Vilnius Baroque

Vilnius Baroque (Vilnius School) – the direction of Baroque architecture occurring most often in the north-eastern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Vilnius region, Belarus (church and monastery in Berevitch, religious buildings in Minsk, Vitebsk, Ivianiec, Borunach, etc.) and Polish Inflanty) and incidentally in the south-eastern parts of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The most famous architect of the school was Jan Krzysztof Glaubitz. Other architects creating in this style are Ludwik Hryncewicz (creator of the church in Wołyńcach and the facade of the Missionary church in Vilnius), Aleksander Osikiewicz, B. Kosiński, Owsiukiewicz, Johannes Tobias de Dyderstein, Johann Wilhelm Frezer, Abraham Wuertzner, Joachim Herdegen, Antonio Paracca, priest. Tomasz Żebrowski.

A characteristic feature of the Vilnius school are tall and very slender towers, in which each storey is designed in a different way, and the whole is topped with a small dome. On every floor there was a tall and narrow hole. The second feature, developed later, is the cutting of fanciful window and door openings in the wall, a feature that was also used in northern Italy and in Calabria and in Sicily. The third feature of the school was the use of complicated wall waves in the tops and facades. Buildings were usually built on simple throws.

The emergence of the Welsh Baroque is associated with two figures – Archbishop Florian Grebnicki and architect Johann Christoph Glaubitz (* 1700 ? – † 1767). Polotsk Greek Catholic Archbishop (later – Metropolitan) Florian Hrebnytskyy (* 1683 – † 1762) at their own expense in the middle of the XVIII century rebuilt several important temples of their own diocese, among them – Cathedral in. The free and the church of St. Nicholas there. Florian Hrebnitsky owns the honor of rebuilding from the ruins of the Old Russian Sophia Cathedral, planted in the air.Polotsk, blown up by soldiers on the orders of Alexander Menshikov in 1710 during the Great Northern War. The most widespread new style was on the lands that now belong to three different states through the artificially redone borders after the Second World War of 1939 – 1945. The monuments of the Welsh Baroque are now found in Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine in the dioceses belonging to the Vilna Roman Catholic Diocese and the Uniate Church of the Lithuanian Principality. From here, the unofficial name of the style is the Uniate Baroque.

A number of local and foreign masters, including Johann Christoph Glaubitz, Jan Gottfried Hoffman, Alexander Osikevich, Jakub Fontana and several local builders, reorganized or rebuilt. The Vilna Baroque compromises or harmoniously combines local national traditions with the borrowed forms of the late West European Baroque. That is why the architecture of the Valencian Baroque has many local, individual patterns that only superficially, externally reminiscent of the examples of the Jesuit Baroque, which was circulated in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Art. The sacred buildings of the Welsh Baroque lacked the simplicity and severity of the cathedrals of the early Baroque, gained ease, the delicacy of the towers, wavelength, increased plasticity of the main facades and tiered towers. Almost every monument of the Valencian Baroque had an important urban significance, wherever it was built, although in the capital, though in the province, even in the western Buchach, though in rural areas of Belarus (Smalany, Byelorussia, the Church of the Most Holy Panny Mary, Talachin, Belarus, Church of the Intercession).

The best example of the Byzantine Baroque was recognized by the Peter and Paul Church in Berezovechy – a three-wind dvuhozhevaya basilica, distributed among the sacred buildings of the Vilna Baroque; the efforts of the architect received an unusual, bold architectural image. The temple was seriously damaged during the German-Soviet war and was finally destroyed in the 1960 ‘s when a new, state campaign for the destruction of church buildings was launched in the USSR. The most complete examples of the Willem Baroque also include the Greek Catholic Church in Borun, which was created under the leadership and design of the architect’s monk of this monastery, Alexander Osikevich.

In a small number of stylistics of the Vilna Baroque also used in the construction of economic or secular buildings (baroque gates of the Basilian Holy Trinity Monastery and the Olizarov Palace in Vilna, the Sanguškov Palace in Zaslav).

