Venetian Renaissance

The Venetian Renaissance was one of the fundamental declensions of the Italian Renaissance. The Renaissance art arrived in Veneto through the stay in Padua of Donatello, from 1443 to 1453, then spreading also in painting through Squarcione and his students. Shortly afterwards, the new style also spread to Venice, traditionally linked to the late gothic culture, Giovanni Bellini, after which the Venetian art was revolutionized by Giorgione and – at the beginning of the sixteenth century – by Titian. This era ends with Veronese and Tintoretto, the last dying in the year 1594, which marked the transition to mannerism.

Historical context
After the economic crisis of the fourteenth century the Venetian families had begun to take precautions seeking forms of income safer than trade, such as land rents, so the Republic began an unprecedented expansion into the hinterland. Initially the lands were taken towards the Alpine arch and the plains between Adige and Po, until they came to confine themselves to the Visconti, with whom they had repeated clashes. In the seas instead the main enemy remained Genoa, against which two wars were completed.

The rest of the region was punctuated by cities with a legacy of notable cultural development, dominated by local lordships that were gradually subdued by the main powers of Venice and Milan. In 1405 Venice already owned Verona, Padua and almost all of Veneto .

At the beginning of the fifteenth century, Veneto was one of the Italian regions where the international Gothic style was more vital, which in Venice was also grafted with Byzantine culture. The repeated stays of artists such as Gentile da Fabriano, Pisanello and Michelino da Besozzo testify to the vitality of this style.

However, already in the 1930s the Venetian cities, in particular Venice and Padua, inaugurated a series of exchanges with Florence and Tuscany, which brought precociously some novelties of Renaissance art through the stay of important artists such as Andrea del Castagno, Paolo Uccello and Filippo Lippi. The Paduan humanism, after all, flourishing around its University, had a long tradition started by the stay of Francesco Petrarca, with an environment full of scholars and antique dealers who tried to reconstruct the classical world through the study of ancient finds.

After the stay of Donatello in Padua (1443 – 1453), the Renaissance novelties were definitively received and transmitted to the whole of Northern Italy.

In the sixteenth century Venice was at the height of its economic power: the center of trade and commerce throughout Europe, a meeting place between Christianity, the Levant and the East. Until the Atlantic trade routes and the competition of the British and Dutch shipowners in the Mediterranean did not overthrow it, Venice was also the main point of connection with the European North for the trade of precious goods coming from the East. With Flanders and southern Germany, between the 15th and 16th centuries, the network of relationships between which the artistic ones had particular importance was dense. The travels ofAlbrecht Dürer. His role was twofold: he was the agent of the Renaissance movement in his own Germanic land and particularly influential of portraiture in the Veneto region. Starting from 1400 this dialogue became thickened and enriched with artistic interventions not only Nordic, but also Tuscan. Another factor that promoted the artistic movement was the development of publishing in Venice. Venice is a prosperous city with a stable government and soon becomes an important center of publications.

The Renaissance in Padua had a beginning that was unanimously made to coincide with the arrival of the Florentine sculptor Donatello, from 1443. Here, thanks to a particularly prearranged and prolific environment, an artistic school was developed which, due to its precociousness and wealth of ideas, was the origin of the spread of Renaissance art throughout northern Italy .

According to the French historian André Chastel, the Paduan Renaissance, called “epigraphic and archaeological”, was one of the three fundamental components of the Renaissance of the origins, together with the Florentine one, “philological and philosophical”, and the Urbinate one, called “mathematician” .

Donatello’s lesson, as had happened in Florence, had only partial followers in sculpture, and was a model, above all, for painters, especially with regard to the perspective emphasis and the intended line as the generating element of the form . This occurred substantially in the workshop of Francesco Squarcione, an artist / impresario who welcomed artists of various origins, transmitting the secrets of the trade and the antique passion to them.

From his teaching each student had different outcomes, sometimes opposed, from the severe classicism of Mantegna, to the fantastic exasperation of the so-called ” squarcioneschi “, such as Marco Zoppo, Carlo Crivelli and the Schiavone (Giorgio Çulinoviç). Later, when in the city and in the Veneto region in general, the influences of the Venetian naturalistic manner became stronger, the exasperated style of the squarcioneschi was overcome, and they moved to more peripheral centers along the coasts of the Adriatic Sea, giving rise to a peculiar “adriatica” pictorial culture, with exponents from the Marchein Dalmatia .

