Innsbruck is the capital of Tyrol and the fifth-largest city in Austria. Innsbruck is in a valley of the river Inn between mountain ranges of above 2000 m above sea level, halfway between Bavaria and northern Italy, and is a hub of a region popular for skiing and other mountain-related activities and a busy tourist destination. Its popularity as a winter sports resort was underscored by its hosting the Winter Olympic Games twice.
Nestled amidst majestic peaks, this breathtaking city offers a unique combination of nature, history, and culture. Stroll its streets full of Baroque and Gothic architecture in the Old Town, or discover one of the hip districts such as Mariahilf or St. Nikolaus where Innsbruck’s uni students like to meet for a drink. Take a cable car from the city centre, and in just 20 minutes, reach the Seegrube at 2,000 m with spectacular views of the Inn valley and the surrounding mountains.
Innsbruck combines extreme contrasts with as much charm,between culture and nature, high peaks and low valleys, traditions and trends. Explore Innsbruck’s picturesque old city, and make your way to the Golden Roof (Goldenes Dachl). Stroll along the bustling Maria Theresien Street and stop off at Das Schindler, a Gault Millau-awarded restaurant, for a delicious meal. Explore Innsbruck’s young, hip areas: Mariahilf, St. Nikolaus, and Wilten square with their distinctive local shops, vegan restaurants and unique bars. Or visit an unusual museum such as the Grassmayr Bell Foundry.
The first mention of Innsbruck was during the reign of Augustus, when the Romans established the army station, the important crossing point over the Inn river, to protect Via Claudia Augusta, the economically important commercial road from Verona-Brenner-Augsburg. Innsbruck developed rapidly because of its strategic position at the junction of the great trade routes from Italy to Germany via the Brenner Pass and from Switzerland and western Europe. The bridge (Brücke) over the Inn originally carried this traffic and gave the city its name and its insignia.
Innsbruck was chartered in 1239, passed to the Habsburgs in 1363. Innsbruck became the capital of Tyrol in 1429 and in the 15th century the city became a centre of European politics and culture as emperor Maximilian I moved the imperial court to Innsbruck in the 1490s. Many old buildings from the Middle Ages and modern times survived in the heart of old town.
The city is well known for its sporting opportunities, especially alpine sports, as it is in the Alps and surrounded by mountains. Innsbruck also hosted the 1964 and 1974 Winter Olympics. Several ski resorts are situated inside the city territory or within short distance. Innsbruck was one of the centers of snowboard boom in the 1990s and the derived distinct subculture endured until today. The population of skateboarders, snowboarders and people alike is therefore above average and nothing unusual to the people. This culture is also celebrated by a lot of events in and around Innsbruck especially in the winter season, attracting (predominantly young) people from all around the world.
Innsbruck is the administrative and economic center as well as the cultural center of western Austria, a year-round tourist center (over 1 million overnight stays) and a congress and university city. It is a rail and market centre and manufactures textiles (especially loden garments), shoes, beer, and musical instruments; there also is wood- and metalworking as well as food processing. In the late 20th century several companies began producing precision electrical equipment and electronics in the city as well.
In addition to the world’s leading trade fair for cable car technology Interalpin, which takes place every two years, a nationally important trade fair event is the fafga – trade fair for gastronomy, hotel and design, which takes place every year in September. With an annual added value of around 400 million euros in Innsbruck and the 24 villages around the city, tourism is an important pillar of the regional economy. Tourism is mainly concentrated in the city center with Maria Theresienstraße and the historic old town.
Innsbruck is one of the most popular tourist and health resorts and winter-sports centres in central Europe. The Olympic Winter Games were held there in 1964 and 1976. The transport infrastructure includes road, rail and air connections, which were mainly expanded as part of the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics. Innsbruck has also become one of Austria’s most eco-friendly cities, due to a very good public transport system and a partial ban on cars in certain areas of the historic old town. There are two universities and several colleges in Innsbruck, with over 30,000 students altogether, making the city’s nightlife very lively.
