From the latter part of the 15th century, Venice had a distinctive, thriving, and influential artistic environment. Beginning with the work of Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430–1516) and his brother Gentile Bellini (c. 1429–1507) and their workshops, the major artists of the Venetian school included Giorgione (c. 1477–1510), Titian (c. 1489–1576), Tintoretto (1518–1594), Paolo Veronese (1528–1588) and Jacopo Bassano (1510–1592) and his brothers. Considered to give primacy of colour over line, the tradition of the Venetian school contrasted with the Mannerism prevalent in the rest of Italy. The Venetian style exerted great influence upon the subsequent development of Western painting.
The main motifs are sacral images, historical paintings, genre paintings, portrait portraits and city vedutas.
A characteristic feature is the novel approach to light and color. Here comes the plasticity back. Absolutely prevalent, especially in recent centuries, were buildings and cityscapes of the commercial city of Venice.
“Typical of the Venetian painting schools is the sensual play of forms, the great importance of color and an extraordinary sense of light, which gives the landscapes something poetic and elegiac.”
– Michelin: Venetian painting: A world of light and color
During the early-15th century, Venetian art was dominated by the earlier styles arising from its Byzantine links, as exemplified by the work of the Vivarini family. From the late-15th century, Venetian painting developed through links with Andrea Mantegna (1431–1506) (from nearby Padua) and of a visit by Antonello da Messina (c. 1430–1479), who introduced the oil painting technique of Early Netherlandish painting, probably acquired through his training in Naples. Another external factor was the visit by Leonardo da Vinci, who was particularly influential on Giorgione.
During his long career, Bellini has been credited with creating the Venetian style. From his earlier works, such as his Madonna of the Small Trees (c. 1487) which largely reflect the linear approach of Mantegna, he later developed a softer style, where glowing colours are used to represent form and suggest an atmospheric haze. Applying this approach in his San Zaccaria Altarpiece (1505), the high viewpoint, the uncluttered and interconnected figures arranged in space, and the subtle gestures all combine to form a tranquil yet majestic image. With such works he has been described as reaching the High Renaissance ideals, and certainly expresses the key distinctive factors of the Venetian school.
The 14th century: The birth of Venetian painting
The continual presence in the heart of Venice, mosaics of St. Mark’s Basilica, which fell under the Byzantine pictorial tradition (the 14th century), exposed before the eyes of painters colored effects of gold background tiles and brightly colored dishes that shimmered in the volumes of the basilica and with the changing light. It was certainly, at all times in Venice, a strong stimulus for painters to work on colors and painting: how to transpose these effects into painting?
At the beginning of 14th century Venetian painters are opening more and more to painting the continent, especially the Gothic movement from the north of Europe. Paolo Veneziano is the first Venetian painter whose name we know as an artist. He was the first to develop a personal pictorial language, in balance between Byzantine art and the new themes of Gothic painting, as here, the coronation of the Virgin. The parts of the body represented are painted according to the Byzantine tradition of the time: after a preparation in white (Byzantine: leukos), on a dark background (brown-green, Byzantine: sankir) the applied colors are more and more clear, to finish with the white. The accuracy of the work is a miniaturist know-how producing a tapestry effect. The floral motifs of the clothes of Christ and the Virgin reproduce embroidered silk fabrics inspired by Chinese embroidery or Chinese ceramics: a trade by the road of silk which resumed its growth with the Yuan dynasty, still in power at that time in China which ended precisely in Venice. Moreover, the patterns in tissue waves, between Christ and the Virgin Mary appear to be grounds for a fancy calligraphy, as was practiced in Italy for several centuries before and during the Renaissance.
