Wu Daozi, (Chinese:吴道子 680 AD – 740 AD), later 道玄, was a Chinese artist of the Tang Dynasty. Michael Sullivan considers him one of “the masters of the seventh century,” Some of his works survive; many, mostly murals, have been lost. study calligraphy, by watching Gongsun aunt dance sword, experience the pen with the Road. Good Buddha Road, ghosts, figures, landscapes, birds and animals, vegetation, pavilions, especially in the Buddha, characters, longer than the fresco creation.
Wudaozi was born about about 685 AD (Tang Gaozong period), juvenile lonely, with the calligraphy everyone Zhang Xu, He study calligraphy, after the fight to attack painting, gradually mastered the painting of the magic. Because of his hard and studious, not weak when the time, has been “poor Danqing wonderful”.
AD 709 (King Long three years), Wei Si Li pull any of the book assistant minister, with the book under the door three products, the closure Happy public. At this time Wu Daozi in his subordinate Xiaoli. He “good wine to make gas, want to brush, you must drink.” Later, and any flute Qiu (now Shandong Yanzhou) county Wei. About in the early years of Kaiyuan, Wu Daozi no longer official, began “wandering Dongluo”.
Because he can “poor Danqing wonderful”, in the painting on some fame, around 713 AD, that was called by the Tang Xuanzong Kyoto Changan, insisted, served as an internal education doctor, and ordered him “no Chao can not draw.” After the official to “Ning Wang You”. Wu Daozi insisted after the worship of more in the palace painting, and sometimes follow the mysterious parade around. Once, he traveled to the east of Luoyang, met with the general Pei Min and calligrapher Zhang Xu, the three perform their own stunt: Pei Min good at the sword, immediately dance sword; Zhang Xu Chang in the cursive, brush ink, For the book wall; Wu Daozi also struggling to paint, “Russia is on, and if God help.”
AD 725 (Kaiyuan thirteen years), Tang Xuanzong East seal Taishan, Wu Daozi accompanied to. Later also to Luzhou (now Shanxi Changzhi), driving through Jinqiao, Royal Road “twists and turns linger.” Mysterious see thousands of miles between the “flag of fresh, Yu Wei purge”, the heart is very excited about the attendants said: “Zhang said the words ‘threw three hundred thousand, thousands of miles between the flag, the right side of the party, as Taiyuan’. Also. “Long live all around. So called Wu Daozi, Wei Wu, Chen Hong, etc., ordered the three of them together to draw “Jinqiao map”. Chen Hong, the main painting of the mysterious Zongzong and the ride by night white horse, Wei no master of the main painting dog horse, mule donkey, cattle and sheep and other animals and the like, and bridges, landscapes, car Yu, people, grass, wild goose, battle, curtain And other subject parts by Wu Daozi main painting. “Jinqiao map” painted, “when that three absolutely”.
AD 742-755 (Tianbao years), Tang Xuanzong suddenly remembered in the Jialing River in the beautiful scenery, fun, then ordered Wu Daozi relay to the Jialing River to sketch. To the Jialing River, Wu Daozi roaming on the river, overlooking the scenery, good mountain here, a scene of a passing, then experience and feelings, they are deeply in mind, and did not draw a sketch. When Wu Daozi traveled to the mountains of Jialing River after returning to Chang’an, Xuanzong asked him to paint the situation, he replied: “Chen no powder, and in mind.” Xuanzong ordered him in the temple wall painting. Wu Daozi Jialing River is not the surface of the list of some, but to grasp the Jialing River a mountain of water, a hill and a gorgeous fascinating realm, that this area of the magnificent mountains and beautiful natural characteristics made a high degree of generalization, Day, Jialing River three hundred miles of charming scenery vividly on the paper, Xuanzong read tut praise. Prior to this, the great painter General Li (think) is good at landscape painting, also in the temple wall painted Jialing River landscape, although the painting is also very wonderful, but “a few months side”, as Wu Daoxuan painted fast and good The Therefore, the mysterious quite said with emotion: “Li Si training a few months of power, Wu Daoxuan day trace, are extremely wonderful also.” We can see Wu Taozi superb painting skills, skilled writing. Wu Daozi is not only good at painting landscape painting, painting animals are quite vivid. He has painted five dragons in the Datong Hall, “Lin A flying, for every heavy rain, that is, raw smoke”, really longevity.
