Lithography

Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone or a metal plate with a smooth surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material.

Lithography originally used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate. The stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, etching the portions of the stone that were not protected by the grease-based image. When the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water; an oil-based ink could then be applied and would be repelled by the water, sticking only to the original drawing. The ink would finally be transferred to a blank paper sheet, producing a printed page. This traditional technique is still used in some fine art printmaking applications.

In modern lithography, the image is made of a polymer coating applied to a flexible plastic or metal plate. The image can be printed directly from the plate (the orientation of the image is reversed), or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a flexible sheet (rubber) for printing and publication.

As a printing technology, lithography is different from intaglio printing (gravure), wherein a plate is either engraved, etched, or stippled to score cavities to contain the printing ink; and woodblock printing or letterpress printing, wherein ink is applied to the raised surfaces of letters or images. Today, most types of high-volume books and magazines, especially when illustrated in colour, are printed with offset lithography, which has become the most common form of printing technology since the 1960s.
The related term “photolithography” refers to when photographic images are used in lithographic printing, whether these images are printed directly from a stone or from a metal plate, as in offset printing. “Photolithography” is used synonymously with “offset printing”. The technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication and mass production of integrated circuits in the microelectronics industry.

Features
For this type of printing a polished limestone is used on which the image to be printed (inverted) is drawn with a fat material, either by pencil or brush. This process is based on the incompatibility of fat and water. Once the stone is moistened, the printing ink is only retained in the previously drawn areas.

For each color a different stone must be used and, evidently, the paper will have to go through the printing press as many times as inks are used. In the posters printed by the lithographic system, so frequent in the second half of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th century, fifteen, twenty or more inks were used. Among them are those that announced the bullfights, those of Holy Week, and those designed during the Spanish Civil War.

In a lithographic image the letters can not be removed and reused elsewhere: they are unique and need to be redrawn, or copied, for each use. The lithographer could reproduce a “unique” image drawn, combining text and image into complicated formal arrangements of color. The chromolithographic process reached its peak during the 19th century. The improvement in gravure methods (the engraving of a photographic image on a metal plate covered with a sensitive layer and then “bite” with acid, thus obtaining a printed image in relief) threatened the survival of lithography, leading to its progressive decline from the 1890s.

Although this procedure was widely used for commercial purposes, most of the great painters of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries also used it because it facilitated obtaining a certain number of copies of the same work: Picasso 5, Toulouse-Lautrec, Joan Miró, Piet Mondrian, Ramón Casas, Antoni Tàpies, Alphonse Mucha, Federico Castellón, Andy Warhol, etc.

Also, they are called lithography, in addition to the printing system, each of the copies obtained by this procedure as well as the workshop where this type of work is carried out.

Later, when the presses appeared, flexible sheets of zinc or aluminum began to be used, and more recently, plastic, replacing the heavy lithographic stones. With the incorporation of photomechanics, these plates stopped being drawn by hand, since the sensitization of their surface allowed accurate photographic reproductions. Although incorrectly, it is still common to name graphic arts companies as lithographs.

Principle
Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the positive part of an image is a water-repelling (“hydrophobic”) substance, while the negative image would be water-retaining (“hydrophilic”). Thus, when the plate is introduced to a compatible printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image and the water will clean the negative image. This allows a flat print plate to be used, enabling much longer and more detailed print runs than the older physical methods of printing (e.g., intaglio printing, letterpress printing).

Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a smooth piece of limestone was used (hence the name “lithography”: “lithos” (λιθος) is the ancient Greek word for stone). After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution of gum arabic in water was applied, the gum sticking only to the non-oily surface. During printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite.

Lithography on limestone
Lithography works because of the mutual repulsion of oil and water. The image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium (hydrophobic) such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible. A wide range of oil-based media is available, but the durability of the image on the stone depends on the lipid content of the material being used, and its ability to withstand water and acid. After the drawing of the image, an aqueous solution of gum arabic, weakly acidified with nitric acid HNO3 is applied to the stone. The function of this solution is to create a hydrophilic layer of calcium nitrate salt, Ca(NO3)2, and gum arabic on all non-image surfaces. The gum solution penetrates into the pores of the stone, completely surrounding the original image with a hydrophilic layer that will not accept the printing ink. Using lithographic turpentine, the printer then removes any excess of the greasy drawing material, but a hydrophobic molecular film of it remains tightly bonded to the surface of the stone, rejecting the gum arabic and water, but ready to accept the oily ink.