The 15th century
Bartolomeo and Antonio Vivarini, Jacopo Bellini
The beginning of the Quattrocento is marked in Venice by the work of Jacobello del Fiore from 1400 and the passage of Gentile da Fabriano around 1410. The style of these painters is of international Gothic: multiplication of areas of differentiated colors, accentuated by distinct ornaments, and carved frames that reinforce the different parts of polyptychs. Opulence of brocadeand sumptuous decorations, graceful and repetitive poses: “the image is brilliant, heavenly, by its luxury it plunges the faithful in admiration and, therefore, in devotion. The prestige of painting is used to the full to seduce the eyes and, through them, the spirit and the soul of the spectator “. Bartolomeo Vivarini, painting in the Basilica San Zanipolo, a polyptych dedicated to St. Augustine (1473) still deeply Gothic, shows a certain “expressionism” pictorial: space without depth, economy of colors reduced to frank contrasts (black-white- red), very few ornaments. Carlo CrivelliAfter completing his training in the studio of Antonio Vivarini and Giovanni d’Alemagna, he continued his career in the Marches with a painting precisely integrated with the architecture of flamboyant Gothic, international and its decor.
But in 1446, in Venice, this decorative fragmentation of space is no longer on the agenda, quite the opposite. For Antonio Vivarini and Giovanni d’Alemagna, in the triptych of the Accademia, the space is unified on the three panels. On this point the painting creates an innovation in the painting of polyptychs in Venice. The painting only partially follows Leon Battista Alberti’s little treatise on painting, published in 1435, which codified some of the fundamental principles that his Florentine friends had exploited during the first quarter of the fifteenth century. century: the vanishing point is located on the median vertical axis of the painting, that of the Virgin and the Child. The message conveyed by this vanishing point is clear: the Virgin and the Child are waiting for our coming, the look towards this vanishing point is only a vector. This triptych of the Accademia is also one of the oldest Venetian paintings on canvas that have survived: the frescoes in Venice was not retained because of the damp walls and climatic conditions. The canvas could, as in Northern Europe, make it possible to preserve the painting by keeping it detached from the wall. A large number of frescoes thus had to be replaced by paintings on canvas, the paintings on panels being limited to more modest formats. This support, the canvas, the grain carefully covered with white coatings, sanded at the time of Antonio Vivarini, was to give freedom to Venetian painters, from Carpaccio, around 1480, to introduce much more painting effects in the thickness of the pictorial layer playing on the grain of the canvas, thick, with a visible weave. It is prepared by dark the 16th century.
Gentile and Giovanni Bellini, Giovanni Battista Cima da Conegliano
During this first Renaissance there are many exchanges between ideas circulating in Europe and Venetian workshops. Thus, in a current of thought that will also be that of Leonardo later in the century, Iacopo Bellini, a great draftsman circa 1440, introduces a taste for detail studied on the spot and replaces the decorative proliferation with a multitude of details observed: portraits, Animals and familiar objects, all nature is studied with the greatest precision during this period. We find trace in the details of the Ecstasy of St. Francis of: Giovanni Bellini, circa 1480. The oil painting, of Flemish origin and its naturalism, was known and admired in Italy. But in 1475-1476, Antonello da Messina, made a trip to Venice where the molten his oil painting and clear space he introduced in the devotional painting had been particularly noticed 10. Giovanni Bellini will seize this pictorial material around 1480 to develop all the effects of melting and transparency in the representation of the atmospheric effects and color harmony peculiar to a moment of the day, as we perceive more than elsewhere in the light of Venice and its lagoon. This attention to harmony, in religious paintings as in nature, echoes reflections that develop at the University of Padua with the association of the Virgin Mary with the generosity of Nature. From his first large oil paintings (as in L’Ecstasy of St. Francis), Giovanni Bellini introduces a new atmospheric brightness into the natural landscape by oil glazes on the tempera. These very transparent glacis thus facilitate the general agreement of colors according to the unity of light, and in the Ecstasy of Saint Francis, the light of dawn.