AD 758-759 (dry years), Wu Daozi Shangjian in. Lu Lengjia is Wu Daozi’s students, “the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, in the hall of the East Gallery Gallery under the number of monks blocked.” And then in the solemn Temple three paintings, “Rui Si open, quite its wonderful.” Wu Daozu met Lu Lengjia painting, that he has a great growth, resembles his own strokes, so exclaimed: “This pen pen force, was less than me, this is my class. “Because of the efforts of Lu Lenga, painstakingly painted, after a month, that is, left the world. Dry years, Wu Daozi is over the old age of the old. As for the future of Wu Daozi’s life, because the history of loss, it is impossible to research.
Wu Daozi in the art of painting so Zuo Ran superior achievements, because he deliberately novelty, the courage to create. “The name of the famous painting” recorded his two words: “all are close to hope, I was away from the point of painting, the public are like elephant, I fall off their mortal.” This shows that he is in the art of painting Unconventional, bold and innovative spirit. So his works become a model of the artist’s learning, painting works called “Wu family like”. Therefore, the Tang Dynasty Zhu Jingxuan in the “Tang Dynasty book order” in the taste of the Tang Dynasty painters “modern artists, but the work of a matter to its name, that fortunately Fortunately, but Wu Daozi days of its own, Qi trace in the land (probe), Gu (Kai of).
Wu Daozi also carry forward the art of painting, carefully taught his disciples, his superb skills passed to the next generation, so that the subsequent art of painting. According to the “map painted treasure” and “ancient name painting” records, many of his disciples, which are more well-known Lu Lengga, Li Sheng, Zhang possession, Han Qiu, Zhu Yao, Zhai Yan and so on. Han Qiu “to Danqing self-polluting, learn Wu Daoxuan, especially in the road”. Zhu Yao from the division in the Wu Daoxuan, also “Miao Tao Road,” the mind. Wu Daozi on the disciples of words and deeds, not to disciples recite formulas, research, etc., is to let his disciples copy his drawings, or in accordance with his instructions to fill the color. “History of the Ming Dynasty,” there will be such a record: “Wu Sheng (Taoist) each painting, pen to go, so that Yan (Zhai Yan) and Zhang Zangbo color.” Sometimes, Wu Daozi murals when only one about, The rest will let the disciples to complete, in Luoyang King Ai Temple, Wu Daozi described the “days of the Tibetan Tripitaka” by Zhai Yan completed. Wu Daozhuang’s painting art has a profound influence on the painting of the Tang Dynasty. He was later regarded as “painting”, and his apprentice succeeded the name of “painting”.
Wu Daozi’s life, mainly engaged in the creation of religious frescoes, the subject matter is very rich, and concurrently landscape, depicting Shudao rocky beach is famous. Zhang Yanyuan that “landscape change, began in Wu, into two Lee”. Su Shi that “painting to Wu Daozi, ancient and modern changes, the world can do things.” Wu Sheng “painting and plastic”, good at master “keep their gods, specifically one” of the law of art.
According to him in Chang’an, Luoyang two temples painted murals up to more than 300 blocks, odd strange, no similar, especially in the “hell disguised” famous, also spread the “treasure plot Galois Buddha “,” Taoist ink “and other copies, Mogao Grottoes 103 cave of the Vimo changes, also considered his style.
Lijiang Yongsheng county three kilometers outside of a victory, is one of the prestigious monuments in western Yunnan. Here four ointment in the ancient trees towering green green pot between the mountain, call as “Lingyuan Qing”; because the temple stone wall engraved with the Tang Dynasty painting St. Wu Daozi made by the sound of audio and video, also named “Guanyin Qing”.
Wu Daozi longer than the landscape painting, his master painting “Jinqiao map” is clapped and said. In his own painting “Jialing River landscape three hundred map” in the process, its painting skills more innovative.
Tang Dynasty Buddhism, Taoism are very popular, religious art also has developed by leaps and bounds. Therefore, Wu Daozi’s art of painting has a high achievement. He made four frescoes in the East and West altars (one for four hundred), and “people are so strange, no one.” Xijing Xingtang Temple Royal note King Kong courtyard, Cien Temple tower in front of Manjiao Puxian and west of the devil Panlong, small house in front of the Buddha, King Gong Temple hell Emperor deity, Yongshou Temple in the three gods, etc., ” Wu Daozi painting in the door of the gods, round light most in the past, a sum made Square, young and old, hundreds of people every day, “competing for the concept of”; and its pen when the “look like a block”, saw him “wind off, the rules of the full moon”, crowd of people see him painting skills So clever, “the sound of noise, shock Square Square, or that the gods.” He painted the characters, people feel “Qiu Xu Yunbin, a few feet fly, hair root out of meat, more than force.” Visible, he painted the characters vivid, really moving. He painted characters, the proportion of the various parts of the body is very accurate.
