bank Building, erected between 1911 and 1914, stands out for its Bohemian secessionist style with rationalist influences.

San Marco coffee
Caffè San Marco is a historic café located in via Battisti 18. Founded in 1914, the place is famous for having always been one of the main meeting places of the city’s intellectuals. Caffè San Marco is housed in a building erected in 1912 by Assicurazioni Generali, who rented the ground floor to Marco Lovrinovich, a native of Poreč, who inaugurated the historic café on January 3, 1914. The place gradually became the main meeting place for young students and intellectuals of the city, but not only: the café, in fact, began to host young Italian irredentists. For these reasons, in the middle of the First World War, on 23 May 1915, decreeing its permanent closure. Lovrinovich himself was brutally expelled and transferred to Liebenau prison in Upper Austria.

Trieste lantern
The lighthouse of the Lanterna di Trieste is located on top of the Fratelli Bandiera Pier, at the west end of the city, marking the entrance to the old port. The construction of the lighthouse, which went into operation on 11 February 1833, was commissioned by the city governor Carlo Zinzendorf based on a project by Matteo Pertsch. The optical group is supported by a stone column with a cylindrical base which rises from a Maximilian tower embattled with two orders of thrones. In addition to the function of lighthouse, in fact, the construction also had to carry out a function of defense of the port. The foundations of the lighthouse rest on what was once the Scoglio dello Zucco.

Victory Lighthouse
The Vittoria lighthouse was built between January 15, 1923 and May 24, 1927, by the Italian architect Arduino Berlam. In addition to fulfilling the functions of a lighthouse for navigation, illuminating the Gulf of Trieste, the Faro della Vittoria also functions as a memorial monument in honor of the fallen of the sea during the First World War. In particular, the Roman numerals Mcmxv and Mcmxviii recall the years of beginning and end of the First World War for Italy, namely 1915 and 1918.

Villa Necker
Villa Necker is a historic residence in neoclassical style, located in via Università 2. Villa Necker stands on the area originally occupied by the land owned by the “Saints Martyrs”. Much of the criticism attributes the construction of the villa to the architect Giacomo Marchini, based on a project by the French Champion, who arrived in the city in 1784 and to whom we also owe the design of Villa Murat, which no longer exists today. The structure, set within a large park, has three floors above ground.

Villa Engelmann
Villa Engelmann is located in via di Chiadino 5 in front of the Beata Vergine delle Grazie church. The villa and the adjacent park were designed at the behest of Francesco Ponti in 1840 with the construction works that lasted three years. In 1888 Villa Engelmann was bought by Frida Engelmann, while in 1938 it was inherited by Guglielmo Engelmann. The whole area was ceded to the city of Trieste by his son Werner.

Villa Sigmundt
Villa Sigmundt is located in Via Rossetti at numbers 44 and 46. It was designed by Giovanni Andrea Berlam in 1861 on commission by Edmund Sigmundt, a rich Trieste sponge merchant. Built in the Chiadino district, it has remained unchanged since its inauguration.

Castelletto Geiringer
The Castelletto or Villa Geiringer rises in a dominant position on the Scorcola hill. It was built as the personal residence of the Trieste architect Eugenio Geiringer in 1896.

Military architectures

Anti-aircraft tunnels
Kleine Berlin (little Berlin in German. Actually incorrect, because in German Berlin is not feminine, since we should say Kleines Berlin) is the largest complex of underground anti-aircraft tunnels dating back to the Second World War still existing in Trieste. Given its hilly conformation, Trieste is crossed by numerous antiaircraft galleries, but the Kleine Berlin complex is particular for its amplitude, its extension, and for the fact of being visited by the pubblico.:Anche Montebello gallery it was an air raid shelter, but the two entrances were unified to create a rapid road passage between the neighborhoods of Barriera Vecchia and the southern outskirts of the city.