Back then, the territories adjacent to or incorporated progressively to the Republic of Venice, to offer all artists the opportunity to cultural contacts, as with the humanists of the court of Ferrara. Their research on geometrical perspective, especially those of Leon Battista Alberti, will reach Jacopo Bellini, who is passionate about architectural drawings in perspective, and transmit it to his studio, especially to his son Giovanni. The son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini, Andrea Mantegnahe was also passionate about perspective geometry, a Paduan and non-Venetian artist, but so very close to the Bellini, found in the Florentine sculptures Donatello in Padua (especially the equestrian monument in Gattamelata) the quite “Renaissance” taste of ancient monuments, their decor, and compare what the artist could observe on the living model, natural, and on the model, idealized. The altarpiece of San Zeno in Verona, of 1559, is the most explicit form. Mantegna demonstrates that he assimilates the contemporary antique world of the life of Christ and his representation in perspective for the modern viewer. This is what he does in his drawings, his paintings and their relief frames, but also by realizing the first large intaglio engravings, meticulous work and which, drawn in large numbers, circulated beyond the Alps, in the hands of Dürer. The architecture represented in relief in the frame of the polyptych of Verona is extended by its representation in perspective inside the painting. We find this passage between the space of the spectator and the space of the sacred representation, like an open window, in the altarpiece installed in San Zaccaria in 1505 by Giovanni Bellini. This one had been able to synthesize all these movements in the culture and practice of the painters of the 15th century. He was, then, the most admired painter of Venice.
Very early, before 1502 Vittore Carpaccio (c. 1460-1526) had set the style and set their poetic universe. His painting, very different from that of his contemporaries, was kept away from the great currents of the pictorial revolution in Venice.
Influenced by Flemish painting, he is one of the first to use the omnipresence of architecture, interior Venetian decorations and utopian urban landscapes prefiguring a genre, the vedute (urban landscapes in Venice itself and on the lagoon). He will invariably treat in a serious and naive way, sometimes picturesque, the Venetian reality, in margin of the pictorial mode of his time. He obtained numerous contracts from Scuole, charities and beneficence fraternities that employed artists to decorate their premises. The taste of Vittore Carpaccio for the stories could develop freely in the cycle of paintings dedicated to the episodes of the life of Saint Ursula, intended for theScuola di Sant’Orsola.
He collaborated with Gentile Bellini and two other representatives of the Venetian narrative tradition, Lazzaro Bastiani and Giovanni di Niccolò Mansueti, in the painting cycle for the Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista. Between 1501 and 1503 he executed for the Scuola di San Giorgio degli Schiavoni, dedicated to St. George and St. Tryphon, two large paintings representing St. George and the dragon, the two paintings of St. Jerome and the lion and the Funeral of St. Jerome, as well as The Vision of Saint Augustine. In this last painting Carpaccio represents the workplace of a humanist cultivated around 1500.
End of the 15th - 16th centuries, Italian Renaissance in Venice
Disegno, colorito and sprezzatura
“Venetians do not use the term color; they prefer that of colorito or colorire “(a form of the verb):” The colorito is actually an additive process, gradually building the painting, from the canvas that serves as a background, prepared in dark, to final modifications, obtained by glacis “. This concept does not consider the color “that comes out of the tube”, but the process that uses, through the games of brushes, and other painter’s tools, pictorial materials more or less colored, opaque or transparent. In this process the idea, the invenzione, which takes shape in the drawings,disegni, continues to make mimesis an obligation of art, as instituted by the painters of the Florentine Renaissance in the previous century. But, for Venetian painters, the imitation of nature must be in terms of color and tone – in terms of color value, more or less light or dark. “Imitation in painting must be based on color and not on the line”. And the drawing phase, initially on paper even if it is directly placed on the canvas with a brush, then continues during the painting.
