Categories: CultureFashionHistory

Baroque fashion of women 1650–1670

Fashion in the period 1650–1670s in Western European clothing is characterised by rapid change, after the Thirty Years’ War from about 1670, France gained supremacy in Europe. It became a leader in science and art, and in terms of custom and fashion, the court in Versailles set the tone for almost every country. Under the rule of Louis XIV, the style of fashion became more classical, triumphant and ostentatious, profusion decorated.

Initially, the women outweighed puffy skirts, loose shoulders, wide sleeves, and fluttering curls.The elegant lady at this time wore the Manteau, a garment that billowed on the back and fell down as a train. For example, heavy gold and silver brocades came into fashion as fabrics. Deep cutouts let the waist slide down. To keep the décolleté free, on the contrary, the hairstyle, held up by ribbons, strove upward. This so-called Fontange was the female counterpart to the gentleman’s long-necked wig. It was attributed to the Duchess of Fontanges, a mistress of Louis XIV, and held until the beginning of the 18th century.

For the women, the hoop skirt came back, along with the lace-upand the horizontally cut out Contouche (robe), elegantly falling on the back. The hairstyle was lower, decorated with feathers or bows; in the back a long ringlet fell down on the shoulder. This costume was preserved as a gala costume until the end of the century, but disappeared since 1760, the hair bag and the braid became shorter.

As its polar region, from around the 1650s a fashion epitomizes a curling skirt that looks almost like a skirt with a ribbon decorated with a rungrave (Petty Court Bricits in English, a half pants like skirt).

The representative of the 17th century is a French fashion called Baroque style, which was born as a result of the parents of Louis XIV starting in 1661.

French fashion was conscious of the profit from the domestic mode industry from the beginning, unlike Spain fashion which depended material on Italy. Richelieu, which adopted the mercantilist policy in 1627, issued a “ban on the import of gold, silver, race, mall, velvet”, followed by a stricter “gold string, silver string, gold and silver fabric, Satin, velvet, gold silver embroidery, ban on decorations “was issued. These luxurious fabrics and decorations at this time were measures to protect the national finances as many were imports from Italy and others. Mazaran, who succeeded Richelieu, also took over the strict prohibition orders, and in 1644 it issued “a banning embroidery, gold and silver fabric prohibition”. Colbert (born in the house of the Lasha merchant) who was the successor of Mazarin, who established the foundation of the French mode industry as the general affairs supervisor, said, “The mode industry for France is Peru ‘s silver mountain for Spain” and the mode It states the importance of the industry. In 1667, Royal Royal Textile Manufactory and Royal Race Factory were established one after another to satisfy the requirements for beautiful costumes of kings and nobles of countries. Sericulture industry for silk indispensable for brilliant costumes was orbiting mainly in rural areas near Lyon around this time.

In this era, in France, the world’s first fashion magazine “Mercure Gallant” that printed the latest fashion prints in 1672 was launched, and a mannequin called Pandora (two types of formal pandora and daily arrival small pandora) He dressed in the latest trendy costumes in Paris and sent it throughout Europe to let him know the latest mode. From around 1670, a set of costumes, Just Call, West Culott, which is currently associated with saying French aristocrat clothing, will begin to be established. Female hairstyles and making clothes were influenced by leading masters of salons (many of them were mistresses and girls friends of Louis XIV), and they are making rapid and changing changes.

Regarding the emergence of new fabrics, cotton cloth “Andyenne” imported from India has become a major epidemic as a nobleman’s room wearing, and the imitation of this Indian gift has been produced in Provence. In France, as the domestic production of silk advanced, Camembert (plain weave cloth made from Angola goat, sheep and camel hair and silk woven) or bonbajin (twill cloth fabric that weeded silk and wool) and Tobin (Moire pattern taffeta) And Caltech (thin silk used for lining of clothes) etc. are on the market.

Women’s fashion

The female costume displays a certain sobriety in the service of a delicate coquetry. It is thus very different from the male costume which has opted, on many occasions, for a very rich ornamentation even ostentatious.

The shape of the female costume does not change fundamentally during the reign of Louis XIV. We will note all the same a greater sumptuousness from 1670 which will again give way to a more austere and simple fashion (under the influence of Madame de Maintenon ).