Many teachers had a young experience in Padua: among the most important, in addition to Mantegna, painter of the Gonzaga in Mantua, there were Cosmè Tura, father of the Ferrara school, Vincenzo Foppa, head coach in Milan, Carlo Crivelli, leading exponent of painting in Marche of the second fifteenth century, Michael Pacher, protagonist of painting in the Alpine region up to the Pusteria valley .

Venetian painting school during the Renaissance

Giovanni Bellini: The Feast of the Gods, 1515
Early Venetian Renaissance dates back to about half a century, from 1440 to 1500 years. The presence of numerous Tuscany artists in Venice and Padua – among others, painter Fra Filippo Lippi and sculptor Donatello – contributed to the development of a new vision of the arts. Together with those in Tuscany, discoveries and ideas of Renaissance come to Venice: the study of the perspective, naturalism, the concept of proportion, the anatomical studies, and the return to the canons of the art of Antiquity. In the year 1409 he was called to Venice by painter Gentile da Fabriano (1360- 1427), who, with the help of Antonio Pisano, said Il Pisanello, decorates the grand hall of the Council. Among the first Venetian Renaissance artists were Antonello da Messina (1430 – 1479), originally from Sicily and – especially – Bellini brothers, Giovanni Bellini (ca. 1430 – 1516) and Gentile Bellini (1429 – 1517). Their father, Jacopo Bellini (ca 1400 – 1470), was already a mature artist when he gave up the Gothic style, whose exceptional representative was his master, Gentile da Fabriano. Jacopo Bellini take new ideas, following the example of its children, namely one of its groom, one of the pioneers of the Italian oil painting, Andrea Mantegna (1431 – 1506). Under the influence of Flemish painting, Giovanni Bellini is among the first Venetian painters to apply this technique. He is owed to him about. a hundred versions of Madonna, of which a large number is found at the Venice Academy Museum. Famous is Madonna of the Annunciation, among the first painted paintings in oil.

The oil-based color makes it possible to develop a splendid color, which is one of the features specific to the Venetian Renaissance painting. The oil painting technique gives better and better results, as painters are increasingly using the canvas, thus gradually removing wood as a support for painting. Canvas paintings also replace frescoes for public building decorations. The disciple of Gentile Bellini, Vittore Carpaccio (1460 – 1525), inspired by Antonello da Messina, capitalized remarkably special bill blade and oil painting technique. He uses clear colors, applied with fast brush features, anticipating in this way Giorgione ‘s styleand that of Titian.

Time of ripening
Inception period fulfillment of Renaissance Venetian brought with them a new generation of artists such as Giorgione (1477 – 1510), Sebastiano del Piombo (1485 – 1547) and Titian (1488 – 1576). This process was triggered by Giorgione’s famous picture, Storm. The artist departs from the religious themes of the altar paintings and painted his whole life motives taken from mythology and literature, thus creating true Bucolic poems that decipher lyricism and mystical beauty. And he uses the oil painting technique, reaching innovative graphics solutions. Following his footsteps, Titian applies and develops this technique. The influences of Giorgione’s style can be seen in Sebastian del Piombo, who continues his career in Rome and works with Michelangelo. This period was largely dominated by Titian’s genius and glory, but other talented artists also worked in Venice:

Lorenzo Lotto (1480 – 1556) made its fame through portraits and altar paintings. One of his most beautiful paintings, “Saint Hieronymus”, is currently in the Louvre Museum in Paris.
Jacopo Palma il Vecchio (1480 – 1528), whose works mirror Titian’s influence in particular, are highlighted by bright and luminous colors and by creating a quiet atmosphere.
Gerolamo Savoldo (1481 – 1548) is a remarkable portrayer.
Paris Bordone (1500 – 1571), who passed through Titian’s workshop, uses architectural perspectives to elaborate his works.
Bonifazio de’Piati (1487 – 1553), who is supposed to have been a disciple of Palma il Vecchio, also works in Venice. Known is the painting of Diana and Acteon.
Pordenone (1484 – 1539), a native of Venice, worked in many Italian cities, settling in the end of his life at Ferrara. At first, he imitates Giorgione’s and Titian’s style, but later, under the influence of Rafael and Michelangelo, he deepens his style and on his paintings he can observe the dramatic tension and expressiveness characteristic of manners, Pordenone frequently applying the shortening of the perspective and tompe -l’oeil, for the stronger accentuation of the tragedy of the scenes painted by him.
During this period, the craftsmanship, including Murano glass blowers, as well as craftsmen creating real works of art: worship, fine brocades and gold-woven fabrics, swords and dagger handles, wood decorations carved, which were exported throughout Western Europe. The calligraphy of manuscripts is instead a place for artistic prints.

