Mixed media

In visual art, mixed media is an artwork in which more than one medium or material has been employed. Assemblages and collages are two common examples of art using different medias that will make use of different materials including cloth, paper, and/or wood.

When an artist is doing painting or photography work using mixed media, care should be taken to allow enough drying time between layers, to ensure the final work will have structural integrity. If several different mixed medias are used with the artwork, it is important to choose a sturdy foundation upon which the different media layers are imposed.

Many artistic effects can be achieved by using mixed media. Found objects can be used in conjunction with traditional artist media to attain a wide range of self-expression.

Some children’s picture books also use mixed media illustrations. For example, ‘s Nachts by Wolf Erlbruch.

Mixed media art, a visual art, is distinguished from multimedia art which combines visual art with non-visual elements, such as recorded sound, literature, drama, dance, motion graphics, music, or interactivity.

The use of a mixed technique may have two reasons:

customize your language to the fullest.
explore the interactions between different mediums and graphic instruments.

Difference between mixed media and multimedia art
Mixed media is an art form that strives to put different art media together in a logical or illogical coexistence. For example: a painting that consists of paint, ink, ropes, newsprint and dried leaves. This is not a multimedia art.

The term multimedia refers to a broader field than art media. Multimedia relates to sensory art media, such as image (visual media), sound, light, dance, music, drama, literature and interactivity. It therefore does not relate here to the material nature of the medium, but to the sensory one.

Making mixed media
When creating a work of art belonging to mixed media (or mixed media ), it is important for an artist to choose the right materials and the right procedures. Sufficient drying time must be observed between the application of the layers of the work in order to achieve a firm and coherent whole.

Oil paint, for example, has to dry out long enough before an artist can make a collage with glue. A rule of thumb within the mixed technique is: do not start with oil paint as a substrate, because this paint is difficult to tolerate glue or watercolor or acrylic paint.

Altered book
An altered book is a form of mixed media artwork that changes a book from its original form into a different form, altering its appearance and/or meaning.

Artist trading cards
Artist trading cards (ATCs) is a conceptual art project initiated by the Swiss artist M. Vänçi Stirnemann in 1997. He called it a Collaborative Cultural Performance. Artist trading cards are 2 1⁄2 by 3 1⁄2 inches (64 mm × 89 mm) in size, the same format as modern trading cards (hockey cards or baseball cards). They are self-made unique works or small series, signed and dated on the reverse by the artist/producer, exchanged and collected by the people who participate in the collaborative performance.

Assemblage art
Assemblage is an artistic form or medium usually created on a defined substrate that consists of three-dimensional elements projecting out of or from the substrate. It is similar to collage, a two-dimensional medium. It is part of the visual arts, and it typically uses found objects, but is not limited to these materials.

Collage is a technique of an art production, primarily used in the visual arts, where the artwork is made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole.

A collage may sometimes include magazine and newspaper clippings, ribbons, paint, bits of colored or handmade papers, portions of other artwork or texts, photographs and other found objects, glued to a piece of paper or canvas. The origins of collage can be traced back hundreds of years, but this technique made a dramatic reappearance in the early 20th century as an art form of novelty.

The term collage was coined by both Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in the beginning of the 20th century when collage became a distinctive part of modern art.

Décollage, in art, is the opposite of collage; instead of an image being built up of all or parts of existing images, it is created by cutting, tearing away or otherwise removing, pieces of an original image. The French word “décollage” translates into English literally as “take-off” or “to become unglued” or “to become unstuck”. Examples of décollage include etrécissements and cut-up technique. A similar technique is the lacerated poster, a poster in which one has been placed over another or others, and the top poster or posters have been ripped, revealing to a greater or lesser degree the poster or posters underneath.

Intermedia was a term used in the mid-1960s by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins to describe various inter-disciplinary art activities that occurred between genres in the 1960s. The areas such as those between drawing and poetry, or between painting and theatre could be described as “intermedia”. With repeated occurrences, these new genres between genres could develop their own names (e.g. visual poetry, performance art); historically, an example is haiga, which combined brush painting and haiku into one composition.

Mixed technology
Mixed technique is a technique as such and a term in different thesauri, usually implying the use of several technologies or methods in creating artifacts; initially and above all – in the visual arts, – graphic, sculptural and pictorial works, in the restoration works – when recreating, restoring certain objects; currently also referred to as – the use of heterogeneous techniques in cinematographic, multimedia practice (this one, the last one, already contains the term in question: Latin. multi – many and lat. media – mediation, method, technique ).