The mountains and the city are closer together here in Innsbruck than anywhere else and this means that the Alps are all around you wherever you go: whether on a walk through the historic old town, strolling under shady arcades or admiring the colourful rows of buildings.Thanks to the old town with numerous buildings from the time of Emperor Maximilian I, the unique location in the middle of the Tyrolean mountains, Innsbruck is a popular destination for tourists from all over the world.
The city center with the majority of important sights of Innsbruck is essentially the area on both sides of the street axis from Herzog-Friedrich-Straße with the Golden Roof on the north side (near the Inn) and the southern extension of Maria-Theresien-Straße, Innsbruck boulevard. Maria-Theresien-Straße then ends in the south at the triumphal gate. This stretch of road is the old trade route over the Brenner in and through the city and further over the Inn Bridge to the north side of the Inn.
The old town is the area on both sides of Herzog-Friedrich-Straße between the banks of the Inn and further surrounded by the streets of Marktgraben, Burggraben, Rennweg, Herrengasse and Herzog-Otto-Ufer. This district is characterized by the tall old Innsbruck townhouses with arcades in the pedestrian area and the gorge-like, narrow and winding streets in between. There were no larger squares here, with the exception of the cathedral. Until 1873, Herzog-Friedrich-Straße was still called “Chramgasse” after the general stores, then it was renamed after Duke Friedrich IV with the empty pocket (1382-1439). The old town boundary of the moat was filled in in 1765. The area around the southern and much wider Maria-Theresien-Strasse is the new town of Innsbruck, it is the baroque part of the inner city.
Other notable landmarks include the Hofburg (1754–70, on the site of a 15th-century ducal residence) and the Franciscan, or Court, church (1553–63), containing the mausoleum dedicated to Maximilian I and the tombs of Hofer and other Tirolian heroes. The university was founded by Emperor Leopold I in 1677, and its great library was a gift of the empress Maria Theresa in 1745. There are four major museums: the Ferdinandeum, with prehistoric, industrial-art, and natural-history collections and a picture gallery; the Tirolean Folk Art Museum; the Museum of the Imperial Rifles; and parts of the collections of the archduke Ferdinand II, in the Castle Ambras.
Many tourists also come because of established events such as the Dance Summer, the Festival of Early Music and the Ambras Castle Concerts. Very popular, especially with guests from Italy, are the Christmas market and New Year’s Eve.
A walk through Innsbruck is like a journey through the centuries. When you look at the many niches and bay windows on the Ottoburg building at the western entrance to the old town, you get a glimpse of medieval Innsbruck. A few metres further on is the Golden Roof, which was built by the “last knight” Emperor Maximilian I. From there, you can see the lively hustle and bustle of the historic old town, the centre of Innsbruck. Opposite the Golden Roof is the Helbling House that features a baroque façade adorned with flourishes and stucco. A little further away on Maria Theresien Street are the grandiose buildings from more recent times: the palaces of important aristocratic families from the past.
The Golden Roof (Goldenes Dachl)
Innsbruck’s most famous landmark shines in the heart of the historic old town. The splendid alcove balcony gets its name from the 2,657 fire-gilded copper tiles that adorn the roof. Today, more than 500 years later, the Golden Roof still attracts thousands of visitors every day and is Innsbruck’s most famous sight. Emperor Maximilian I had the Golden Roof built between 1497 and 1500. The master builder is Nikolaus Türing the Elder, the fresco decoration is attributed to Jörg Kölderer, Emperor Maximilian I’s court painter.
The eighteen reliefs, artistically carved out of sandstone, show the stylistic transition from the late Gothic to the early Renaissance and are considered one of the most important works of art in Tyrol because of their quality and motifs. To protect them from damage, they were replaced by copies in 1952. Six original reliefs can be admired in the museum.
A castle and palace in Renaissance style that was built in 1563 on behalf of Archduke Ferdinand II of Tyrol in the hills overlooking the city, at an elevation of 587 m above sea level, and served as his private residence from 1563 until his death in 1595. It is widely considered one of the most important Renaissance era buildings of its time in Tyrol, and now among its top tourist attractions. Supplanting an earlier 10th century fortification, the castle became the seat of power for the Counts of Andechs.