The body of the skirt covers a rigid boned body that falls below the waist. The neckline is oval. The lace of the shirt protrudes at the level of this neckline. This collar of lingerie or lace (or draped muslin ) which follows the oval shape of the bodice rather than surround the neck is the only innovation of the female costume under Louis XIV. The sleeves of the shirt are also visible under the sleeves of the dress. A gem can be placed on the front of body jewelry that is called life and soul train or fumble for it. Very tight bodice gives a stuffy appearance.

From 1680, the lower skirt and the front of the bodice are covered with bindings, embroidery and ribbon knots called gallanas. The coat, previously called skirt or dress, is raised on each side by ribbons. The coat ends with a train whose length at the court is a function of social rank. The under skirt is taffeta while the coat is in damask fabrics (fabric where on the spot shiny patterns appear on a matte background and inversely on the back of the fabric) or stitched (the fabric is woven with yarn silk, gold or silver so as to form patterns in relief). First there is a preference for striped fabrics andmoirés and later for the ramages (decorations that reproduce foliage patterns). The court costume has short sleeves from which the sleeves of the shirt come out; the laces on the sleeves are sometimes removable. From 1672 on, we adopt the negligee for summer and winter. For the winter, women wear mantles and sleeves and the dresses are lined with blackout.

The hairstyles gain height: when they clear the ears, it is question of hairstyle to the cheeky (because it makes it possible to hear the naughty remarks); this elevation of the hair will lead to the fashion of the wig. The fly is in vogue. Very often, the ladies buckled their hair on iron.

Skirts are growing and at the end of the xvii th century, the twist is invented in order to eat the coat. Brandenburgs on female costumes make their appearance as on male costumes.

Romantic negligence
A daring new fashion arose for having one’s portrait painted in undress, wearing a loosely fastened gown called a nightgown over a voluminous chemise, with tousled curls. The style is epitomized by the portraits of Peter Lely, which derive from the romanticized style originated by Anthony van Dyck in the 1630s. The clothing in these portraits is not representative of what was worn on the street or at court.

The mantua or manteau was a new fashion that arose in the 1680s. Instead of a bodice and skirt cut separately, the mantua hung from the shoulders to the floor (in the manner of dresses of earlier periods) started off as the female version of the men’s Banyan, worn for ‘undress’ wear. Gradually it developed into a draped and pleated dress and eventually evolved into a dress worn looped and draped up over a contrasting petticoat and a stomacher. The mantua-and-stomacher resulted in a high, square neckline in contrast to the broad, off-the-shoulder neckline previously in fashion. The new look was both more modest and covered-up than previous fashions and decidedly fussy, with bows, frills, ribbons, and other trim, but the short string of pearls and pearl earrings or eardrops worn since the 1630s remained popular.

The mantua, made from a single length of fabric pleated to fit with a long train, was ideal for showing the designs of the new elaborately patterned silks that replaced the solid-colored satins popular in mid-century.

Hunting and riding dress
In a June 1666 diary entry, Samuel Pepys describes the Maids of Honour in their riding habits of mannish coats, doublets, hats, and periwigs, “so that, only for a long petticoat dragging under their men’s coats, nobody could take them for women in any point whatever”. For riding side-saddle, the costume had a long, trailing petticoat or skirt. This would be looped up or replaced by an ankle-length skirt for shooting or walking.

Hairstyles and headgear
Early in the period, hair was worn in a bun at the back of the head with a cluster of curls framing the face. The curls grew more elaborate through the 1650s, then longer, until curls were hanging gracefully on the shoulder. In the 1680s hair was parted in the center with height over the temples, and by the 1690s hair was unparted, with rows of curls stacked high over the forehead.

This hairstyle was often topped with a fontange, a frilly cap of lace wired to stand in vertical tiers with streamers to either side, named for a mistress of the French King. This was popular from the 1690s to the first few years of the 18th century.