The Venetian drawing, smeared with black chalk or charcoal much better than feather or chalk, is a subset of the “color”, in the sense of colorito. “If they are to serve the mimetic purposes of painting, colors can no longer maintain their intrinsic purity – any more than the outline can preserve its physical integrity”. This is why, in Venice, we are witnessing the dissolution of forms at the moment when in Florence, as in Rome, art boasts of having reached the mastery of closed contours: the mathematical perspective, the anatomy ensuring the fundamental, ideal and definitive basis of the painting. While in Venice the painting is built by undoing to better rebuild. Drawing again with the brush, ideas develop during the pictorial process, figures move, sometimes disappear, unforeseen patterns arise that transform the idea. In these brush games Paolo Pino considers that “the speed of the hand is a very important thing”, approaching an aesthetics of “ease”. It proclaims that the facility, suggested by a crafted and elegant casualness, the sprezzatura, is the first criterion in all the arts, and the most difficult to reach: the art consisting in hiding the art.
The revolution of color and the portrait in Venice
Around 1508 Giorgione’s style is at a turning point in which the extremely fine grain of chiaroscuro does not ignore the sfumato of Leonardo da Vinci, which passed to Venice in the early months of 1500. Leonardo’s painting continued to be enriched by a growing shadow and he was at the height of his glory, so he was watched, even at a distance, by all the painters. The new style of Giorgione is also affected by a greater naturalism in connection with the recent confrontation offered by the portrait work of Dürer during his time in Venice. The new style of Giorgione is manifested in the San Diego Museum’s man-made portrait of a vaporous union of colors in the backgrounds, with this diffused light, and this locally compact and thick dough that floats in the hair and gives the sensation of the material.
As for the representation of vast natural landscapes, those of the storm and many others, it seems to be inspired by Leonard by universalizing the backgrounds of Bellini and Cima da Conegliano. The engravings of Durer, where nature is very present, as Feast of the Rosary (Venice, 1506) with its individual trees also have certainly stimulated emulation among Venetian painters, not just Giorgione.
Around 1520 Titian abandons the contemplative mystery of Giorgione and staged soberly the natural reality, social status and psychology of his model. The Man with a Glove reflects a new conception of the individual and unprecedented relationship between the painter and his model. The painter of Venice takes the chiaroscuro by modulating it thanks to the effects of transparency of the underparts, but especially thanks to the agreements of surface tones (the tonal painting) where appear colored gray. Besides merging shades adjoining the Venetian painter deploys all a game impasto in lights (with a few white highlights in focus) and glaze on transparent shadows.
The second half of the 16th century: new color practices
It was during this period in the second half of the 16th century, the most striking features of Venetian art reach maturity. We have the clearest expression in the works of Titian after 1551, those of Veronese, Tintoret and Jacopo Bassano with their practice of the pictorial material and their freedom of invoice, the play of the brush sharp and spontaneous.
In 1551, after a brief period in Italy (Portrait of Pope Paul III Farnese, 1543) and Rome, Titian settled in Venice to remain there until his death in 1576. The style of his last years reflects the essence of Venetian pictorial art. He then made paintings for his main patron, Philip II of Spain, with, among other things, extracts from Ovid ‘s Metamorphoses: Diana and Actaeon and Diana and Callisto. At this time, Titian reworked his paintings over very long periods (ten years for the Crucifixion of the sacristy of theEscurial, multiplying the effects of painting by lines with very apparent grain, sometimes traced with the fingertips, and he explores all the possibilities of non finito, that is to say a painting which requires a work of the spectator when he “finishes” the painting by merging the forms evoked by the painting (colorito) left in the state of swirling colors, “a blaze of fire”. But The nymph and the shepherd, and even The torture of Marsyas are judged finished by the painter who affixed his signature between 1570 and 1576. The magic of his painting games, on a surface without effect of perspective, become two-dimensional will have a decisive influence on the course of the history of modern painting.