When printing, the stone is kept wet with water. Naturally the water is attracted to the layer of gum and salt created by the acid wash. Printing ink based on drying oils such as linseed oil and varnish loaded with pigment is then rolled over the surface. The water repels the greasy ink but the hydrophobic areas left by the original drawing material accept it. When the hydrophobic image is loaded with ink, the stone and paper are run through a press that applies even pressure over the surface, transferring the ink to the paper and off the stone.

Senefelder had experimented during the early 19th century with multicolor lithography; in his 1819 book, he predicted that the process would eventually be perfected and used to reproduce paintings. Multi-color printing was introduced by a new process developed by Godefroy Engelmann (France) in 1837 known as chromolithography. A separate stone was used for each color, and a print went through the press separately for each stone. The main challenge was to keep the images aligned (in register). This method lent itself to images consisting of large areas of flat color, and resulted in the characteristic poster designs of this period.

“Lithography, or printing from soft stone, largely took the place of engraving in the production of English commercial maps after about 1852. It was a quick, cheap process and had been used to print British army maps during the Peninsula War. Most of the commercial maps of the second half of the 19th century were lithographed and unattractive, though accurate enough.”

Technique
In the lithographic technique, the different adhesion between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances is used. Since water rejects greasy inks, fat areas are not printed even though they are at the same level, so lithographic matrices are also called planographic.

In manual techniques the formation of the matrix consists of the adhesion of the greasy and resinous inks on the lithographic paper. With these inks the drawing that is going to be reproduced is traced, which is fixed by means of a solution of nitric acid and gum arabic. The adhesion of the fatty substance produces an insoluble calcareous or metallic soap that forms the basis of printing signals.

On the parts that are not inked, due to a special preparation which determines the formation of hydrophilic salts. In short, on the plane of the matrix there are two graphically opposed areas, those that generate in the lithography the white (hydrophilic salts) and those that generate the black (fat and resinous inks), which allow the printing, prior to the inking operations and humidification. From the backgrounds colored and shaped according to the clear areas of the original until the use of superimposed flat inks, the colorations were superimposed.

Towards 1835, the French printer Godofredo Engelmann called “chromolithography” the technique of lithographic reproduction in colors. So many drawings on paper or plate are made as inks are considered necessary for reproduction. The registration is obtained by making the corresponding registration cross on the paper of each color.

Evolution of techniques
Although the word “lithography” refers to a technique based on stone, this medium could be replaced rather quickly by metal plates (zinc, aluminum: it is called zincography or metallography), without radically changing the technique. A recent application, called kitchen litho, even uses household aluminum and common, non-toxic products for educational purposes, but is used by established artists. Although it is always better to specify the technique used, the name “lithography” remains used.

Influences
Lithography significantly influences typographic creation: by allowing direct drawing, without learning a complex technique, lithography sees the flourishing of high-fantasy typographies and extremely varied styles, which is a total novelty, and opens the way for traditional typography, in lead type, which reproduce this variety at the price, sometimes, of aberrations.

Better than painting, lithography is also used for the reproduction of painted works, as well as the creation of original works, interesting artists like Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.

Printing technique

Pierre
The support of excellence of the lithography is the limestone with very fine grain, being softer than the gray stone, harder. Quarries supplying stones of sufficient quality for lithography are rare: stones from Bavaria (Solnhofen), Rhineland, Saxony, France (Dauphine) and Switzerland are generally used.

The grain of the stone must be perfectly homogeneous and have no defects: any imperfection can weaken the structure and promote the appearance of cracks, making the matrix unfit for printing. Lithographic matrices generally have a thickness of 7 to 10 centimeters. Both sides must be perfectly parallel.

The surface is sanded, grained or polished with abrasives, soap and water. A smooth stone makes it possible to obtain deep lines and flat areas; a grained stone allows a halftone printing.

It is essential that the surface be preserved from all traces of fat.

Drawing
The plot is executed directly on the stone in pencil or lithographic ink, placed with a pen or brush. The use of lithographic ink makes it possible to obtain wash effects. Some parts of the drawing can be scratched to reveal deep whites (Daumier used this technique a lot).

One can also proceed to a postponement of a drawing by a layer or a “paper report”.

The artist or craftsman must make sure not to put his hand on the surface of the stone, so as not to deposit fat, which would appear at the time of the draw.

Fixing the composition
In order to be suitable for printing, the composition must be fixed in the stone.