Miramare Castle
Miramare Castle was built as the residence of the Hapsburg court in the current homonymous district of Trieste at the behest of Maximilian of Habsburg-Lorraine, Archduke of Austria and Emperor of Mexico, to make it his home to share with his wife Charlotte of Belgium. In recent times the castle has been transformed into the historical museum of the Miramare castle, which registered, in 2016, 257 237 visitors, while the park of the Miramare castle registered 833 300 visitors.

San Giusto Castle
The castle of San Giusto is a fortress – museum located on the hill of the same name. As a historic residence, it was restored in the 2000s and used as a civic museum by the Municipality of Trieste, whose structure has belonged to the municipal property since 1930. On the Bastion Lalio was inaugurated on April 4, 2001 the Lapidary Tergestino consists of inscriptions, sculptures, bas-reliefs and fragments of architecture from Roman times. It can be visited only in part: in addition to the lapidary, the Chapel is in fact accessible, the Sala Caprin, the large internal courtyard – site of events in the summer period – and the stands, from which you can enjoy a wide view of the city below.

Muggia Castle
The castle, which overlooks the small port of Muggia in an elevated position, is owned by the sculptor Villi Bossi and his wife Gabriella. It is open to the public on special occasions, in particular for cultural and musical initiatives. The first nucleus of the castle was a tower built by the patriarch of Aquileia Marquardo di Randeck in 1374 in Borgolauro, a modern central district of the neighboring town of Muggia, located along the sea. Its construction lasted until 1399.

Maritime architectures

Grand Canal of Trieste
The Grand Canal of Trieste is a navigable canal located in the heart of the Borgo Teresiano, in the historic center, halfway between the Trieste Centrale station and Piazza Unità d’Italia, with its entrance from the San Giorgio del Porto Vecchio basin. It was built between 1754 and 1756 by the Venetian Matteo Pirona, further digging the main collector of the salt pans, when these were buried to allow the urban development of the city outside the walls. It was built so that boats could go straight to the city center to unload and load their goods.

Molo Audace
The Molo Audace is located on the banks of Trieste, in the heart of the city, a few steps from Piazza Unità d’Italia and the Grand Canal of Trieste. In 1740 the San Carlo ship sank in the port of Trieste, near the shore. Instead of removing the wreck, it was decided to use it as a basis for the construction of a new pier, which was built between 1743 and 1751 and was named after San Carlo. The Molo Audace separates the San Giorgio basin from the San Giusto basin of the Porto Vecchio. On November 3, 1918, at the end of the First World War, the first ship of the Italian Royal Navy to enter the port of Trieste and dock at the San Carlo pier was the destroyerAudace, whose anchor is now exposed at the base of the Victory Lighthouse in Trieste. In memory of this event, in March 1922, the name of the docking from Molo San Carlo to Molo Audace was changed. At the end of the pier itself, in 1925, abronze compass rose was erected, with an epigraph in the center that recalls the historic landing of the Audace ship.

Railway architectures

Opicina tramway
The Opicina tramway (tram de Opcina in Trieste dialect, Openski tramvaj in Slovenian), also known as the Opicina railway, one of the tourist attractions of the city of Trieste, is a panoramic interurban tramway managed by Trieste Trasporti. Its unique feature in Europe is that it has a steep slope of about 800 m (up to 26%) along which the cars are pushed (uphill) or held back (downhill) by shield wagons tied to a funicular system. The service, classified as line 2, has an urban route in the center of Trieste (at sea level) and an interurban section connecting with the hamlet of Villa Opicina on the Carso plateau, at 329 m above sea level. In operation since 9 September 1902, it is just over 5 km long.

Streets and squares

Unity of Italy Square
Piazza Unità d’Italia is the main square of Trieste. It is located at the foot of the San Giusto hill, between Borgo Teresiano and Borgo Giuseppino. Rectangular in plan, the square opens onto the Gulf of Trieste on one side, while on the other it is surrounded by numerous palaces and various public buildings. Overlooking the square are the headquarters of various bodies: the Trieste town hall, the building of the Friuli Venezia Giulia regional council and the prefecture of the capital. The square has a total area of 12 280 m². In ancient times it was called St. Peter’s Square, from the name of a small church there, then changed its name to Piazza Grande, while during the Austrian period the name was changed to Piazza Francesco Giuseppe, from the name of the Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria. It took its current name in 1918, when the city was annexed to Italy.