The most important figures of the next generation of Titian are Tintoretto (1518-1594) with the outstanding collection of master’s paintings on the theme of Life, Passion and Death of Jesus at the Scuola Grande of San Rocco, then Paul Veronese (1528-1588) and Jacopo Bassano (1515-1592). All three are influenced by the last way of Titian, although this one opposes it. They also interpret the Mannerism from Central Italy but often introduce, and especially during their last years, powerful effects of light and shadow, a luminismwhich also touches many places of pictorial creation, of which Northern Europe and in Northern Italy Lombardy. It is this tradition that resume Caravaggio and amplified until tenebrism in the 17th century.
Paul Veronese, born in Verona, is in Venice from 1555. If color is the essence of Venetian art, then Veronese is a characteristic figure. In the sense that we mean “color” today, as space color, colors are generally clear and harmoniously combined according to principles that correspond to the play of complementary and effects of simultaneous contrasts, as was evident Delacroix 35 detailing Veronese’s paintings with surprise. But we must return to the word ‘color’ the meaning it had at the time: the effects of hue, value and intensity as well as the pictorial material 36worked by the brush, the finger and the cloth, even with any instrument allowing to scrape the fresh and more or less hardened paint. As for the use of dark hues that Giorgione uses at the beginning of the century in a melt, Titian, Veronese, Tintoret and Bassano practice this range of colors but with effects of vigorous pictorial material, by smears loaded with more or less clear and opaque on dark backgrounds. As an example, Veronese’s paintings include: The conversion of Saint Pantaleon and St. Pantaleon healing a child, among others, commissioned in 1587. As in the late paintings of Bassano, Titian and Tintoretto, these scenes, very often nocturnal, live with the movements of the brush on the lumpy canvas, in dark tones and light streaks.
The 17th century
Opinions are divided on the Venetian painting in the 17th century, many see it as a period or creative activity decreases, declines. The first part of the century saw perpetuate the tradition established at the end of the 16th century. Palma the Younger is surely the most interesting artist from this point of view, former student of Titian, he paints more in the style of Tintoretto and Jacopo Bassano.
Several artists, who are not Venetian but reside in Venice, maintain a certain level of creativity: Domenico Fetti (Rome 1589- Venice 1624), Johann Liss (Germany 1595- Venice 1630) and Bernardo Strozzi (Genoa 1581- Venice 1644). These artists perpetuate in their own way the pictorial tradition of the city. Domenico Fetti retains some effects of caravagism, to get closer to the Venetian art then. Bernardo Strozzi’s solutions for the staging of portraits will be used by artists of the following century: Ghislandi and even Giambattista Tiepolo. As for the style of Francesco Maffeiat the end of the century, he recalls that of Veronese with much more contrasting effects.
Although Tintoretto is sometimes classified as a Mannerist artist, he also incorporates Venetian and individualistic aspects. In his Miracle of the Slave (1548), the Mannerist features include the crowded scene, the twisting linking of figures (as in the central figures, from the foreshortened slave on the ground to the miraculous figure of St. Mark in the sky, through the turbaned, grey-robed figure), and the drama in the gestures and poses. But the colouring maintains the warm reds, golds and greens of the Venetian school, and the figures are arranged in real three-dimensional space, in contrast to the more compressed compositions of many Mannerist works, and with its intensely theatrical, stage-like display his painting is a forerunner of the Baroque.
Following Tintoretto came Paolo Veronese and the Bassano. These are a few of the most outstanding in the great number of artists in the Venetian tradition, many originally from outside the Republic’s territory.
International success of Venetian painting
In the following centuries – 15, 16, 17 – the Venetian painting became internationally appreciated and in demand, particularly in the imperial courts and lordships.
Giorgione is active in the Veneto region, which Vasari places as a pupil of Giovanni Bellini, from which he takes up the taste for color and attention to landscapes. He was very close to intellectuals linked to patrician families. From here derive many of his orders related to portraits and small-format works. He also fascinates with his color and his harmonious landscapes, which often conceal or dominate the cryptic meaning of his works: he was the first important contributor to tonalism.