Hosting Ferdinand’s art collection, the castle is considered the oldest museum in the world. Interesting things to see are portrait- and armour collections, art and curiosity cabinets. The Lower Castle is home to armouries featuring numerous masterpieces preserved as evidence of the armourer’s art from that era. Only the Renaissance era work has been reserved at its original location, making the Chamber of Art and Curiosities an unrivaled cultural monument. The Spanish Hall will be one of the highlights of any visit, located above the Lower Castle and decorated with a wood-inlay ceiling and walls adorned with 27 portraits of historic Tyrol royals.
A 15th-century house which adopted different architectural styles in later centuries until it evolved into its current amalgamation of Gothic and Baroque facade. The Rococo stucco decorations that look like icing on a cake were added in the early 18th century, and these bows, window frames, oriels, masks, sculptures and shells are what makes this building unique. The architecture helps to capture a maximum of sunlight, which is sparse in the Alps. The last major construction took place in 1732 by Anton Gigl, after which the building was renamed to Sebastian Helbling who owned it at from 1800 until 1827.
Construction of the Armoury between 1500 and 1505 was ordered by Maximilian I to strengthen the defensive capabilities of the city, as illustrated by its location near the city walls at the time, next to the main entrance gate of the Sill. The building consists of 2 large 80 m long wings and 2 narrow gatehouses forming a large inner courtyard. It served as a storage for weapons such as cannons and small arms, and a training ground for the city guard. The Armoury retained its function as barracks until the fall of the Austrian Empire in 1918, after which it was closed. The Tyrolean State sourced funds for an extensive restoration from 1964 until 1969, and the Armoury reopened for the public in 1973 as the Tyrolean State History Museum, a branch of the Tyrolean State Museum. On display are historical and technical collections illustrating the history of Tyrol from classic antiquity to the present. In summer, the inner courtyard is often use for open-air cinemas and concerts.
Leopoldsbrunnen created at the instigation of Archduke Leopold V (1618-32 Prince of Tyrol) between 1622 and 1630 as a sign of his claim to political power. Made based on models by Caspar Gras, the figures cast in bronze by the Reinhardt brothers. The fountain shows the Archduke on horseback and surrounded by sea deities, who had been placed in the Hofgarten or on Rennweg as early as the 17th century.
The sun shines on the onion domes of the Innsbruck Cathedral in the heart of the picturesque old town. The path to Bergisel Ski Jump leads past the impressive Wilten Abbey. And the many idyllic pilgrimage churches are real eye-catchers during local hikes. Whether you are religious or not, Innsbruck’s church buildings are a real pleasure to behold. The beautiful churches and monasteries are witnesses to Innsbruck’s history, as well as an indispensable part of the cityscape and local landscapes.
The Innsbruck Hofkirche with the grave monument of Emperor Maximilian I is the most important imperial grave monument in Europe. A special feature are the larger-than-life bronze figures, which represent members of various ruling houses.
St. Jakob Cathedral, Domplatz
Baroque cathedral with works by Lucas Cranach the Elder, new building created from 1717-1724 according to plans by Johann Jakob Herkomer and Johann Georg Fischer. The most important sight of the church is “Maria Hilf”, the most widespread image of Mary in the Catholic world of the Alps and southern Germany. It was painted by Lucas Cranach the Elder. between 1517 and 1525 initially painted for the Protestant Saxon court in Dresden. The picture came to Innsbruck via Passau and has been on the main altar of the cathedral since 1650 as a “permanent loan”. What is special about this image of Mary is the depiction of the Blessed Mother not as a saint who has moved away from worldly life, but as a true-to-life “normal” woman and mother. The cathedral’s ceiling frescoes and stucco work are by the Asam brothers
Hospital Church, Maria-Theresien-Strasse
Built from 1700 to plans by Johann Martin Gumpp the Elder in place of a previous Gothic building from at least 1321. The stucco inside was by Josef Waldmann, but was largely destroyed in the Second World War and then restored under the direction of Hans Andre; only a painting above the organ is original. The high altar dates from 1705 and was created by Christoforo Benedetti
The state of Tyrol’s own parish. The early Baroque domed building was created as a central building with a Renaissance portal, entrance hall and five altar niches as a thank you from the state for having averted the dangers of the Thirty Years’ War. Inside the church, the high altarpiece by Johann Paul Schor with motifs from the history of the church by Maria Hilf and the frescoes on the round dome by Kaspar Waldmanns are particularly worth seeing. The center of the altar is a 1654 copy of the Mariahilf picture by Lucas Cranach in Innsbruck Cathedral, created by Michael Waldmann. The idea of the SOS Children’s Villages was born in the parish in 1947 under Hermann Gmeiner from the youth welfare department: The non-governmental, independent and non-denominational organization is now active in 132 countries (SOS Children’s Villages umbrella organization).