Stock Exchange Square
Piazza della Borsa is one of the main squares of Trieste. Also known as the second good city living room, the square was the economic center of the city throughout the 19th century. It is the square immediately adjacent to Piazza Unità d’Italia which continues, narrowing, until the beginning of Corso Italia, an important city artery. The place where the square stands was once just outside the city walls. In fact, at the point where the passage with Piazza Unità is located, there was the gateway to Vienna. The houses that delimit the square towards the outskirts of the city instead follow the line of the ancient walls towards the Riborgo tower.

Piazza della Repubblica
Piazza della Repubblica, once called piazza Nuova, is a square in the historic center of Trieste. It is located inside the Teresiano village, a historic Triestine village built by the Empress Maria Theresa of Austria in the 18th century. It is located in the middle of via Mazzini (once via Nuova) and is formed by an extension of the road itself. The space in which it develops goes from the intersection with via Dante Alighieri (once via Sant’Antonio) to that with via Santa Caterina da Siena.

Piazza Oberdan
Piazza Oberdan, the first square of the Barracks, is one of the main squares in Trieste. It is one of the main public transport hubs in the city, located a short distance from the Central Station, the Central Post Office and the court, and is the seat of the Regional Council of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.

Piazza Venezia
Piazza Venezia is located in the Borgo Giuseppino. The square, once known as Piazza Giuseppina (as for the village, in honor of Joseph II of Habsburg-Lorraine) and Piazza Ganza, is credited as one of the centers of Trieste’s nightlife. It features a monument of Maximilian and several historic buildings.


Revoltella Museum
Gallery of modern art, founded in 1872 with bequest of Pasquale Revoltella (1795 – 1869) and initially housed in the Palazzo Revoltella (1852-1858, architect Friedrich Hitzig), was enlarged in 1907 with the purchase of the adjacent Palazzo Brunner (renovated in 1968 to a design by Carlo Scarpa, with interventions until 1991). It preserves a picture gallery with a large collection of works of the main nineteenth-century pictorial currents, later enlarged with twentieth-century works, in the Palazzo Brunner, while the Palazzo Revoltella was set up with the original furnishings and the collection collected by the donor. The gallery and museum are located in via Diaz 27.

Civic Museum of History and Art
Civic Museum of History and Art, born in 1843 as a lapidary garden around the cenotaph of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, while the Museum of Antiquities at the Civic Library, kept smaller materials. The two offices were reunited in 1925 on the San Giusto hill. It collects archaeological objects mainly of local origin. It is based in Piazza della Cattedrale 1.

Civic museum of oriental art
Civic museum of oriental art, inaugurated in 2001 in the eighteenth-century “Palazzetto Leo”, donated to the city by the family. It collects materials concerning objects from the Far East. The headquarters are located in via San Sebastiano 1.

Carlo Schmidl Civic Theater Museum
Carlo Schmidl Civic Theater Museum, inaugurated in 1924 by the musical publisher Carlo Schmidl (1859-1943), was initially housed in the historic ” Teatro Verdi “. In 1991 it was moved to Palazzo Morpurgo and then to the headquarters of Palazzo Gopcevic (1850, architect Giovanni Andrea Berlam), along the banks of the Grand Canal. It documents the theatrical and musical life of the city since the 18th century. It is located in via Rossini 4.

Civic museum of the castle and armory
Civic museum of the castle and armory, dedicated to the history of the Castle of San Giusto and housed in the premises of the same castle, acquired by the municipality in 1932 and restored in 1936, the armory collects weapons between the 12th and 19th centuries.

