Ukrainian Baroque or Cossack Baroque or Mazepa baroque is an architectural style that emerged in Ukraine during the Hetmanate era, in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Ukrainian Baroque is distinct from the Western European Baroque in having more moderate ornamentation and simpler forms, and as such was considered more constructivist. Many Ukrainian Baroque buildings have been preserved, including several buildings in Kyiv Pechersk Lavra and the Vydubychi Monastery in Kiev.
The best examples of Baroque painting are the church paintings in the Holy Trinity Church of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra. Rapid development in engraving techniques occurred during the Ukrainian Baroque period. Advances utilized a complex system of symbolism, allegories, heraldic signs, and sumptuous ornamentation.
Certain features of the Ukrainian baroque, such as bud and pear-shaped domes, were borrowed by the similar Naryshkin baroque movement in 17th-18th century Moscow. Modern Ukrainian church buildings, such as Troeshchina Cathedral, are also built in this style, but it is not typical for Ukrainian baroque. Originating in the 17th century, Ukrainian baroque reached its golden age in the time of Ivan Mazepa. Mazepa baroque is original synthesis of West-European baroque architectural forms and Ukrainian national baroque architectural traditions.
For the Ukrainian baroque, a combination of decorative and plastic solutions of the West European Baroque and Renaissance is characteristic with creative processing of the heritage of Orthodox church architecture and ancient architecture. As noted by some researchers, on the left bank of the Dnieper, as well as in the Sloboda region, in the design of churches the traditions of folk wooden architecture were taken into account even more than the previous traditions of orthodox architecture.
The continuation of the Old Russian tradition
The birth of Cossack baroque is usually associated with the renovation of Kiev and Chernihiv temples of pre-Mongol times under Metropolitan Petra Mogila and his successors. For the first time since the fall of Kievan Rus, Orthodox churches began to be built large-scale. Collapsed or dilapidated arches of churches were often shifted, the domes were given a characteristic pear-shaped or bud-like shape, when another “bulb” seemed to be planted by another. The drum could be crowned with a dome in the form of a hemisphere, on which another drum with one more dome of bulbous or conical shape was planted. In this case, unlike the “Russian style”, the diameter of the “bulb” is less than the diameter of the drum. The color of the domes is either golden or green. On the monumental cross-dome buildings, a fractional baroque decoration (semi-columns, risalitas, porticoes) with a depiction of plant ornament and angels was superimposed. The buildings were either white or plastered in contrasting blue and white colors.
Among the old Russian monuments that have been updated in this way are the Cathedral of the Eletsky Monastery in Chernigov, the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, the Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev-Pechersky Monastery, the cathedrals of the Vydubitsky and Mikhailovsky Golden-domed Monastery in Kiev. At the same time in the ancient Russian monasteries bell towers first appeared. These longline structures were built separately from the temples and were crowned with a massive pear-shaped dome. Many monasteries were enclosed with a stone fence for decorative purposes.
On the ancient samples, the builders of the cathedrals were oriented in relatively new monasteries. In accordance with the Orthodox canon, these were temples cross-domed, three-sided, five-domed, four-or six-pillared. At the same time they were decorated with “Polish” (baroque) manners, the facades sometimes flanked by towers. To the monuments of this group belong the “Mazepa” cathedrals – Troitsky in Chernigov (1679-1695), the Nikolaevsky military council (1690-1696), the Epiphany Cathedral in the Brotherly monastery (1690-1693).
Among the architects of the Cossack baroque are Ivan Zarudny, Stepan Kovnir, Osip Startsev, Ivan Grigorovich-Barsky and others.
Folk wooden architecture
Parish churches that were built “all over the world”, and not according to the state-monastic order, were more oriented to the examples of Cossack wooden architecture. It was from there that the typical for the Ukrainian baroque plan of the church in the form of a cross with cells in the corners was borrowed, as well as a dynamic composition of the central volume. Builders of stone churches took as a model rural three- and five-branch wooden churches, and the form of the log cabins, as a rule, was octagonal.
In the three-cube temples, the octagons are usually aligned along the longitudinal axis east-west (for example, the Mykolaiv church in Glukhov, 1693). In the five-fronted temples, the octagons are cross-shaped, and at the corners there are chambers, sometimes very developed, reaching two-thirds of the main volume of the temple (Catherine’s Church in Chernigov, Uspensky Cathedral in Novgorod-Seversky). Very rarely there are temples not about three or five, but about seven (the Cross Exaltation Cathedral in Poltava, 1699-1709, the Spasskaya Church in Starodub) and even the nine tops (nine-knit Trinity Cathedral in Novomoskovsk, 1775-80, the Resurrection Cathedral in the Resurrection Cathedral Starocherkassk
Each frame tops the dome on a faceted drum. For the churches of the Ukrainian Baroque, there is a special pear-shaped form of chapters completed by small glazes. A favorite method of Ukrainian architects is “creases”, that is, the completion of the temple in the form of several tiers stacked on each other, each of which cuts through the previous one. The transition from a wide octagon to a smaller one was solved with the help of the original design of the arch in the form of a cut pyramidal tent with a roof of smooth outlines.