Donated by Archdukes Leopold V and Claudia de Medici and built during the Thirty Years’ War (1623-40) as a successor to a small church built by the Jesuit order in 1571. The church was built as a monumental cross-domed church modeled on the early Roman Jesuit churches Il Gesù and Sant’Ignazio. It has also been the official university church since 1777. Every year in the church the renewal of the Sacred Heart of Jesus pledge of the state of Tyrol, which was first made in 1809, takes place.
During the Second World War, on December 15, 1943, the church suffered a heavy hit during the very first air raid on the city and large parts of the vault collapsed. After restoration, the late baroque church has been open again since 1953. The “Schützenglocke” has been hanging in the north tower since 1959, weighing 9200 kg it is the fourth largest bell and the largest free-swinging bell in Austria. The Tyrolean rifle companies donated the bells on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the Tyrolean struggle for freedom.
The curved stations of the Hungerburgbahn funicular glisten like glacial ice between the bottom lift station in the city centre and the top station above Innsbruck. These stations are the work of international star architect Zaha Hadid. The grand dame of architecture also redesigned the historic Bergisel Ski Jump in the south of the city, in a spot where Tyrolean freedom fighter Andreas Hofer once led his men into battle. Today, the ski jump is a design highlight with an Olympic past that stands proudly above the city.
Modern architecture is a constant companion during a city walk in Innsbruck. For example the BTV Forum, the Liber Wiederin bookstore or the contemporary square by the Federal State Parliament building. In the centre of Innsbruck, the Kaufhaus Tyrol and Rathausgalerien shopping centres show the city’s modern side. Simply head off around the city and you’ll come across many other architectural highlights that complement Innsbruck’s picture-perfect historic buildings.
The Bergisel jump is a design by Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid in 2001, replacing the far less glorious jump stadium that hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympic Games. You can still stand beneath the Olympic rings and flame holder, and either walk 450 steps to the top or take a funicular lift. Because of its design and prominent location it is considered a new city landmark. During sporting events, the jumping tower is not accessible, and a ticket is needed to enter the terrain.
The Grassmayr Bell Foundry in Innsbruck is full of information about this rare craft. In the exhibition rooms and original alpine farmers’ dining rooms at the Museum of Tyrolean Folk Art. Above the city, Ambras Castle is a great destination where you can admire wonderful treasures from turbans to knight’s armour. In the Audioversum you can learn all about hearing and the human ear. A combined ticket for the Tyrolean State Museums offers entry to The Ferdinand, Hofkirche, Volkskunst, Zeughaus and Das Tiroler Panorama Museums.
Alpinist Association Museum
Museum dedicated to the history of alpinism, hosted in the Hofburg. The museum is owned and operated by the Austrian Alpine Club ÖAV, and received numerous prizes including the Tyrolean and Austrian Museum Prizes, as well as being nominated for the European Museum Prize in 2010. The original museum opened in 1911 in a former villa on the Isar river side, but was destroyed by shelling in 1944 during the Second World War. It was rebuilt and reopened in 1977 in its current location. Since 1996 there are regular exhibitions on various mountaineering related topics. The collection covers over 700 m² of exhibits.
Famous for its exhibition Body Worlds, the modern version of an anatomical museum. It belongs to the city’s university, hosted in the Institute of Anatomy. On display are numerous human specimens, skeletons, skulls, and other models. In addition, there are jars with dissected organs (lungs, hearts,…) and other wet and dry samples. A visit to the museum gives insight in the history of anatomy, and the development of anatomical devices. Visitors should be aware that real people and body parts are on display, so a visit may not be suitable to young children.