Civic museum of homeland history
Civic museum of homeland history, born as a section of the Museum of history and art, it was housed since 1925 in the Basevi building. It had to collect the materials of the public and private life of the city, but in 1934 the materials of the Risorgimento and after the war were detached from them, following the damage suffered by the building and the move to its current location in via Imbriani 5, the collection of paintings was detached at the Sartorio Museum.

Civic museum of the Risorgimento and Oberdan shrine
Civic museum of the Risorgimento and Oberdan shrine, collects Renaissance relics of the city, formerly part of the collection of the National History Museum, housed in a building built in 1934 by the architect Umberto Nordio on the site of the disappeared barracks in which Guglielmo Oberdan was executed, in the square homonymous.

Civic museum of the Risiera di San Sabba
Civic museum of the Risiera di San Sabba, it preserves, in some rooms of the monument, renovated in 1965 (architect Romano Boico), a collection of relics from German extermination camps and objects stolen by the Nazis from Trieste Jews.

Civic War Museum for Peace “Diego de Henriquez”
Civic War Museum for Peace “Diego de Henriquez”, established in 1997, collects relics of military history gathered by the collector Diego de Henriquez. It is located together with the Civic Museum of Natural History in the former Duca delle Puglie barracks in via Cumano 22.

Tergestino lapidary
Tergestino lapidary, housed in one of the castle ramparts, houses artifacts from the buildings of Roman Trieste and previously kept in the lapidary garden.

Central European Postal and Telegraphic Museum
Central European Postal and Telegraphic Museum, born from the collaboration of the Municipality with the Italian Post Office and housed in the 1894 post office building, collects postal memorabilia from the region and neighboring areas. It is based in the eclectic Palazzo delle Poste in Piazza Vittorio Veneto.

Ethnographic Museum of Servola
Ethnographic Museum of Servola, founded in 1975, on the initiative of Fr Dušan Jakomin, with the aim of collecting, conserving, exhibiting and making available to scholars and those interested, documents and objects related to the history, culture and customs of the Servola district.

Science center imaginary scientific
Science center imaginary scientific, located in the bay of Grignano, close to the Miramare Park in Trieste, the Science center imaginary scientific (IS) is an interactive and multimedia science museum. The center adopts original exhibition techniques and innovative didactic animation methodologies that insert it into the typology of the so-called “new generation museums” – or rather the “science centers” of the Anglo-Saxon school – which revolutionize the typical methods of a traditional museum: from a place dedicated to conservation and exhibition of artifacts and old tools, the museum is transformed into a living place, where the visitor interacts with the objects present and with the museum environments.

Alinari Image Museum
Alinari Image Museum (AIM), inaugurated in 2016 and located in the bastion of the castle of San Giusto, is an interactive and multimedia museum of photography. It offers an archive that, electronically connected to the Fratelli Alinari collection in Florence, tells the evolution of the image from the dawn of the era of digital technology and allows you to undertake a visual journey, including monitors, projectors, interactive screens and latest generation microcomputers., also three-dimensional, in the history of photography and the vast repertoire of the oldest photographic archive in the world.

Civic museum of natural history
Civic museum of natural history, inaugurated in 1846 by a private association (the “Society of friends of natural science”) as a “Zoological-zootomic cabinet”, was donated to the city in 1852 and moved to its current location under the name of ” Ferdinando Massimiliano Civic Museum “. It includes a botanical section, a zoological section, a paleontological section and a mineralogical section and carries out teaching and research activities.

Civic marine aquarium
Civic marine aquarium, inaugurated in 1933 and housed in the former “Peschiera Centrale”, built in 1913 in Art Nouveau style by the architect Giorgio Polli. It houses specimens of the Adriatic marine fauna in a system of tanks with water taken directly from the sea.