Style gallery 1650s

1 – 1650

2 – 1652

3 – 1652

4 – 1653

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5 – 1655

6 – 1655

7 – 1658

8 – 1658

9 – 1659

1.German fashion of 1650 shows a smooth, tight, conical satin bodice with a dropped shoulder. Slashed sleeves are caught with jeweled clasps over voluminous chemise sleeves.
2.Margareta Maria de Roodere wears a salmon-colored gown. A sheer scarf is knotted into a collar around her shoulders, and her white sleeve linings are fastened back with a covered button, 1652.
3.Mary, Princess of Orange wears a satin gown with a long pointed bodice and a satin petticoat. The many tiny pleats that gather in her skirt can be seen, 1652.
4.Maria Theresa of Spain wears the cartwheel farthingale, which, in Spain, was adapted late and retained it long after it had disappeared elsewhere. The Infanta’s hairstyle is also typical of the Spanish court, 1653.
5.Rear view of a Dutch jacket-bodice of 1655 shows the tabbed skirts and the curved side-back seams.
6.The Swedish countess Beata Elisabet von Königsmarck wears a white silk gown with a long tight bodice, flat skirt, wide double puffed sleeves, bare shoulders and a deep cleavage. The dress is decorated with blue ribbons and a blue shawl draped around the breasts. She has pearls, and her hair is braided in a knot in the back, but is worn in loose curls over her ears.
7.Young Dutch girl wears a rose jacket-bodice and a plain pink petticoat. Her hair is worn in a wound braid with small curls over her ears. 1658–60.
8.Details of Dutch fashion of 1658 include a string of pearls tied with a black ribbon, a jack-bodice with matching skirt, pleated sleeves, and dropped shoulder.
9.The Infanta Margarita of Spain is shown, when eight years old, wearing the cartwheel farthingale, 1659.

Style gallery 1660–1670

1 – 1660s

2 – c.1660

3 – 1662

4 – 1663

5 – 1665

6 – 1666

1.English court dress from the 1660s, made of silver tissue and decorated with applied parchment lace. From the Fashion Museum, Bath.
2.Peter Lely portrays Two Ladies of the Lake Family wearing satin dresses over shifts or chemises with voluminous sleeves. Their hair is worn in masses of ringlets to the shoulders on either side, and both wear large pearl eardrops.
3.Dutch lacemaker’s jacket-bodice has a dropped shoulder line and full, three-quarter length sleeves cartridge-pleated at shoulder and cuff. Her indoor cap has a circular back anhood is embroidered. Her shoes have thick heels and square toes, now somewhat old-fashioned.
4.The very long pointed bodice of c. 1663 is shown clearly in this portrait of a woman playing a viola de gamba. The sleeve is pleated into the dropped should and into the cuff.
5.Inés de Zúñiga, Countess of Monterrey is a beautiful example of typical court fashion in Spain.
6.The Infanta Margarita of Spain is shown here wearing a mourning dress of unrelieved black with long sleeves, cloak and hood. She wears her hair parted to one side and severely bound in braids, 1666.

Women’ clothing
In 1667, from the conventional Tayule (tailor) guild, the Cutieur (women’s clothing tailor) guild was separated and women’s clothing expert appeared. The ladies were increasingly immersed in the change of freaky trends. However, in 1675 concerns that Cruyurière is disturbed by touching exposed ladies in a closed room and skin exposed ladies, the women’s guilds of Couturere are approved from the country in 1675. A female women’s clothing craftsman first tried to reduce the weight of a heavy and cramped corset and took full advantage of the ladies as friends.

Clothing of common people
The woman suffered a small bonnet, a scarf, a straw hat of Hako, wearing a cheap woolen long-sleeved bodice, a skirt and a dress over-skirt and tightening an apron. Some wear a sleeveless bodice or jacket-style outerwear from the top of a long-sleeved bodice, but they are wearing shoes like black loafers that are uniformly decorated.

General women’s clothing around the 1650s when Dutch fashion caught among citizens is seen in genre painters Felmail of the time and works of Jan Sten. Common colors are pale red, light blue, brown, and dark blue, centering on light yellow. Dark blue color was once expensive to be considered as a symbol of the royal family, but when the import of Indian indigo, which easily darkens the dark vibrant blue, begins, in the latter half of the 1640 ‘s, European Taisei can only ever be outdone It has been done. The maid is wearing a small white collar filled with a collar on a plain black dress that is easy to work and it is in sharp contrast with the fact that an upstream citizen’s woman is opening a large chest.

Production of silk and cotton fabrics in France under the rule of Louis XIV orbit, the silk and cotton of poor quality came out after separating the material to be tailored to the item for the upper class. We woven this on a thin cloth and sold it for the commoners, but it got very popular among ordinary women. These cloths were usually called greasets because they were grayish colors, but when calling these low-class women somewhat silly.