The stone is talcated and then covered with a mixture of acid and gum, which fixes the fat of the lithographic ink in the stone and increases the porosity of the grains left blank. The stone is then rinsed and gummed.

Metal or other supports
It was very early thought to substitute for the stone, heavy, bulky and expensive, other materials that would have identical properties without the disadvantages. Zinc or aluminum plates have been used, which are easier to handle and store, especially with the color prints which multiply the necessary supports.

Draw
Once the plot is executed, the stone is placed on the lithographic press and moistened for printing; being porous, limestone holds water. The fatty ink is then deposited by means of a rubber roller. Originally, leather rolls were used, which are harder to clean. The ink remains on the stone in places impregnated with the fat of the drawing while it is repelled by moisture everywhere else (the greasy ink is hydrophobic). When the stone is sufficiently inked, the paper is laidand we go to press. To print in color, you have to start the printing of the same sheet again, by redrawing each time, on a different stone, the pattern according to its color, and possibly taking into account the overlays of colors that will give mixed hues.

Exploitation of the lithographic stone
Well treated, a lithographic stone can be preserved for a long time and be removed several times. Nevertheless, because of the expensive nature of the lithographic stones, it is common to polish the composition and reuse the stone to create a new composition.

Modern lithographic process
High-volume lithography is used presently to produce posters, maps, books, newspapers, and packaging—just about any smooth, mass-produced item with print and graphics on it. Most books, indeed all types of high-volume text, are now printed using offset lithography.

For offset lithography, which depends on photographic processes, flexible aluminum, polyester, mylar or paper printing plates are used instead of stone tablets. Modern printing plates have a brushed or roughened texture and are covered with a photosensitive emulsion. A photographic negative of the desired image is placed in contact with the emulsion and the plate is exposed to ultraviolet light. After development, the emulsion shows a reverse of the negative image, which is thus a duplicate of the original (positive) image. The image on the plate emulsion can also be created by direct laser imaging in a CTP (Computer-To-Plate) device known as a platesetter. The positive image is the emulsion that remains after imaging. Non-image portions of the emulsion have traditionally been removed by a chemical process, though in recent times plates have come available that do not require such processing.

The plate is affixed to a cylinder on a printing press. Dampening rollers apply water, which covers the blank portions of the plate but is repelled by the emulsion of the image area. Hydrophobic ink, which is repelled by the water and only adheres to the emulsion of the image area, is then applied by the inking rollers.

If this image were transferred directly to paper, it would create a mirror-type image and the paper would become too wet. Instead, the plate rolls against a cylinder covered with a rubber blanket, which squeezes away the water, picks up the ink and transfers it to the paper with uniform pressure. The paper passes between the blanket cylinder and a counter-pressure or impression cylinder and the image is transferred to the paper. Because the image is first transferred, or offset to the rubber blanket cylinder, this reproduction method is known as offset lithography or offset printing.

Many innovations and technical refinements have been made in printing processes and presses over the years, including the development of presses with multiple units (each containing one printing plate) that can print multi-color images in one pass on both sides of the sheet, and presses that accommodate continuous rolls (webs) of paper, known as web presses. Another innovation was the continuous dampening system first introduced by Dahlgren, instead of the old method (conventional dampening) which is still used on older presses, using rollers covered with molleton (cloth) that absorbs the water. This increased control of the water flow to the plate and allowed for better ink and water balance. Current dampening systems include a “delta effect or vario,” which slows the roller in contact with the plate, thus creating a sweeping movement over the ink image to clean impurities known as “hickies”.

The process of lithography printing is illustrated by this simplified diagram. This press is also called an ink pyramid because the ink is transferred through several layers of rollers with different purposes. Fast lithographic ‘web’ printing presses are commonly used in newspaper production.

The advent of desktop publishing made it possible for type and images to be modified easily on personal computers for eventual printing by desktop or commercial presses. The development of digital imagesetters enabled print shops to produce negatives for platemaking directly from digital input, skipping the intermediate step of photographing an actual page layout. The development of the digital platesetter during the late 20th century eliminated film negatives altogether by exposing printing plates directly from digital input, a process known as computer to plate printing.

Microlithography and nanolithography
Microlithography and nanolithography refer specifically to lithographic patterning methods capable of structuring material on a fine scale. Typically, features smaller than 10 micrometers are considered microlithographic, and features smaller than 100 nanometers are considered nanolithographic. Photolithography is one of these methods, often applied to semiconductor device fabrication. Photolithography is also commonly used for fabricating microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. Photolithography generally uses a pre-fabricated photomask or reticle as a master from which the final pattern is derived.