Civic museum of the sea
Civic museum of the sea, inaugurated in 1904 as a “Fishing Museum” by the “Society of fishing and marine fish farming”. To this were added materials from the “Tomaso di Savoia Duca di Genova” Nautical Institute of Trieste, with the transformation into a “Permanent Marine Exhibition”, entrusted to the “Adriatic Society of Natural Sciences”. In 1968 it became the current museum with the new headquarters set up by the architect Umberto Nordio. It houses materials on the history of the Trieste navy.

Civic botanical garden
Civic botanical garden, founded in 1842 by the “Pharmaceutical Gremio”, which was followed in 1861 by a garden for the spontaneous species of the karst environment. In 1903 it received its present name.

Museum Joyce museum
Museum Joyce museum, created in 2004 from the collaboration between the City and University, as a center of documentation and study of James Joyce in Italy. Now it is located in via Madonna del Mare, 13.

The Swabian Museum
The Swabian Museum, originally housed in Palazzo Biserini at the Civic Library, now in via Madonna del Mare 13, is a documentation and study center on Italo Svevo (pseudonym of the Trieste industrialist Ettore Schmitz).

Piccolomineo Petrarchish Museum
Piccolomineo Petrarchish Museum, opened in 2003 for the exhibition of the works of Francesco Petrarca and Enea Silvio Piccolomini preserved in the Hortis Library. The collection was bequeathed to the city by the patron Count Domenico Rossetti De Scander (Trieste 1774 – Trieste 1842). It is based in via Madonna del Mare, 13.

Civic museum Sartorio
Civic museum Sartorio, housed in an eighteenth-century villa, renovated in the nineteenth century and belonging to the Sartorio family. It preserves some rooms with original furnishings and various collections donated to the city, the Triptych of Santa Chiara, a work by Paolo and Marco Veneziano from 1328 and drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo. It is based in Largo Papa Giovanni XXIII, 1.

Morpurgo de Nilma Civic Museum
Morpurgo de Nilma Civic Museum, housed in the nineteenth-century apartment of the Morpurgo bankers, with the original furnishings, donated by the family to the Municipality in 1943. It is located in via Imbriani 5.

Archaeological sites

The strategic importance of the ancient Roman city of Tergeste, which later gave rise to modern Trieste, is also indicated by its mighty walls. Made of stone blocks, they surrounded the city starting from the hilly areas down to the sea. The ancient Roman Trieste, in fact, had a port in the Campo Marzio area, where the railway station of the same name is now located and the related railway museum, equipped with modest-sized stopovers along the coast, which were located under the promontory of San Vito. and near the modern town of Grignano, where there were also some patrician villas, extending up to Santa Croce. The water needs of the city were met at the time by two aqueducts: that of Bagnoli and that of San Giovanni di Guardiella.

Fundamental for the economic development of the city was a Roman road built by the Emperor Flavius Vespasian, called Via Flavia, which was built between 78 and 79, which over the decades became the most important road in the Augustan region of Venetia et Histria. Its route developed from Tergeste along the Istrian coast, then passing through Pula and Rijeka; it finally reached Dalmatia, but it has been assumed that it was originally supposed to extend as far as Greece. It was one of the most important routes among those that did not start directly from Rome.

Another important road that passed through the ancient city was the Via Gemina,, which connected Aquileia to Emona (modern Ljubljana) and which was built after 14 BC by the legio XIII Gemina. The Via Gemina followed the first stretch of the ancient via dell’ambra: when they parted, the latter then continued as far as the Danube towards Carnuntum.

Roman theater of Trieste
The Roman theater of Trieste is located at the foot of the San Giusto hill, in the historic center, on the edge of the old city, between via Donota and via del Teatro Romano. At the time of its construction, the theater was located outside the city walls by the sea, which at that time reached that area. On its tiers, also built taking advantage of the natural slope of the hill, from 3 500 to 6 000 spectators could be accommodated, depending on the various sources. The construction of the theater is dated to the end of the 1st century BC, with its expansion occurring at the beginning of the 2nd century AD It was probably built at the behest of Quinto Petronio Modesto from Trieste, procurator and flamine of the emperorTrajan, quoted in various inscriptions, who according to other sources only took care of the renovations.