The most productive period in the history of the Ukrainian Baroque is associated with the period of the hetman of Ivan Samoilovich, Ivan Mazepa, Ivan Skoropadsky and Daniel the Apostle. Its lower boundary means the construction of the Nikolaevsky Cathedral in Nizhyn (1668-70), the upper one – construction by the Apostle of the Savior Church in Bolshy Sorochintsy (1733). All the mentioned hetmans encouraged the erection of churches not only in words, but also in finance. The largest number of churches was erected in the reign of Peter the Great, when the powers of the hetman were very wide. The hetmanism of Ivan Mazepa marked the flowering of architecture on the Dnieper banks, which allows Ukrainian art historians today to speak not so much of Cossack or Ukrainian baroque as of baroque “Mazepin” (uk: Mazepinske baroko)
Mgarsky Monastery near Luben
Ascension Cathedral in Pereyaslav
Epiphany Cathedral in the Monastery of the Brotherhood
Nikolaevsky Military Cathedral
Church of All Saints on the Economic Gates of the Caves Monastery
Trinity and Mykolaiv churches in Baturyn
The Peter and Paul Church of the Gustynsky Monastery near Priluki
Assumption Cathedral in Glukhov
Pokrovskaya church in the Degtyarya.
Mazepinsky buildings are characterized by monumental splendor and a free arrangement of parts and details of structures, decorative ornamentation and the play of light and shade, designed to emphasize the advantages of a huge area of stone churches.
Temples of Slobozhanshchina
The temples of Slobodskaya Ukraine differ in great peculiarity. The five-tower Transfiguration Cathedral in Izum (1682) belongs to the type of the Cossack regimental cathedral, at the same time its vaults resemble chopped. A feature of the Intercession Church in Kharkov (1689) is a closely spaced three-headed structure in the local tradition of a three-mosaic multi-faceted church. The same decorative scheme was applied during the erection of the St. Nicholas Church of the Svyatogorsky Monastery (ca. 1684). It is commonly believed that all three monuments were built by a single artel team, undoubtedly under the strong influence of local wooden architecture and, possibly, under the leadership of Ivan Zarudny.
Monuments of the Slobozhansky architecture of the XVII-XVIII centuries. are concentrated in the east of Ukraine and in the western regions of the Russian Federation:
The Cossack Cathedral in Starodub (1678, rebuilt in 1744),
The Mykolaiv Church in Glukhov (1693),
The Resurrection Church in Sumy (1702),
Trinity Cathedral in Belgorod (1707, demolished in Soviet times);
St. Pokrovsky Cathedral in Akhtyrka (1768);
Trinity Church of the Akhtyrsky Monastery;
The Intercession Church in Wilshans near Kharkov (1769);
The Resurrection Church of the Horoshevsky Monastery (1759),
The three-domed cathedral in Sevsk (1718),
Sven monastery and Beloberezhskaya desert in the Bryansk region.
The most famous example of civil architecture of the Ukrainian Baroque is the Chernigov Collegium (1700-02). The houses of the Cossack sergeant (for example, the house of Colonel Lizogub in Chernihiv, the chambers of Hetman Mazepa near Rylsk) and the monastic refectory chambers (the earliest example is the Trinity-Ilyinsky Monastery, 1677-79).
Right-bank Ukraine, left after Khmelnytsky’s uprising in the Commonwealth, continued to develop in the mainstream of its architectural traditions, where tastes dictated by customers – rich tycoons, the Uniate and Catholic churches. Accordingly, the influence of folk wooden architecture on stone architecture here, if manifested, is very indirect. The same is true when applied to Belarus, where in the 18th century the Vilno Baroque came to replace the harsh, “Sarmatian” style planes, devoid of decor, differing in comparison with the Ukrainian more capricious, vertically directed silhouette, intricate decoration.
Ukrainian baroque had a significant influence on the formation of the Baroque of Moscow, many of whose masters were from the left bank. Architectural loans from Ukraine were patronized by church hierarchs who received education in the Kiev-Mohyla Academy. At the end of the 17th century, in the Russian state, after the Ukraine, temples in the form of octuplets (see octagon on the quadrangle), sometimes consisting of three lined up volumes (the church of Prince Joasaph in Izmaylovo), are spreading.