Exponents of International Gothic (before the Renaissance)
Gentile da Fabriano (1360 – 1427)
Antonio Pisano, Il Pisanello (1397 – 1455)
Exponents of the Early Renaissance
Jacopo Bellini (1400 – 1470)
Antonello da Messina (1430 – 1479)
Andrea Mantegna (1431 – 1506)
Gentile Bellini (1429 – 1517)
Giovanni Bellini (1433 – 1516)
Alvise Vivarini (1445 – 1505)
Cima from Conegliano (1459 / 1460-1517 / 1518)
Vittore Carpaccio (1460 – 1525)

Characteristic is the refinement of the technique of oil painting, developed by Flemish artists, which allows a wide range of shades of color. Another important aspect is the attention to the landscape and to naturalism in general. In Venice Giorgione is active (which Giorgio Vasari places as a pupil of Giovani Bellini), which fascinates with its color and its harmonious landscapes (La tempesta). Among all, the best known and requested artist of the period is Tiziano Vecellio, undoubtedly the architect of the international success of Venetian painting, for his artistic excellence, becoming the portrait painter and favorite painter of various emperors and lords, important the theme of the landscape that gradually took over the centuries following the upper hand.

Exponents of this period
Giorgione (1477 – 1510)
Jerome from the Books (1474 – 1555)
Sebastiano del Piombo (1485 – 1547)
Tiziano Vecellio (1488 – 1576)
Lorenzo Lotto (1480 – 1556)
Jacopo Palma the Elder (1480 – 1528)
Paris Bordone (1500 – 1571)
Bonifacio de ‘Pitati (1487 – 1553)
Pordenone (1484 – 1539)

Late Renaissance: Venetian Mannerism
In painting, mannership was not a stand-alone style, but a stream that accompanied the late Renaissance, a variant of it that already preached the baroque. It brought with it a confusing agglomeration of forms, an excessive esteem that gave a dose of artificial work. These features, however, characterized Roman or Florentine manners, not the Venetian one, which emphasized the color. Starting with 1530, with painter and engraver Andrea Schiavone (1510-1563), the engravings developed on the basis of Parmigianino ‘s works (1503 – 1540)), manners of charisma characterized by charm and special finesse. With the arrival of Venice – at the invitation of Pietro Aretino – two painters Florentine, Francesco Salviati (1510 – 1563) and Giorgio Vasari (1511 – 1574), mannerisms becomes more delicate, away from the traditional patterns.

The style of painting changes, artists are increasingly choosing mythological and allegorical themes. Mannerism is manifested in the works of late by Tintoretto (1518 – 1594) and Paolo Veronese (1528 – 1588), as well as those of Jacopo Bassano (1515 – 1592), nor Titian did not remain indifferent to the style of “imported” he honestly admiring the accuracy of the drawing, the precision of the ink and the variety of Veronese’s colors. But Titian is no longer engaged in honoring large public orders, which are taken over by Veronese and Tintoretto.

The unusually wide palette of the artist makes Veronese a remarkable representative of the Venetian school. The richness of colors, shades and tones used allows space to be achieved through chromatic diversity, which – by contrast or by the harmony of complementary colors – forms distinct levels within the composition. Color Paste represents Veronese a synthesis of color and light that reflects both its intensity changes and how light floods the reality or the atmosphere of the whole representation. Of the Venetian artists, Veronese is probably the one who strives the most to combine the drawing with the color, but fails to emphasize with the same precision as that imposed by the Florentine artists.

The first phase of Tintoretto’s work is closely related to that current of Venetian painting represented by Pordenone, de Pita and Bordone.

Under the influence of Schiavone’s art – indirectly, and under that of Parmigianino – and that of Salviati, his style, approaching more and more manners, acquires an extraordinary force, probably inspired by the artists from Rome. Indeed, after 1550 there are references to Michelangelo in the works of the artist, through the compositional drama, the chromatic contrasts and the dynamic way to draw.

Tintoretto (1518 – 1594)
Paolo Veronese (1528 – 1588)
Jacopo Bassano (1515 – 1592)
they became a model of inspiration in the European pictorial school of the time.