Early Christian basilica of Trieste and the temples of Jupiter and Athena
The early Christian basilica of Trieste, built between the fourth and fifth centuries, contains some very valuable mosaics, a tangible sign of the wealth of the local church and the city of Tergeste until the late imperial age. The remains of the early Christian basilica were discovered under the current Cathedral of San Giusto. On the hill of San Giusto some remains of the temples of Jupiter and Athena are still visible. Some architectural structures of the latter have been preserved in the foundations of the cathedral, identifiable from the outside thanks to special openings in the walls of the bell tower and in the subsoil (through access from the Civic Museum of History and Art of Trieste).

Civil Basilica of Trieste
To the north of the temples to Jupiter and Athena there was the forum (serving as the main square) which was divided into three naves with an internal apse and which was completed by a portico with the civil basilica attached. The donor was Quinto Baieno Blassiano, Trajan’s procurator who exercised his office before 120-125.

Arch of Riccardo
According to some sources, the Arch of Riccardo is one of the Roman gates of Trieste dating back to the 1st century BC, probably built under the emperor Octavian Augustus in the years 33-32 BC The forms of the architectural decoration allow us to date the current form of the arc to the Claudian-Neronian age or perhaps to the Flavian age (50- 75 AD). According to other sources instead it is one of the entrances to the sanctuary of the Magna Mater. It is an arch with a single fornix, 7.2 m high, 5.3 m wide and 2 m deep. It also has an upper crown, devoid of decoration.

Antiquarium in via del Seminario
The Antiquarium in via del Seminario is an archaeological site in the city of Trieste, where a section of the Roman walls is preserved. The archaeological remains of the Antiquarium in via del Seminario are among the oldest present in the Julian city. They date back, in fact, to the late Republic, i.e. to the end of the 1st century BC. In the Antiquarium you can see a section of the walls, built by Octavian (when he had not yet assumed the title of Augustus) between 33 and 32 BC for the defense of the colony of Tergeste. The preserved section is 4 meters long and 2.4 meters wide. The outer faces of the walls are made up of blocks of sandstone, while the internal filling is of sand mixed with rock. At the base of the walls a channel for the drainage of water is visible.

Antiquarium of via Donota
The Antiquarium of via Donota is an archaeological site in the city of Trieste, located in the lower part of the San Giusto hill, where it is possible to visit what remains of a domus and a burial ground from the Roman age. The domus was built at the end of the 1st century BC, a period in which the entire part of the slope of the hill of San Giusto facing the sea was subject to a work of arrangement, thanks to the construction of terraces on which it was later built. At the end of the first century AD the domus was abandoned, so starting from the second century a part of it was reused as a pagan necropolis.

Cattinara Castle
The Cattinara castle, located between the Longera and Rozzol valleys, was inhabited from prehistoric times to Roman times. In prehistoric times, its inhabitants lived on its summit, which was later flattened, while in Roman times along its southern slope, which was better sheltered from the winds. The finds discovered in this fortified castle are numerous and very varied, such as shards, animal remains and tools. Worthy of note are two bronze fibulae, one of which belongs to the culture of La Tène, it being understood that the necropolis has not been found, a discovery that would perhaps allow its dating.

Roman aqueduct of the Val Rosandra
in the nearby Val Rosandra there are remains of a Roman aqueduct built in the first century which originally was 14 kilometers long reaching the center of Tergeste. Perhaps along its sides there was a Roman road with small permanent lookout posts. The Roman aqueduct of Val Rosandra remained in use until the sixth century (or, according to other sources, until the seventh), when it was irreparably damaged. In the eighteenth centuryit was still fairly well preserved, and therefore the Trieste municipal administration considered its eventual restoration to supply the city, which was in full development, with drinking water. The idea was later abandoned when it was realized that it was more convenient to exploit other sources of water. The remains of the Roman aqueduct that reached the 21st century have a length of about one hundred meters.