Although photolithographic technology is the most commercially advanced form of nanolithography, other techniques are also used. Some, for example electron beam lithography, are capable of much greater patterning resolution (sometimes as small as a few nanometers). Electron beam lithography is also important commercially, primarily for its use in the manufacture of photomasks. Electron beam lithography as it is usually practiced is a form of maskless lithography, in that a mask is not required to generate the final pattern. Instead, the final pattern is created directly from a digital representation on a computer, by controlling an electron beam as it scans across a resist-coated substrate. Electron beam lithography has the disadvantage of being much slower than photolithography.

In addition to these commercially well-established techniques, a large number of promising microlithographic and nanolithographic technologies exist or are being developed, including nanoimprint lithography, interference lithography, X-ray lithography, extreme ultraviolet lithography, magnetolithography and scanning probe lithography. Some of these new techniques have been used successfully for small-scale commercial and important research applications. Surface-charge lithography, in fact Plasma desorption mass spectrometry can be directly patterned on polar dielectric crystals via pyroelectric effect, Diffraction lithography.

Lithography as an artistic medium
During the first years of the 19th century, lithography had only a limited effect on printmaking, mainly because technical difficulties remained to be overcome. Germany was the main center of production in this period. Godefroy Engelmann, who moved his press from Mulhouse to Paris in 1816, largely succeeded in resolving the technical problems, and during the 1820s lithography was adopted by artists such as Delacroix and Géricault. After early experiments such as Specimens of Polyautography (1803), which had experimental works by a number of British artists including Benjamin West, Henry Fuseli, James Barry, Thomas Barker of Bath, Thomas Stothard, Henry Richard Greville, Richard Cooper, Henry Singleton, and William Henry Pyne, London also became a center, and some of Géricault’s prints were in fact produced there. Goya in Bordeaux produced his last series of prints by lithography—The Bulls of Bordeaux of 1828. By the mid-century the initial enthusiasm had somewhat diminished in both countries, although the use of lithography was increasingly favored for commercial applications, which included the prints of Daumier, published in newspapers. Rodolphe Bresdin and Jean-François Millet also continued to practice the medium in France, and Adolf Menzel in Germany. In 1862 the publisher Cadart tried to initiate a portfolio of lithographs by various artists, which was not successful but included several prints by Manet. The revival began during the 1870s, especially in France with artists such as Odilon Redon, Henri Fantin-Latour and Degas producing much of their work in this manner. The need for strictly limited editions to maintain the price had now been realized, and the medium became more accepted.

In the 1890s, color lithography gained success in part by the emergence of Jules Chéret, known as the father of the modern poster, whose work went on to inspire a new generation of poster designers and painters, most notably Toulouse-Lautrec, and former student of Chéret, Georges de Feure. By 1900 the medium in both color and monotone was an accepted part of printmaking.

During the 20th century, a group of artists, including Braque, Calder, Chagall, Dufy, Léger, Matisse, Miró, and Picasso, rediscovered the largely undeveloped artform of lithography thanks to the Mourlot Studios, also known as Atelier Mourlot, a Parisian printshop founded in 1852 by the Mourlot family. The Atelier Mourlot originally specialized in the printing of wallpaper; but it was transformed when the founder’s grandson, Fernand Mourlot, invited a number of 20th-century artists to explore the complexities of fine art printing. Mourlot encouraged the painters to work directly on lithographic stones in order to create original artworks that could then be executed under the direction of master printers in small editions. The combination of modern artist and master printer resulted in lithographs that were used as posters to promote the artists’ work.

Grant Wood, George Bellows, Alphonse Mucha, Max Kahn, Pablo Picasso, Eleanor Coen, Jasper Johns, David Hockney, Susan Dorothea White and Robert Rauschenberg are a few of the artists who have produced most of their prints in the medium. M. C. Escher is considered a master of lithography, and many of his prints were created using this process. More than other printmaking techniques, printmakers in lithography still largely depend on access to good printers, and the development of the medium has been greatly influenced by when and where these have been established.

As a special form of lithography, the serilith process is sometimes used. Seriliths are mixed media original prints created in a process in which an artist uses the lithograph and serigraph processes. The separations for both processes are hand-drawn by the artist. The serilith technique is used primarily to create fine art limited print editions.

Source from Wikipedia