Of all, the most famous and requested Venetian artist of the period is undoubtedly the Belluno-born Tiziano Vecellio, initially also a business partner with Giorgione, who influenced him decisively, especially in the early part of his career. He, in addition to his pictorial skills, particularly in the personal technique of using color, also demonstrated an undisputed ability to create a network of knowledge that often made him prefer to his contemporaries for the most important orders.
The XVI century saw the opening of the international stage for the Venetian school. It will now be the one to influence the movements of the northern countries, which initially determined their birth. Artists such as Jacopo Bassano, Paolo Veronese and Tintoretto became a model of inspiration in the European pictorial school of the time. Even in architecture there is a similar trend thanks to Palladio, which will be a model of inspiration for centuries in the construction of buildings throughout the north.
The Venetian influence certainly continues throughout the Baroque seventeenth century: see in this regard the works of Spranger and Elsheimer.
The 18th century
The eighteenth century represents the great proscenium of Venetian figurative art. The religious influence decreases in the themes depicted, but the great strands of the sixteenth century re-emerge. The centrality of man and in particular of women and the landscape are combined in an often Arcadian environment. The cultural centrality of Venice can be seen from the fact that it remains a must for the Grand Tour. Venice and Paris are the capital cities of the taste of the aristocracy and of the main art and collecting markets. The success of the Venetian style lies in the recovery of the most sumptuous models of the seventeenth century as Tiziano Vecellio in a renewed way with the times.Rococo.
The figure that stands out absolutely in the culminating period of the Venetian school is Giambattista Tiepolo (1696 – 1770) with his historical narrative verve. Father of painters Giandomenico and Lorenzo Tiepolo, his grandiose style is characterized as sophisticated and hyperbolic, in a typically eighteenth-century sense; the scenes he creates evoke a world that is infinitely expanded and fictitious, rendered by a chromatically bright palette and a cold and unreal light, created using a silvery tone that is reflected by objects as well as by figures, which lose all plastic consistency. In addition to the Tiepolos, great artists of sacred and profane decorations are also Sebastiano Ricci and Giovanni Battista Piazzetta.
Giovanni Antonio Canal, better known as the Canaletto (1697 – 1768), has remained known above all as a landscape artist. His paintings, in addition to unite in topographic representation, architecture and nature, resulted from the careful atmospheric rendering, from the choice of precise lighting conditions for each particular moment of the day and from an investigation conducted with scientific objectivity criteria, in conjunction with the greater moment of diffusion of the rationalistic ideas of the Enlightenment; insisting on the mathematical value of perspective, he sometimes used the optical camera to paint his works.
Francesco Guardi (1712 – 1793), unlike Canaletto, does not aim, in his paintings, at results of clear perception, but proposes an interpretation of the real subjective and evocative data, creating images of evanescent and sometimes unreal cities; sometimes reaching a pre romantic sensitivity, thanks to the cleavage of the forms and melancholy shadows.
Along with Giovanni Antonio Canal and Francesco Guardi, another famous vedutist is Bernardo Bellotto (1721-1780), Canaletto’s nephew, who was called across Europe to paint the various courts.
Among other landscape artists, Antonio Stom (1688 – 1734), author of large-format canvases with historical scenes.
Among portraitists we cannot fail to mention Rosalba Carriera (1675-1757) the first to use Ivory in the Miniature, a specialist in the pastel technique and acclaimed throughout Europe.
In 1797, with the arrival of Napoleon Bonaparte and the end of the Venetian Republic, the glorious era of Venetian and Venetian painting ended.
After the eighteenth century and the era of Canaletto, Guardi and Tiepolo, the Venetian movement finds in itself the elements for a peculiar evolution of landscape painting.
Of particular note is the work of Pompeo Marino Molmenti and of the new generation of painters he helps to form. Among them Domenico Bresolin and his ruined House are emblematic of the end of the Venetian imperial age and the choice of humble subjects, almost in ruins.