To a certain extent, many traditional types of visual arts already include a number of examples of the use of tools and materials of different technological affiliations. For example, any watercolor study or work in gouache involves creating a pencil drawing on paper on paper, a composition, just before starting to work with watercolor or other water-soluble paints, which is important – on the same sheet.

Also, painting, in particular, figurative, bearing in mind objectivity as its main characteristic feature, includes a preliminary drawing, as is known, originally belonging to a graphic, even a brush drawing (the same Chinese academic painting in the European sense refers to a graphic mascara on rice paper).

In sculpture, the cases that fall under this definition when traditional plastic techniques are combined with techniques and techniques characteristic of various types of applied art are most vividly represented.

In visual arts, the most widely used, and most of all are still used, methods of combining various traditional techniques in graphics. The main reason for this is indicated above – this is the availability of materials and tools. – technological simplicity.

Strictly speaking, already illuminated (painted) prints of printed graphics can be attributed to a mixed technique, since the creation of these works, in the most general sense, demonstrates the use of printing technology and, most often, simple watercolor painting.

The same monotype, combining the techniques of printing – printing from the plane of glass or other smooth material – equivalent to the printing form; printing inks; in the case of using oil paints – painting, and graphics: among other things – the use of paper already automatically allows you to classify it that way.

An interesting example of the use of polygraphy, a modified, transformed technique of stamping, is the “ footage ” of Max Ernst, the techniques introduced by him, various kinds of lapping various surfaces and texture of relief on the working plane. This, in general, and previously used technique (for example, to obtain sufficiently accurate impressions of coins or medals) stimulated the associative imagination of the artist, contributed to the “identification of hidden images”

Mixed technique in graphics knows cases of different combinations or all at the same time – pastels (dry and solid, oil), watercolors, gouaches, tempera, acrylic paints, collage techniques (paper, fabrics, foil and other materials).

Since the last quarter of the 20th century, the use of a wide variety of methods, and in different contexts, of a wide range of systems engineering technologies has become widespread. From the use of computer applications to the operation of a variety of multimedia equipment. Used to create thumbnails, image processing, etc.

One of the most characteristic and ancient examples of mixed technology in plastic can be considered acrolite. In the most common case, this technology was used for “dressing” the sculptural figure, when the nude bodies of the marble statue were decorated with wooden panels painted with the corresponding garments — tinted and gilded. Such techniques were often used to create monumental figures, statues of colossi, which, in addition to certain decorative advantages, had one of the reasons for reducing the cost of their manufacture. In view of the fragility of the wooden and metal components of the work, these are for the most part preserved only fragmentary.

Quite often, the painter uses such techniques when, in addition to the base material, tempera, oil or acrylic paint, while working on a work, to achieve the required effects, expressiveness, he uses other pigment materials as additional (he creates them on a different basis); also the surface of the work includes various materials that organically fit or create the desired dissonance, uncharacteristic in the usual sense of materials: wooden objects (everyday or developed and created by the artist himself), fragments of matter, leather, parts of various devices and mechanisms.

Cinema and photography
The use of scenery and props, the main entourage, but also substantial in considerable detail, components of stage art, in combination with field shooting without the use of such, can already be considered for the cinema as a kind of “mixed technique”; here, among the usual “colors” for the cinema, additional ones are used, which are typical of the pictorial and graphic areas.

In the method of creating a cinematographic work, the use of combined surveys can already be regarded as the use of a mixed technique in the context of basic practice. Mixed technique is referred to and has in mind the application of all the capabilities of systems engineering, computer in the broadest sense of the concept at different stages: simulating the situation of an episode or the entire work, coordinating field shooting, editing finished shot and generated materials.

Under the mixed technique in photography, both professional and amateur, refers to the use of certain traditional techniques and image processing using the same computer.

New technologies
These techniques are most widely used as they expand as technical capabilities, in art: methods of processing materials, new adhesive mass, new materials as such; and with the change of ideas in the understanding of visual, freedom of choice and permissibility of the combination of one or another – both thematic and directly material components of the work.

In the visual arts, the possibilities of mixed technique, as a conceptual technique, significantly expands the arsenal of decorative, expressive, but also substantial features, improvisation, and the achievement of effects that are inaccessible under other methodological and formal circumstances.

All of the above indicates that as all components of art develop: from the content of the work itself to its exposition, combination and interpenetration of both the techniques and the techniques are expressed by a process that expands the possibilities and approximates the full realization of the synthesis of the arts, syncretic forms of influence.

Source from Wikipedia