Antiquarium of Borgo San Sergio
The Antiquarium of Borgo San Sergio consists of two areas, one where the archaeological finds are located and the other where the finds are exhibited as in a classic museum. In the first section there are the remains of a Roman house dating back to the 1st century, while in the exhibition part there are remains found during the excavations carried out at the Roman theater in Trieste.

The Trieste cuisine reflects the historical reality of Trieste. A village whose economy was essentially based on fishing and on the salt trade, with the introduction of the free port, a new era begins for the city, characterized by a profoundly cosmopolitan character, which is accompanied by the birth of a properly Trieste cuisine that will be a faithful mirror of this cosmopolitanism.

Trieste has welcomed the most diverse people and culinary traditions for centuries. From this diversity was born a particularly varied and savory cuisine that has been able to combine Mediterranean gastronomy with that of Central Europe.

The traditional cuisine of Trieste has the peculiarity of being rich not only in recipes and seafood dishes, justified by the presence of the fishy waters of the Adriatic, but also in meat, given the traditional links of the city with the karst hinterland and the Danube basin.. If in fact the seafood cuisine of Trieste is mainly similar to the Istrian – Dalmatian one, that linked to meat is linked to the Central European culinary traditions. First courses are also famous, while sweets and desserts are reputed to be among the finest in Europe.

In the tables of Trieste, the Karst wines produced in the Trieste Karst (and in the adjacent areas belonging to Slovenia), nor those of the Gorizia Collio, whose production area extends to a large part of the nearby province of Gorizia, cannot be missing. The famous Friulian wines, both white and red, are also particularly popular and appreciated in the city (Colli orientali del Friuli, Friuli-Annia, Friuli-Aquileia, Friuli-Grave, etc.).

A famous Trieste dish is goulash, a traditional Hungarian dish based on beef stew and with the possible addition of potatoes, very popular in the city. Often pieces of ham are also used in addition or sometimes even in place of potatoes. If sage is optional, the use of paprika is a must. The goulash in the version Trieste was imported into the Julian city thanks to the Austro-Hungarian domination, which lasted for centuries.

Natural space

Torri di Slivia cave
The Grotta Torri di Slivia is located in the municipality of Duino-Aurisina, in the province of Trieste, at the foot of the small village of Slivia, an agricultural center inhabited by a predominantly Slovenian population of around 130 inhabitants. It was named after the first explorers who mapped it at the end of the 19th century for the numerous stalagmite towers that characterize it. The relief of the cave, which dates back to January 6, 1885, was the work of the engineer. Costantino Doria, of the Triestine Mountaineering Society. The first expedition entered from the main well, which has been known since ancient times. The works to create the artificial entrance for tourist use were started in 1964. In 1967 the internal path and the iron staircase were created, while in 1968 the first tourist tickets were removed.

Remembrance Park
The Parco della Rimembranza is located in the historic center of Trieste. Among the urban interventions of the Fascist era, the arrangement of the area that later gave rise to the park, which is located on the hill of San Giusto, certainly stands out. The works were begun with the creation of the wide Via Capitolina, a panoramic road that climbs gently around the hill until it reaches the cathedral. The entire slope of the hill between this road and the castle was consecrated to the memory of the “fallen in all wars” fought by Italian soldiers after national unity, which took place in 1861. For this reason, the Parco della Remembranza is scattered with rough stones. of karst stone with the names of known and unknown fighters., 1935, by Attilio Selva, dedicated to the Trieste volunteers who fell in the First World War. There is also a plaque dedicated to the Triestine fallen of the First World War who fought for the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian army.

Miramare marine nature reserve
The Miramare Marine Nature Reserve is located in the Gulf of Trieste and winds all around the Miramare promontory, where the Miramare Castle of the same name also stands. The fully protected area, which is 30 hectares with a width of 200 km and a length of 1.8 km which develops along the coast, is surrounded by a buffer zone (established by order of the Trieste Harbor Master’s Office n. 76/95 and 28/98), of another 90 hectares for a width of further 400 meters with partial protection where professional fishing is prohibited. The maximum depth that is reached in the reserve is 18 meters. The coast is made up of a limestone rock typical of the Karst, a territory of which the Miramare promontory represents a small extension of the coast.