Wu Daozi painted “hell disguised” is its representative. “East view of the theory of mind,” said Wu Daozi in Jingyun Temple painted “hell disguised”, said: “As the temple temple map, special Fu with the knife, boiling wok, Ngau Tau, A room like, and change “Since the painting without” knife, boiling wok, “the intuitive image of terror to assist the screen of the” miserable “, then the work of course, there must be more than the gods and other ghosts and so on, and so on. Can strongly touch the power of the people. According to Jingyun Temple of the old monk Xuanzong said: “Wu Sheng (Daozi) painting this hell into after the people are salty, are all guilty of the crime, the two cities Tugu, fish do not sell.” The artistic effect is so amazing, Shows Wu Daozi in the art of painting made outstanding achievements.
Wu Daozi painting characters, gestures round, clothes ribbon like the wind fluttering, descendants called this style “Wu belt when the wind.” Dunhuang murals in the Tang and Song can be seen similar to the style. And Wu Daozi style is also similar to the performance of the line and blooming and other techniques. Scholars believe that the Dunhuang frescoes in the blue leaves and Wu Dao sub line skills are also the same strain. Tang Dynasty popular blue leaves painted the shape of the hook, outside the soft inside, thick Zhuang tall and straight, fine euphemism.
In the history of painting evaluation Wu Daozi murals are “people have eight sides, business activities.” “Taoist paintings such as plastic.” Many scholars praise Wu Daozi’s painting: “situation will be pressing, spirits if the wall.” This image in the Dunhuang murals abound.
Wu Daozi made scroll scroll is also quite rich, such as “send son King”, “eighty seven fairy volume” and so on. Historical records recorded a lot, but there is a considerable part of the Wu Daozi can not determine whether the authentic, the following list can be verified is indeed Wu Daozi works.
“Jindi King” “Liang Wu Di” “Xi later” “Ming Huang by the seal map” “Jinqiao map” “Zhu Yun throttle map” “Han Emperor Wu Liao clothes map”
“Confucius as” “Confucius by a few like” “Secretary Kou like” “Yanzi like” “Zhong by the like” “Li Linfu like” “Chen Xulie like” “Yang Guozhong like” “Master of the line”
“Hells in disguise map” “Tuo tower king” “big law enforcement statue” “Peacock Ming Wang” “fingers of Zhong Kui map” “treasure plot Galois Buddha” “nations Xianning” “cloud rain”
Scenery birds and animals
“Jianghai Pentium map” “Jialing River landscape three hundred map” “Nanyue map” “double forest map” “Huaqing Palace map” “group donkey map” “deer map”
Numerous legends gathered around Wu Daozi, often concerning commissions by Emperor Xuanzong.
In one, he painted a wall mural displaying a rich nature-scene set in a valley, containing a stunning array of flora and fauna and including a cave at the foot of a mountain. The story goes that he clapped his hands and entered the cave, inviting the emperor to follow. The painter entered the cave but the entrance closed behind him and, before the astonished emperor could move or utter a word, the painting vanished from the wall. The contemporary Swedish writer Sven Lindqvist meditates on this legend and the challenge that it poses to modern aesthetics in his book, The Myth of Wu Tao-Tzu.
Another legend states that Emperor Xuanzong sent Wu Daozi to Sichuan to study the green waters of the Jialing River in order to complete a mural of its entire course. Supposedly, Wu returned without sketches and rapidly painted the entire river from memory, completing the 300-li account within a single day. It is sometimes added that his technique was foiled by Li Sixun, who accompanied him and followed the traditional practice of working slowly from numerous prepared sketches. To the extent that it is grounded in a real event, however, it probably only reflects Wu’s speed of execution and not a lack of reliance on sketches.
Another has it that a painter found one of the last surviving murals of Wu Daozi and learned to imitate the style. He then destroyed the wall, possibly by pushing it into a river, to ensure that no one else could learn the same secrets.