Aerography is a surrealist method in which a stencil used in spraypainting is replaced by a three-dimensional object, sometimes in extreme cases male artists have used their genitals as stencils. The aerography technique is most recognizable as a blended and photorealistic style. The method has been used to decorate tiles from the Victorian era and in the works of Man Ray.
Aerography is one of the techniques of fine art, using an airbrush as a tool for applying a liquid or powdery dye by using compressed air on any surface. Can also be used with a paint sprayer.
In connection with the widespread use of airbrushing and the appearance of a large number of different paints and compositions, airbrushing has received a new impetus for development. Today, airbrushing is used to create paintings, retouch photos, taxidermy, modelism, painting of textiles, mural painting, body art, painting nails, painting souvenirs and toys, painting utensils. It is often used for drawing drawings on cars, motorcycles, other equipment, in printing, in design etc. Due to the thin layer of paint and the possibility of smooth spraying it on the surface, it is possible to achieve excellent decorative effects, such as smooth color transitions, volume, photographic realism of the resulting image, imitation of rough texture with ideal smoothness of the surface.
Since it is difficult to perform the technique, which depends on the artist and the quality of the equipment to achieve this, the realization of the same requires a great preparation for professionals or students of art. The results, however, tend to offset the difficulty.
The scholars of this technique say that the art of aerography appeared in prehistoric times, when men threw pigments in the caverns (ink) through tubes from bones.
For this technique, an instrument called an airbrush is used, which is connected to an air compressor and creates air ducts with small droplets of ink.
There are two types of aerographs, the one of simple action and the one of double action. In the first, both paint and air come out at the same time and always in the same proportion, when the trigger is pressed. The mixture can be internal or external. In the case of double action, however, the trigger has two independent movements, one for the air and the other for the mixture of air and paint, so that you can add as much air as you like to the base mixture. The more air it has less thick will be the spray.
The first aerographic drawings were found in the Cave of Hands in Rio Pintouras, in the province of Santa Cruz (Argentina). The drawings were created about 7300 years ago. e. Ancient artists blowed through the hollow bone the pigment of the paint on the wall. A non-hand-closed part of the surface was painted, leaving an image of the artist’s hand. The same technique was used to make many other drawings depicting animals and people, making a painting made with a brush stronger. To complicate the drawings by filling a larger surface and adding textures, artists had to spend a lot of time and effort.
The first mechanical airbrush was invented in 1876 by the industrialist Francis Edgar Stanley. The improvement of the airbrush was handled by the jeweler Ebner Peeler. In 1879, he used a hand-held compressor and was positioned as “for watercolor painting and other artistic purposes.” The airbrush was a single action, allowing you to regulate the flow of paint only with the simultaneous adjustment of the air supply. The patent for the development was sold in 1882 to Liberty Walkop, who taught the technique of airbrushing the American impressionist Wilson Irwin.
The use of an airbrush was found in the correction of photographs. The first demonstration was made in 1882 at a congress of photographers in Indianapolis. Before the invention of color photographs as a basis, they took black and white and painted by hand. Two people took part in this work: the mazilas applied color contours and painted parts of the portrait, such as hair or eyes, and the draper was engaged in drawing the background. Until the first half of the XX century, the airbrush was a success with a growing number of companies engaged in “color photography.” Probably from here appeared the word “airbrushed” in English, which also has value as misguided in terms of history or news.
May 6, 1884 Walkup patent airbrush double-acting, which has the ability to regulate the supply of both paint and air. This added more opportunities when working. In 1888, in the building of his company “Airbrushing Manufacture Company” for the production of airbrushes, Walkop opens the Illinois School of Art. The school conducts classes in painting and graphics, but the main goal is to teach airbrushing technique. Since 1891, a magazine has been published on airbrush “Airbrush journal”, with a frequency of once every three months. The magazine describes the secrets of engineering and craftsmanship together with the advertising of the Illinois School of Arts. The magazine could be purchased for 25 cents or subscribe for a year.
In 1893, the American dentist Charles Berdick made improvements. His desire for watercolor Berdik wanted to simplify the device, capable of applying several layers of paint without changing the color of the underlying background. The Academy of Arts refused to accept the works made by his invention as picturesque. Then he moved to England, where he founded the factory for the production of airbrushes “Fountain Brush” (with English “Automatic Brush”). Colleague Berdik otolaryngologist Alan de Vilvis changed the device, which allowed spraying not only paint, but also anesthetic, as well as perfume. Later, the improvement of the tool was handled by Jens Paasche in Chicago, USA. Its change allowed spraying the abrasive powder to remove or brighten the paint on the surface. It could also be used to clean precision instruments and jewelry.
The ability to paint on large surfaces allowed the use of an airbrush in the production of posters, magazines, leaflets and calendars. The Second World War and political events of the epoch came to mass production of understandable and accessible pictorial images, ceasing to be the privilege of only the rich. In 1953, the work of Vargas and Petty, executed by airbrush, was the standard of female beauty and part of the American dream, getting to the pages of the magazine ” Playboy “.