Architecture and Sculpture
The color, dominant in Venetian painting, is also present in architecture. The facades of many churches and palaces, as well as private buildings, were decorated with bright frescoes or mosaics. Between the Basilica of San Marco and the Grand Canal there is the imposing Dog House. Over the years it has been renovated or replenished several times with new constructions. Thus, Pietro Baseggio recover from the south wing Canal, Giovanni Buon (1360 – 1443) and his son Bartolomeo Buon il Vecchio (1400 – 1464), Restore the west wing and build Porta della Charter, patio, Antonio Rizzo (1430 – 1498) built a gallery with arcade ornate in honor of Doge Francesco Foscari, called Arco Foscari, which together harmoniously three styles: columns in Renaissance style, Roman arches and Gothic ogives. Besides the official buildings, the members of the rich aristocratic families – Giustiniani, Contarini, Barbari, Loredani, Foscari, Grimani – are building their palaces on the two sides of the Grand Canal with white marble facades, porphyry andserpentine, with gardens adorned with statues, fountains and ceramic pots.

In the construction of Venice at the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century, a special role was played by the architects and sculptors, members of the Lombardi family, with the real name Solari, originated in northwest Italy (Lombardia), and who changed their name to the province of origin. Christoforo Solari “Il Gobbo” (“Hunchback”) (1460 – 1527), who built a mausoleum for Lodovico Moro and Beatrice d’Este from the monastery (Certosa) of Pavia, and his brother Andrea (1462 – 1523) have worked for a long time in Venice. Pietro Lombardo (1435 – 1515), together with his sons Antonio and Tullio, designed and built the churches of San Giobbe and Santa Maria de ‘Miracoli facade and portal Scuola di San Marco, the mausoleum of Andrea Vendramin church of Santi Giovanni e Paolo, the most significant work of sculpture of Venice, with Colleoni made by Andrea del Verrocchio (1432 – 1488) and Alessandro Leopardi (1450 – 1523).

In the years 1574 and 1577, the Dogs Palace was twice devastated by fires, and Bellini, Titian, Pordenone, Tintoretto and Veronese’s works fell prey to fire. Giovanni da Ponte (1512 – 1597 is charged with leading the rehabilitation works. The rooms of the palace are redecorated with frescoes by Tintoretto, Veronese and Francesco Bassano (1549 – 1592), the work of interior architecture is due to Jacopo Sansovino, Andrea Palladio (1508 – 1580), Antonio Scarpagnino, among others,The “Serenissima” Republic wanted to prove the brilliance of Venice on the occasion of the reception of the King of France, Henry III. Tintoretto then painted the portrait of the French sovereign, the painting unfortunately not surviving until today.

At the same time, embellishment of the city is being initiated. Renovation market San Marco is coordinated by the sculptor and architect Jacopo Sansovino (1486 – 1570), performing “Logette delle campaigns” and palace construction projects Library Marciana project to be completed by Vincenzo Scamozzi (1552 – 1616). Andrea Palladio – excellent connoisseur of the work of Vitruvius, the architect of ancient Rome – builds many churches in the city (among others, Il Redentore and San Giorgio Maggiore, whose construction was begun in 1565), taking as a model the ancient sanctuaries, and villas for the city’s notables. Palladio publishes in 1570 his opera epoch, Quattro libri dell’architettura.

Giovanni Bono (1360 – 1443)
Bartolomeo Bono, Il Vecchio (1400 – 1464)
Antonio Rizzo (1430 – 1499)
Cristoforo Solari, Il Gobbo (1460 – 1527)
Pietro Lombardo (1435 – 1515)
Andrea del Verrocchio (1432 – 1488)
Mauro Codussi (or Coducci) (1440-1504)
Alessandro Leopardi (1450 – 1523)
Jacopo Sansovino (1486 – 1570)
Andrea Palladio (1508 – 1580)
Vincenzo Scamozzi (1552 – 1616)

Literature has developed under the sign of humanism. One of the important personalities of the cultural life in Venice in the second half of the fifteenth century was Ermolao Barbaro il Giovane (1453 – 1493), diplomat and translator of Aristotle. Around 1530, poets, humanist thinkers and artists met in the literary salon of Irene da Spilimbergo, where ancient and contemporary literature was discussed. Cardinal Domenico Grimanihad a library with over eight thousand volumes and precious manuscripts, which – at his death – left Venice. After the printing, Venice becomes an important print center. An important role was played by Aldo Manuzio (Latinized: Aldus Manutius, 1449 – 1515), printer and commentator literary, with a vast culture in the ancient Greco-Roman, editor of most Greek manuscripts old, who could buy many difficulties. It is due to the italic typographic characters and those named after him, bold. He is the author of a Latin grammar manual,Rudimenta grammaticae linguae Latinae (1502). In the same year founded the Academy called “Accademia bold” or “Aldi non-academic”, whose members were personalities like Pietro Bembo, Albero Pio and learn outside Italy as Erasmus of Rotterdam and Thomas Linacre (1460 – 1524) from England.