The first implementation of the school is the Carmelite Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Głębok (1730-1735) designed by JK Glaubitz. The next ones include:

the Holy Spirit church in Vilnius (second half of the 18th century) designed by JK Glaubitz
St. Catherine in Vilnius (1739-1743) by JK Glaubitz
Orthodox church Of the Trinity in Vilnius and the Basilian monastery, after 1748, Basilians (JK Glaubitz)
St. Jakub and Filip and the Dominican monastery in Vilnius
the Augustian church in Vilnius (mid-eighteenth century)
the Missionary church in Vilnius (1751-1756), designed by L. Hryncewicz
St. Rafał in Vilnius, probably designed by JK Glaubitz
All Saints’ Church and the Carmelite Monastery in Vilnius (1733-1749) Idzi Polkiewicz
the church on Calvary in Werki near Vilnius (1755-1772) designed by JK Glaubitz
church in Stołowicze (Jakub Fontana and Jan Krzysztof Glaubitz)
St. Andrzej in Słonim (1775)
church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Zdzięciole (1743-1751) projected by Aleksander Osikiewicz
Piarist church of St. Michael the Archangel in Łużki (1744-1756)
Uniate Orthodox Church in Minsk
the Bernardine church in Minsk (now the Orthodox) (1633-1642, reconciliation 1741)
Bernardine church in Minsk (1752)
St. Wojciech and the Benedictine monastery in Minsk (eighties of the 18th century) designed by Tomasz Romanowski
church of the Transfiguration in Hermanowicz (1787)
Saint. Zofia in Polotsk (1738-1765) designed by JK Glaubitz
Jesuit church in Daugavpils
Jesuit church. St. Franciszek Ksawery in Kaunas
Orthodox church of the Resurrection in Vitebsk (1740-1750) designed by Józef Fontana
monastery and the Basilian church. Care of the Mother of God in Tołoczyna, Sanguszków foundation (1769)
monastery in Borunach with the church of St. St. Peter and Paul (1747-1756) designed by Aleksander Osikiewicz
church and monastery in Śmiłowicze (1767-1791)
the church of Michael the Archangel and Saint. John the Baptist in the village of Jezno (1768-1772), the Paców foundation
monastery complex Basilian in Berevitch (1756-1767) designed by JK Glaubitz (non-existent)
Jesuit church in Pinsk (demolished)
the Franciscan church in Ivianiec (1702-1705, restored 2003-2008)
Basilian monastery in Torokanie (1757) (destroyed)
church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Smolany (second half of the 18th century) (ruin)
church of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Datnów (1773-1810)
St. Michael the Archangel in Wierzbołów (destroyed)
church of the Holy Trinity in the Basilian convent in Wolna (1768)
Basilian monastery in Buczacz (1750-1770 or 1765-1771) designed by Jan Gotfryd Hoffmann
St. The Trinity in Stokliszki (1765-1776)
Missionary church St. Of the Trinity in Łyskowo (1763-1785)
St. John in Wasiliszki (1769)
church of the Jesuits St. Stefan in Połock (1733-1745)
church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Lucyna
Dominican church of St. Dominika in Posin (1761)
Orthodox church of the Epiphany in Żyrowice (rebuilt in 1796)
Church of St. Jakub in Kurtowianach (1783-1796)
The Basilian church of Basilians St. Of the Trinity in Wolna (before 1769)
Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Hajno

Buildings built or rebuilt in the 20th century referring to the Vilnius baroque
St. Of the Holy Trinity in Głębok (1902-1908), designed by Adam Dubowik
St. Michael Archangel in Oszmiana (1900-1906) designed by Wacław Michniewicz
Church of the Resurrection in Białystok (1991-1996) designed by Michał Bałasz
church of the Transfiguration in Krewo (1993-x) designed by Walery Kuziakin

Source from Wikipedia