The definition of the name of the profession of an artist working in airbrushing technique raises controversy and debates among artists.
The all-Russian classifier of occupations of workers, positions of employees and tariff categories contains professions airbrush and airbrush, uniting them into one group of the All-Russian classifier of occupations on a par with such professions as painter and decorative metal painting artist. According to OKPDTRR, the airbrush artist performs artistic design, advertising and font works, including the compilation and production of stencils. A profession will be called as an artist-airbrush, and a short airbrush.
The surface to be painted is specially prepared. For clean surfaces, a primer can be used, for matted surfaces – matting. Next, the drawing itself is applied to the previously created sketch of the image in one or more layers. If necessary, the pattern is covered with a varnish that gives shine and protects the paint from the external environment. Some varnishes polymerize in the oven at low temperatures (60-80 ° C) and are polished to smooth the surface.
Single Action Airbrush:
Airbrush external spray without needle
Airbrush external spray with needle
Airbrush of internal spraying
Double action airbrush:
Airbrush of independent double action
In modern fine arts, including airbrushing, one-off stencils are used. That is, the stencil is made once, for a single picture. The subsequent use of it is not relevant due to the inexpediency of its use. Reusable stencils are used for conveyor work on the flow, on the technique of applying colors resembling silkscreen printing. For the production of stencils can be used: paper, cardboard, self-adhesive film, special types of films, lead foil with holes for the reproduction of the contour pattern and other media.
Aerography on cars
Aerography is commonly used on vehicles. It adds an appealing and attracting effect, by presenting an image on the hood, on the side, or all around.
Before the era of the digital image, that is to say until the years 1990-1992, the airbrush was very used to improve, colorize or rig photographs.
The Russian propaganda rigged many photos after the great purges of Stalin and later during de- Stalinization, which gave rise to the English-speaking airbrushed out describing the techniques used by some totalitarian regimes to rewrite history, including via the production and dissemination of false images.
The English expressions airbrushed or airbrushed photo also describe the glamorous photos where all the imperfections of the models were erased, or on which certain attributes were somehow “improved”. These expressions have taken a pejorative connotation to describe the images of some newspapers (Playboy, later Maxim, and Whoopee magazine…) or advertising communication, political or institutional, unrealistic by chasing the imperfections.
Software such as Photoshop has retained an airbrush tool and added others (for example, the buffer tool), which further enhances the possibilities of image fixing or image correction.
The tool used is the airbrush, which is usually supplied with air by a compressor to which it is connected by a plastic hose reinforced with nylon. The air can be pulsed by mouth with the simplest and rustic models (often for children), or more often by a compressor, by a bottle of compressed air or nitrogen for professionals).
In illustration, the airbrush is used to draw (or color a drawing) on a special paper. This paper is coated and slightly glossy on the surface, so as to take off the adhesive plastic film (or frisket) used to cut the shapes to paint.
the airbrush has also been widely used, especially by advertisers, some photographers and some propaganda services to retouch photos.
This technique, which was most used in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly by the poster designers, and which enjoyed a revival of popularity around 1980 – 1990, is very delicate because of the difficulty of handling the airbrush but also of its sensitivity to fouling, but when it is mastered it allows a very fine control of the paint and subtle shades and gradients. As the ink layer projected at each pass is extremely thin, the treatment of large areas requires different types of airbrushes. We then use more readily the spray paint (for the skies to be painted on large surfaces for example), reserving the airbrush parts of the drawing that require a delicate and precise treatment).
Airbrushing and health
The aerosol pulsed by the airbrush can be extremely fine, which facilitates the dispersion in the air of the microparticles or nanoparticles of pigment, and the solvent(water or organic solvent, depending on the inks and pigments used). These can be easily inhaled and cause severe discomfort or allergies, as well as an accumulation of heavy metals in the body (many colored pigments are toxic metal oxides). Technical inks are designed to resist ultraviolet, visible light and sometimes heat or water. In these cases, they contain resins, catalysts or additives that make them more toxic or more allergenic. As with spray paint or spray paint, protect yourself with a filter cartridge mask (for inks containing organic solvents) or a FFP3 fiber mask. Solvents used for cleaning thexx th century can lose a significant amount of mineral oil in their lifetime.
Frequent or permanent use without personal protection (masks, gloves..) good ventilation or collective protection (laminar flow hood type), in an illustration or industrial painting workshop can lead to severe allergies with pruritus, anaphylactic shock, Quincke’s edema, eczema (syndrome), erythema or urticaria (local or generalized).
The airbrush was used less from the 2000s, for the benefit of the image created and worked on the computer (computer graphics), thanks to advances in drawing software, but especially vinyl qualities allowing a perfect deformation on the bodywork called total covering. The airbrush still retains a lot of advantages in particular by the quality of the paintings, by the sharpness during the enlargements and the lack of frame or pixels, it allows any retouching, repair, return and change of decoration without attacking the support. It’s mostly a technique of artistic expression.
Source from Wikipedia