Apart from editing old Greek and Latin texts, members of the Academy also publish their own works. Marcantonio Coccio said Il Sabelico (1436 – 1506) write a chronicle of Venice entitled “Decade”, Andrea Navagero (1483 – 1529) is the author of poems in Latin, Marin Sanudo (1466 – 1535) published a diary in 58 volumes (I Diaries), in which he records the political, literary, social and artistic events of the time.

While Sanudo wrote in language dialect every day, Cardinal Pietro Bembo (1470 – 1547), knowledge of classical languages and a vast philosophical culture, endeavored to develop and polish Italian literary, arguing the need for Italian language literature instead of the Latin one in the Della volgar lingua essay. In Gli Asolani (1505) he treats as a dialogue of the theme of Platonic love. Pietro Bembo is the author of a large number of elephants, idols, epitaphs and ode, some of them with a secular character (Priapus). His Venice House was a meeting place for artists, literati and people grown in the Venetian Anti-Vendean.

Pietro Aretino (1492 – 1556), a native of Arezzo, friend of Titian, in particular stands out as the author satirical in pamphlets as Pasquin or comedies as The Cortigiani, Il Marescalco, L’Ipocrito. His only tragic play is L’Orazia (1540), in which he treats the conflict between family obligations and homeland love. The exchange of letters with various personalities of the time (Letters, 1537 – 1556) give details of political and social events of the time.

Ermolao Barbaro The Younger (1453 – 1493)
Aldo Manutius (1449 – 1515), Rudimenta grammaticae linguae Latinae (1502)
founder of the “Aldina Academy” (Aldi Neacademia, 1502)
Alberto Pio (1475 – 1531)
Marcantonio Coccio The Sabelico (1436 – 1506), Decade
Andrea Navagero (1483 – 1529)
Marin Sanudo (1466 – 1535), Itinerary for the Venetian mainland, Vite dei Dogi, I Diarii
Pietro Bembo (1470 – 1547), of the Vulgar language, The Asolani, Priapus etc.
Pietro Aretino (1492 – 1556), Pasquinate, La Cortigiana, the Ipocrito, L’Orazia, Lettere

In the history of music, the “Venetian School” is a term used to describe the music composed in Venice in the period approximately between 1550 and 1610. Poly-orchestra compositions at the end of the 16th century are one of the most important musical events in Europe at that time. The antiphonic innovations introduced by the Venetian school in the orchestration art, in which a group of instruments performs opposite themes alternating with passages executed together (“tutti”), already predict baroque style.

The first composer who uses these methods is Adrian Willaert (1490 – 1562), who becomes maestro di capella at the Basilica of San Marco in 1527, also renowned as an excellent pedagogue. Since 1560, two trends dominate the musical life of Venice: a progressive, led by Baldasare Donato (1525 – 1603), another conservative around Gioseffo Zarlino (1517 – 1590). Conservative compatriots, including Cipriano de Rore (1515 – 1565)) And Claudio Merulo (1533 – 1604), tend to follow the Franco-Flemish polyphonic style. Progressive group were part of Giovanni Croce (1577 – 1609), Andrea (1510 – 1586) and Giovanni Gabrieli (1555 – 1612). The dispute between the two groups is not limited to musical styles but also to the occupation of the maestro di capella at San Marco: in 1603 this post belongs to Giovanni Croce, followed in 1609 byGiulio Cesare Martinengo (1561 – 1613) and, in 1613, by Claudio Monteverdi (1567 – 1643).

The development period of the “Venetian School of Music” culminated with the works of Andrea and Giovanni Gabriele, including compositions of choral music, blowers and string instruments, and compositions for the organ. Organists renowned Meanwhile Claudio Merulo and Girolamo Diruta (1544 – 1610), whose instrumental techniques and whose singing style have spread to northern Europe in future generations, culminating in the works of Jan Pieterzoon Sweelinck, Dietrich Buxtehude and Johann Sebastian Bach.

Adrian Willaert (1490 – 1562)
Baldassare Donato (1525 – 1603)
Gioseffo Zarlino (1517 – 1590)
Claudio Merulo (1533 – 1604)
Giovanni Croce (1577 – 1609)
Andrea Gabrieli (1510 – 1586)
Giovanni Gabrieli (1555 – 1612)
Giulio Cesare Martinengo (1561 – 1613)
Claudio Monteverdi (1567 – 1643)

Source from Wikipedia