The domes of the New Cathedral in the Donskoy Monastery are strictly oriented to the sides of the world according to the Ukrainian tradition. The Kazan Church in Uzk, like Ukrainian churches, is a four-petalled five-tower. Volynets Fyodor Dubiansky, becoming a tsarist confessor, built in his estate Kerstovo near St. Petersburg, the exact repetition of a wooden pyatiban temple in his native village. Siberian episcopal chairs were occupied by immigrants from Ukraine, which explains, apparently, that the masters of the “Siberian Baroque” were oriented to Ukrainian samples no less than the Moscow ones.
At the same time, the influence of Ukrainian architecture on the Russian was not unidirectional. The decorative system of Russian ornament has been refracted in such Ukrainian monuments as the Molchan monastery near Putivl. The construction of the Nikolsky Cathedral in Kiev was led by the Moscow architect OD Startsev, and one of the most characteristic Ukrainian baroque churches, the All Saints Church of the Pechersky Monastery, built the Moscow “stone buildings of the artist” DV Aksamitov. In the middle of the 18th century, representatives of the Elizabethan baroque were actively working in Ukraine – the Moscow architects Ivan Fedorovich Michurin (the construction of the St. Andrew’s Church by Rastrelli’s drawings) and Dmitri Vasilyevich Ukhtomsky (the Cathedral of the Intercession in Akhtyrka).
Throughout the 18th century the Ukrainian baroque was modified under the influence of Western European and Russian architects who worked in Ukraine. In the middle of the century in Kiev, masters of foreign origin, such as Gottfried Johann Schödel (the Great Lavra Bell Tower) and Bartolomeo Rastrelli (Mariinsky Palace) built masters of the century. Traditions of national architecture continued Stepan Demyanovich Kovnir (Cathedral in Vasilkov) and Ivan Grigorovich-Barsky (reconstruction of the Church of St. Cyril).
The last of the hetmans, KG Razumovsky, preferred the local building cadres to architects who were discharged from St. Petersburg. In his estates built such distant from the Ukrainian tradition of the master, as Antonio Rinaldi and A. V. Kvasov. The latter not only took a great interest in local architecture, but also was able to enter into it a new page, erecting a nine-chambered five-high cathedral in the city of Kozel’t in the Chernihiv region.
In the reign of Catherine II, classicism becomes the dominant trend in architecture. Nevertheless, the retrospective direction remained in demand, and throughout the 19th century, echoes of the Cossack baroque (pear-shaped domes) could be heard in the temple architecture of Kiev and the Left Bank. The transition from the Ukrainian baroque to a new aesthetics can be traced to the example of the Kiev buildings of Ivan Grigorovich-Barsky (1713-1785).
In the years 1905-1915. erected separate temples, consciously stylized for the construction of the XVII-XVIII centuries. (Pokrovskaya church in Pleshivice, a memorial temple in Dlyashev on the Cossack graves). After the independence of Ukraine (1991), not only the masterpieces of the Ukrainian baroque (Mikhailovsky Golden-domed Monastery in Kiev), which were destroyed in the Soviet era, were scrupulously restored, but the construction of new churches in the spirit of the modernized baroque (Trinity Cathedral in Kiev) also unfolded.
The following literary genres are known: knightly poetry, Cossack chronicles (samovidtsa, centurion Grigory Grabyanki , chronicle of the participant of the campaigns of the Zaporozhye SV Velichko, compiled between 1720 and 1728), historical songs and thoughts, laments and panegyrics, courses. Literary monuments of the Cossack baroque are represented by such writers as Stefan Yavorsky, Philip Orlik, Ivan Orlovsky, Theophan Prokopovich, Theophylactus Lopatinsky, Gideon Vishnevsky and others. The centers of poetry in the Cossack Baroque style at the end of the XVII – beginning of the XVIII century were academies and colleges: Kyiv-Mohyla Academy , The Moscow Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, in the latter were such prominent figures of the Cossack baroque as Theophylact (Lopatinsky), Innokentiy (Kulchitsky), Varlaam (Lyashchevsky), etc. [the source is not specified 1091 days], Smolensk the collegium, the Chernigov collegium and the Pereyaslav collegium – not only philosophical poetry, but also a parody of the spiritual verse, as well as lyrics, received dissemination. A song that, according to Gogol, “everything for Russia: poetry, history, and the father’s grave. True life, elements of character, all the curves and shades of feelings of unrest, suffering, the spirit of the past, the suffering .., the spirit of the minis” was an important element culture. Grigory Skovoroda is recognized as one of the largest representatives of the late Cossack baroque.
The best examples of painting in this style are frescoes in the Trinity Gate Church of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. During the Ukrainian Baroque period, the rapid development of engraving art was observed. A complex system of symbolism, allegories, heraldic signs and lush ornaments was used .
In portraits of the time of the centurions and colonels, the higher clergy, political and cultural figures of the Cossack Liberty period.
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