Guglielmo Ciardi, one of the protagonists of Venetian painting at the end of the 19th century, passed the baton to his sons Emma Ciardi and Beppe Ciardi, who brought their techniques in 900. His father taught his children how it was necessary to immerse themselves in the landscape in plein-air. to savor it in all its nuances. All 3 make many paintings also representing the Venetian hinterland. Subsequently Emma Ciardi found great success in the United Kingdom.
Other nineteenth-century Venetian artists are Nono, Querena, Nani, Milesi, Selvatico, Favretto reveal the particular vision based on light and color of their works, with examples of realism that seem to accompany the beginning of the Venetian diaspora and the growing poverty of the situation post-unification, which in a few decades will lead to the emigration of almost one Veneto in two.
The figurative movement in the works of Venetian painters of the late nineteenth century seems in this sense singularly parallel to the evolutions of the Macchiaioli and the Impressionists in Tuscany and France, in particular for themes based on realism, color and light. The famous optical cabinet of Luigi Querena where the absolute realism is given by a convincing use of color
The twentieth century is characterized by the foundation of the New Front of the Arts, of which Emilio Vedova is one of the founders. Venice especially in the post-war period is filled with exhibitions, collectors and the art galleries open in succession.
In particular, the Cavallino Gallery founded by Carlo Cardazzo, as well as a friend of Peggy Guggenheim, manages to bring together a group of extremely talented artists such as Mario Deluigi, Virgilio Guidi, Vinicio Vianello, Bruna Gasparini, Bruno De Toffoli, as well as Rampin, Tancredi, Licata. The Spatialist Movement is born. Other famous artists are Arturo Martini, Teodoro Wolf Ferrari and Vittorio Zecchin.
In 1914 the exhibition organized at the Hotel Excelsior in Lido of Venice by the Venetian artists ” rejected by the Venice Biennale ” caused a great deal of exposure by exhibiting works of art by Guido Cadorin, Vittorio Zanetti Tassis, Lulo De Blaas, Bortolo Sacchi and Napoleone Martinuzzi.
The famous architect and designer Carlo Scarpa was also born in this century.
The young mosaicist Riccardo Licata moved with his mother to Venice. Here he befriends the artists Santomaso, Vedova, Viani, Turcato, Birolli. Later he met other young painters such as Ennio Finzi, Tancredi Parmeggiani, Bruno Blenner. Together with the sculptor Giorgio Zennaro – it constitutes an abstract trend group..
Some landmarks in art history
According to art historians, the Venetian school of painting begins Duecento (13th century) or Trecento (14th century) by a period known as Pre-Renaissance (According to art historian Jacob Burckhardt, this Renaissance before time starts from the 11th century in Tuscany and spread until the next century Provence and Italy median) and fully followed by the early Renaissance in Quattrocento.
It is transformed into a High Renaissance at the beginning of the Cinquecento (between 1500 and 1530), followed by Mannerism or late Renaissance, which goes from 1520 (Raphael’s death) to end quickly in 1580.
The Baroque, which begins at the turn of the 16th century 17th century, also born in Italy, then continues into late Baroque period named specifically Rococo (which is followed by neoclassicism).