Upstream citizen’s clothing
Long gloves and muffs will appear in the 1640s. General women’s clothing around the 1650s when Dutch fashion caught among citizens is seen in genre painters Felmail of the time and works of Jan Sten. Common colors are light shades such as light red or light blue with pale yellow as the center. The frame disappeared in the skirt, dragged to the floor, and the whole body was not tightened with a corset, so the entire silhouette seems to be futuristic from the 16th century. Fabrics are also popular with light satin as glossy rather than heavy and luxurious Brocade.

The reason why the skirt is gradually spreading is because three jupps (underskirt) are piled up, and in France it is “La Modesto (ashidi)” “La Fri Ponne (Omiba)” “La I called it with a different name from “Screlet (secret)”. The chest bulging revived because of not tightening the fuselage, opened the neck widely in a trapezoidal shape to show the chest. The sleeve was not hard to move, made a number of inflatable stuffed paddings typified by the Medici sleeve that was popular in the first half of the seventeenth century, and a long sleeve with slightly relaxed seasons was common.They used to wear loose jacket that was as long as she covered her hips as a coat, but mostly it had a fur rim. In the inventory of Vermeer ‘s property, there is left “the coat of yellow satin ten’ s fringe edge” which seems to be put on the model, and one purchased by a painter for a genre painting reflecting the epidemic at the time Seem.

As a room wear, in the Netherlands a kimono-style gown called “Yapon” (sometimes a real wealthy lady gotten from Japan from a very wealthy woman) was prevalent in particularly rich upper-class citizens. In addition to the rarity of foreign tastes and the show of wealth, it was the highest luxury to wear high-quality silk that was still expensive as a gown. In the UK and France where trading with Japan is impossible, people of the upper class tailored a similar gown with Indian gift and called the fabric “Andyenne”. They made my hair curled beside my ear, braided my back hair, and then tied up to Sinyon on my head.

In 1672, there was a letter that wrote Paris’s epidemic from a tutor who accompanied youth of an upstream citizen who traveled from the UK to Europe to an aunt of young people. “Both chest and corset are embroidered with flower patterns with white or brown taffeta with black etc. Even white and black costumes look beautiful and sincere when wearing a white or silver skirt.The under skirt is down People wearing on it are laying on top of each other or they are edging with racing. “This is a British woman asking a nephew’s tutor to report the latest epidemic in Paris early, so he did so Because of the background it seems to describe the epidemic of that time fairly precisely. Breast clothing is a triangular cloth that covers a corset called Piesdestroma, and at that time it was a triangle cloth covering a crochet from a neck of a robe (so-called dress, which looks like a one piece style but the upper and lower are separated and the skirt is hooked inside the upper garment) It was big open to the triangle, and I used it by inserting it behind the open part tightened with a string. Wearing ribbon decorations and decorating with lace was prevalent, but in the 18th century it became possible to sew to robes from the beginning. In the late 17th century the corset restored, but it was not tightening the whole torso but was lifted to raise the breast to change it to emphasize the chest. The corset that tightens the front is widely used by women of common people, but when it has a gorgeous decorative knot, it also spreads to people over the middle class and was called with a joke name named “Gurugundee (slut girl)”.

Upper class dress
The epidemic until the 1660s is not much different from what I mentioned in the above item. Rather, the women of the court had been pretending to be pre-aged with a stiff question such as expressions of rituals, liturgy and status differences and courtesy.

Louis XIV ‘s salon culture hosting socializing by the king’s lover and girl friend from the start of civil affairs will rise, fashion will become more gorgeous. Mall • Black lace • ribbon decorative • artificial flowers • black ball • beautiful buttons with Cloisonne baked fads and like rugs of silk robes from silk lobes woven from stripes and ripples Luxury was also seen. In 1667, Mrs Sevignier was surprised at the lavish attire of wearing the robe of the race on the golden robe of Mrs. Montespan, the mistress of the king, and is writing that impression to his daughter. Mrs Sevignier was also impressed with the luxurious appearance of Mrs. Montespan who wore lots of pearls in lace clothes and diamond earrings, also in 1676. orate the ribbon bundle in line with the hair that caught perfectly.

Source from Wikipedia