Graßmayr Bell Museum
The Bell foundry has existed for 400 years, and been lead by the same Graßmayr family for 14 generations. The museum offers visitors the unique experience of feeling the craftsmanship involved with generations of bell making traditions. The museum was awarded with many prizes such as the Austrian Museum Prize and the Maecenas Prize.
Imperial Palace (Hofburg)
The palace is a former Habsburg palace, and considered one of the 3 most important cultural buildings in Austria (the others being the Hofburg palace and Schönbrun palace in Vienna). It is the main building of a large residential complex used by the Habsburg dynasty. Construction started around 1460 under Archduke Sigismund, including medieval fortifications such as the Rumer Gate which was converted into the Heraldic Tower in 1499 under Emperor Maximilian I.
The palace saw numerous expansions during the next 2.5 centuries. The most significant alterations were made between 1754 and 1773 under Empress Maria Theresia, who gave it a Baroque outlook. The palace now hosts 5 themed museum areas: Maria Theresia’s Rooms from the 18th century, Empress Elisabeth’s Apartment from the 19th century, a Furniture Museum, an Ancestral Gallery, and a Painting Gallery. The museum areas illustrate different aspects of the political and cultural history of the imperial palace under reign of the Habsburg dynasty for over 4.5 centuries.
Tyrol Panorama Museum
With construction finished in 2010 for €25 million, the museum’s only attraction is the Giant Panoramic Painting, which was transferred to the building in September of the same year. The painting depicts the Tyrolean Rebellion of 1809 on 1,000 m² of canvas, a battle in which the Tyrolean people fought against the invading Bavarian army. A free audio commentary takes visitors into the heart of the battle.
Gardens and parks
The River Inn sparkles green and blue as it meanders through Innsbruck. This refreshing sight is accompanied by wooded mountain slopes, parks and hills. Shady spots become the perfect green oasis for a short break or longer moments of relaxation. Discover where the most beautiful flowers bloom, the lushest meadows thrive and the oldest trees grow.
In the winter, the garden is open until 16:30. The garden is operated by the University of Innsbruck and covers an area of 2 ha. It was established around 1911 and replaced an earlier garden, then redesigned after the Second World War from 1948 to 1965. The Alpine rock garden underwent another revision from 1987 to 1990 to update it to the most modern botanical principles. The greenhouses were constructed in 1909, with 3 additional greenhouses added from 1977 to 1979, a succulent house in 1993, and a 6th greenhouse for container plants in 1997. Visitors can view over 5,000 different species in the garden.
Imperial Palace Park
Large park at the edge of the Old Town (Altstadt) covering an area of 10 ha between the Congress Palace, the Imperial Palace (Hofburg) and the Tyrolean State Theatre. The initiative for the park was taken by Archduke Ferdinand II in the 16th century, and at the time of completion it was one of the most elaborate gardens north of the Alps. It underwent transformations into a Renaissance style garden, a French formal garden, and since 1858 an English landscape garden. The garden features ponds, a playground, a palm house with 1700 species, and several restaurants and bars. Some of the plants in the park were planted by Austrian empress Maria Theresa.
The alpine zoo is Europe’s highest situated zoo (727 m), and is specializing in alpine animals, with 2.000 animals of 150 species on display. It contains outdoor enclosures, terrariums, aviaries, aquariums (world’s biggest collection of alpine fish species) and a barnyard with old farm animal races. The zoo is in hillside situation, so there’s a certain altitude difference to cover. Founded in 1962 by Austrian zoologist Hans Psenner, the Alpenzoo is a non profit initiative aimed at conservation of Alpine animals, and is praised for its efforts to reintroduce endangered species like the bearded vulture, Alpine ibex and northern bald ibis in the wild.
Innsbruck and its holiday villages offer a diverse range of summer experiences in sporty alpine summers: mountain hut hikes, bike tours, rock climbing, downhill adventures, cool lakes, summit victories and numerous unforgettable experiences in the beautiful mountains.
Whether climbing up high to the peaks or taking a relaxing stroll through flowering alpine meadows, to crystal clear mountain lakes at an altitude of 2,420 metres above sea level, to talking trees or to alpine roses, hiking is passion. The mountains with many mountain huts await, serving cool drinks and hearty snacks to provide energy for the rest of the hike. If the hike up is too strenuous for you, you can take one of the region’s mountain lifts and cable cars and enjoy the ascent in comfort.