The Bellini family: Jacopo Bellini (Venice 1400 – Venice 1470)
The Vivarini Family: Bartolomeo Vivarini (Venice ca. 1432 – Italy ca.1495)
The Bellini family: Giovanni Bellini (Venice ~ 1425-1433 – Venice 1516)
The Vivarini family: The brother-in-law: Giovanni d’Alemagna (Germany? 1411 – Padua, Republic of Venice 1450)
The family Vivarini: Antonio Vivarini (Murano 1415 – Venice 1480)
The Bellini family: Gentile Bellini (Venice ~ 1428 – Venice ~ 1507)
Andrea Mantegna (Vivence, Republic of Venice 1431 – Mantua, Republic of Venice 1506)
The Vivarini family: Alvise Vivarini (Venice ca.1445 – Venice between 1503 and 1505)
Lazzaro Bastiani (Venice 1449 – Venice 1512)
Cima da Conegliano (Conegliano, Republic of Venice 1459 – Conegliano, Republic of Venice 1517)
Vittore Carpaccio (Venice ~ 1460 – Venice ~ 1526)
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto 1477 – Venice 1510)
Lorenzo Lotto (Venice 1480 – Loreto, Marches 1546) act. Veneto, Bergamo and the Marches
Giovanni Gerolamo Savoldo (Lombardy 1480 – Venice 1548) act. Venice
The Palma family: Palma the Elder (Serina, Bergamo, Lombardy 1480 – Venice 1528)
Giovanni Cariani (San Giovanni Bianco, Lombardy 1480-85 – Venice 1547)
Sebastiano del Piombo (Venice 1485 – Rome 1547) act. Venice and ap. 1511 Rome
Titian (Pieve di Cadore (province of Belluno, Veneto) 1490 – Venice 1576)
Paris Bordone (Treviso 1500 – Venice 1571) act. Venice, Fontainebleau, Milan
Andrea Schiavone (Zadar, Dalmatia 1500-1510 – Venice 1563) act. Venice
Battista del Moro (Verona 1512-14 – Venice v. 1573)
The Bassano family: Father Jacopo Bassano (Bassano del Grappa, Veneto 1515 – Bassano del Grappa 1592)
Tintoretto (Venice 1518 – Venice 1594)
Paul Veronese (Verona 1528 – Venice 1588)
The Palma family: Palma the Younger (Venice 1548/1550 – Venice 1628)
The Bassano family: Leandro Bassano (Bassano del Grappa 1557 – Venice 1622)
The Bassano family: Francesco Bassano the Younger (Bassano del Grappa 1559 – Venice 1592)
The Bassano family: Gerolamo Bassano (Bassano del Grappa 1566 – Venice 1621)
The Bassano family: Giovanni Battista Bassano or Giovanni Battista da Ponte (Bassano del Grappa 1553 -? 1613)
Marcantonio Bassetti (Verona 1588 – Verona 1630), act. Venice, Verona, Rome
Domenico Fetti (Rome 1589- Venice 1624)
Johann Liss (Germany 1595- Venice 1630)
Bernardo Strozzi (Genoa 1581- Venice 1644)
Sebastiano Ricci (1659 Belluno, Veneto – 1734 Venice)
Rosalba Carriera (Chioggia 1675 – Venice 1757)
Giambattista Pittoni (Venice 1687 – Venice 1767)
Giovanni Battista Piazzetta (Venice 1683 – Venice 1754)
Giambattista Tiepolo (Venice 1696 – Madrid 1770)
Canaletto (Venice 1697 – Venice 1768)
Pietro Longhi (Venice 1701 – Venice 1785)
Francesco Zugno (Venice 1709 – Venice 1787)
Michele Marieschi (Venice 1710 – Venice 1743)
Francesco Guardi (Venice 1712 – Venice 1793)
Bernardo Bellotto (Venice 1722 – Warsaw, 1780)
Giandomenico Tiepolo (the son of Giambattista) (Venice 1727 – Venice 1804)
The Venetian school had a great influence of subsequent painting, and the history of later Western art has been described as a dialogue between the more intellectual and sculptural/linear approach of the Florentine and Roman traditions, and the more sensual, poetic, and pleasure-seeking of the colourful Venetian school. Specifically through the presence of Titian in Spain, the Venetian style influenced later Spanish art, including that of Velázquez, and through Rubens was more broadly transmitted through the rest of Europe.
In the 18th century Venetian painting had a final flowering in Tiepolo’s decorative painting and Canaletto’s and Guardi’s veduta or panoramic views, mostly of the city itself. The extinction of the Republic by French Revolutionary armies in 1797 effectively brought the distinctive Venetian style to an end; it had at least arguably outlasted its rival Florence in that respect.
Source from Wikipedia