Brown is a composite color. In the CMYK color model used in printing or painting, brown is made by combining red, black, and yellow, or red, yellow, and blue. In the RGB color model used to project colors onto television screens and computer monitors, brown is made by combining red and green, in specific proportions. The brown color is seen widely in nature, in wood, soil, human hair color, eye color and skin pigmentation. Brown is the color of dark wood or rich soil. According to public opinion surveys in Europe and the United States, brown is the least favorite color of the public; the color is most often associated with plainness, the rustic and poverty.
Brown in culture
Surveys in Europe and the United States showed that brown was the least popular color among respondents. It was the favorite color of only one percent of respondents, ranked below white and pink, and the least-favorite color of twenty-percent of people, even less popular than pink, gray and violet.
Brown has been a popular color for military uniforms since the late 18th century, largely because of its wide availability and low visibility. When the Continental Army was established in 1775 at the outbreak of the American Revolution, the first Continental Congress declared that the official uniform color would be brown, but this was not popular with many militias, whose officers were already wearing blue. In 1778 the Congress asked George Washington to design a new uniform, and in 1779 Washington made the official color of all uniforms blue and buff.
In 1846 the Indian soldiers of the Corps of Guides in British India began to wear a yellowish shade of tan, which became known as khaki from the Urdu word for dust-colored, taken from an earlier Persian word for soil. The color made an excellent natural camouflage, and was adopted by the British Army for their Abyssian Campaign in 1867–1868, and later in the Boer War. It was adopted by the United States Army during the Spanish–American War (1896), and afterwards by the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps.
In the 1920s, brown became the uniform color of the Nazi Party in Germany. The Nazi paramilitary organization the Sturmabteilung (SA) wore brown uniforms and were known as the brownshirts. The color brown was used to represent the Nazi vote on maps of electoral districts in Germany. If someone voted for the Nazis, they were said to be “voting brown”. The national headquarters of the Nazi party, in Munich, was called the Brown House. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 was called the Brown Revolution. At Adolf Hitler’s Obersalzberg home, the Berghof, he slept in a “bed which was usually covered by a brown quilt embroidered with a huge swastika. The swastika also appeared on Hitler’s brown satin pajamas, embroidered in black against a red background on the pocket. He had a matching brown silk robe.” Brown had originally been chosen as a Party color largely for convenience; large numbers of war-surplus brown uniforms from Germany’s former colonial forces in Africa were cheaply available in the 1920s. It also suited the working-class and military images that the Party wished to convey. Through the 1930s, the Party’s brown uniforms were mass-produced by the German clothing firm owned by Hugo Boss (1885-1948). Boss became a member of the Nazi Party in 1931, and was licensed supplier for the SA, the SS, and the Hitler Youth. After World War II he was stripped of his right to vote and his presidency of the company, but the company continued in business and still carries his name.
The color brown is said to represent ruggedness when used in advertising. Pullman Brown is the color of the United Parcel Service (UPS) delivery company with their trademark brown trucks and uniforms; it was earlier the color of Pullman rail cars of the Pullman Company, and was adopted by UPS both because brown is easy to keep clean, and due to favorable associations of luxury that Pullman brown evoked. UPS has filed two trademarks on the color brown to prevent other shipping companies (and possibly other companies in general) from using the color if it creates “market confusion”. In its advertising, UPS refers to itself as “Brown”.
Idioms and expressions
“To be brown as a berry” (to be deeply suntanned)
“To brown bag” a meal (to bring food from home to eat at work or school rather than patronizing an in-house cafeteria or a restaurant)
“To experience a brown out” (a partial loss of electricity, less severe than a blackout)
Brownfields are abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where redevelopment for infill housing is complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations.
‘”Brown-nose” is a verb which means to be obsequious. It comes from the term for kissing the posterior of the boss in order to gain advancement.
“In a brown study” (melancholy).
It is said that people who have brown auras are often unethical businessmen who are in business purely for the sake of greed, or people who are just generally greedy and avaricious.
The Cleveland Browns of the National Football League, take their team name from its founder and long-time coach, Paul Brown, and use brown as a team color.
The University of Wyoming, St. Bonaventure University, and Lehigh University are sports teams that generally feature the color.
Source From Wikipedia