Napoleonic road
The Napoleonic road is included from the Borgo San Nazario car park, located on the outskirts of the Prosecco district, up to the pitch of the Obelisk of Opicina. This road is therefore entirely located in the municipality of Trieste. The official name of the path is Strada Vicentina, from the name of the engineer Giacomo Vicentini who designed the route and began construction in 1821. The current conformation is due to the improvements carried out in the immediate post-war period.

Cultural itinerary
The Central European cultural environment and the particular history of Trieste have favored the success of Trieste writers since the nineteenth century and the arrival of important foreign authors who lived in the city for a long time, so much so that one can speak of a Trieste literature.

“The pier”
For me in the world there is no more dear and trustworthy place than this. Where am I ever more alone and in good company than at the San Carlo pier, and where do I like the wave and the beach more?
– Umberto Saba

The sunsets in Trieste it seems that the sea opens up red. Solid color, not scattered in the air, but attached in thick layers to things. Virulent color. The grand scene. The sun burns the sea. It is understood that it does not go out.
– Scipio Slataper

“Trieste is a woman”
Trieste has a grumpy grace. If you like, she is like a harsh and voracious bad kid, with blue eyes and too big hands to give a flower…
– Umberto Saba

The literary-intellectual center of Trieste was or is the existing “Libreria Antiquaria Umberto Saba” corner Via Dante Alighieri in the house Via San Nicolo No. 30, in which James Joyce lived (- his son Giorgio was born here and he wrote some short stories by Dubliner and Stephen Hero), the house Via San Nicolo No. 32, in which the Berlitz School was located where James Joyce taught and came in contact with Italo Svevo, and the house at Via San Nicolo No. 31, where Umberto Saba spent his breaks in the former cafe-milk shop Walter. In this area, at the end of Via San Nicolo, there is now a life-size statue of Umberto Saba.

While there are now numerous luxury shops in the pedestrian zone of Via San Nicolo, there used to be numerous cafes and restaurants, especially the Berger beer hall at No. 17, which later became the very famous Berger Grand Restaurant. Via San Nicolo No. 30 is also the symbolic center of the novel of the same name by Roberto Curci from 2015.

The Greek Orthodox Church of San Nicolò dei Greci, which is dedicated to Saint Nicholas, the patron saint of seafarers and whose interior already inspired James Joyce, is located by the sea at the beginning of today’s pedestrian zone of Via San Nicolo. This is exactly where the famous, traditional Caffè Tommaseo is located. This coffee house, also located at the beginning of Via San Nicolo, was opened in 1830. It is the oldest coffee house still in operation in Trieste and is still a meeting place for artists, intellectuals and merchants today.

One of today’s most important Art Nouveau buildings in Trieste, the “Casa Smolars”, has been in Via San Nicolo since 1905 at No. 36. The traditional Eppinger Caffè has been located nearby since around 1946. The building complex of the former RAS Palais is also at the end of Via San Niccolo with the entrance to Piazza Repubblica. This inside and outside architecturally special building has been completely renovated and has been a hotel since 2019. The Caffe Stella Polare is not far from here. This cosmopolitan coffee house was also frequented by Saba, Joyce, Guido Voghera, Virgilio Giotti and in particular by the former German-speaking minority from Trieste. With the end of World War II and the arrival of the Anglo-Americans in the city, this café became a hangout place of many soldiers and a famous ballroom to meet young women from Trieste.

Trieste has a lively cultural scene with various theatres. Among these are the Opera Teatro Lirico Giuseppe Verdi, Politeama Rossetti, the Teatro La Contrada, the Slovene theatre in Trieste (Slovensko stalno gledališče, since 1902), Teatro Miela, and several smaller ones.