The bike park at Muttereralm is the new biking hotspot of the northern Alps. With trails of all difficulty levels, there is even something for children. Two special cycling tours in Mieming and in the Inn Valley: the region’s Cycle & Savour routes. The two routes combine leisurely cycling surrounded by beautiful nature with culinary delights from local farms located along the way.
Innsbruck have the perfect selection of varied climbing routes, whether you are a beginner or an expert climber. The region’s hot summer days are very pleasant at altitude. The views of the nearby villages and the green River Inn are inspiring. The indoor climbing centres offer via ferrata, with steel ropes to hold on to make the climb easier.
Innsbruck has repeatedly been the venue for major sporting events. Tyrol is traditionally known for winter sports activities, so the Innsbruck Bergiselschanze has been part of the annual Four Hills Tournament since 1952. Innsbruck was also twice the venue of the Paralympic World Winter Games for “sportsmen with disabilities” in 1984 and 1988 and in 2012 the first Winter Youth Olympic Games took place in Innsbruck. With a few interruptions, Innsbruck has hosted the Air & Style Contest, one of the largest freestyle snowboard festivals in Europe, every year since 1994.
There are a lot of ski resorts in the mountains surrounding Innsbruck, many of which offer free ski buses from the city center so long as you have ski gear and/or a valid ski pass, making it a great place to base one’s self.
Skiing in Innsbruck is the first choice among the many winter sports, cause the alpine-urban benefits of Innsbruck and the ski resorts on the SKI plus CITY pass Stubai – Innsbruck. Snowboarding, freeriding, freestyle skiing, figln and ski touring. These great options give you a huge range of sports to choose from.
Nordpark Singletrail – The Nordpark Singletrail is one of the most ambitious mountain bike freeride routes of Europe. In winter, the Nordpark can offer several ski routes. They are steep and offer a great view of the nearby mountains and the city itself. It is possible to walk or hike all the way up to the summit without taking the cable cars. It is vigorous but doesn’t require special equipment.
Patscherkofelbahn – A beautiful meandering route up the mountain and included in the city zone of Innsbruck’s public transport. Much better value than the Hungerburgbahn on the Nordkette. The Patscherkofel is a skiing region south of Innsbruck, that has a number of timbered ski-runs of the former olympia-routes. In summer it is a great region for hiking along the forestline.
Tobogganing don’t need any prior experience to go tobogganing and there is no minimum age requirement. Children aged 2 and over will have loads of fun tirelessly climbing up and sliding down little sledding hills. Small children can also join adults on longer tobogganing adventures. At the top of the walk up, there is normally a mountain hut where you can enjoy hearty dishes, Tyrolean cuisine and delicious cakes, maybe even accompanied by a beer or a schnapps.
In December 2007, the Hungerburgbahn, a funicular service to the district of Hungerburg, was reopened after a two-year closure for extensive rebuilding, with partial realignment and a new extension across the Inn River and into central Innsbruck. The line was also equipped with new vehicles. Because of the unique design of the stations, drafted by the famous architect Zaha Hadid, the funicular evolves immediately to a new emblem of the city.
The Nordkettenbahnen are 3 alpine vehicles bringing visitors from the historic centre of the city all the way up to the top of the Nordkette mountain, from where the summit at an altitude of 2334 m can be reached by foot. The first section is the Hungerburgbahn HBB, a funicular departing in 5 Congress station. The middle section is the Seegrubenbahn cable car, and the top section is the Hafelekar chairlift.
Funicular taking visitors from the heart of the city to the Hungerburg station at the foot of the Nordkette mountain. The first section of the journey is underground and follows the Rennweg, emerging to the surface next to the Inn a few metres short of Löwenhaus station. It then proceeds on an elevated track to the Alpenzoo, crossing the Inn over a bridge, with final stop Hungerburg station after a few more tunnels and bridges. The journey takes 8 minutes, covering a difference in altitude of 288 m with a speed of 36 km/h. The funicular replaces the previous Hungerburgbahn, which had been in operation for a century since 1906. The Hungerburgbahn base station of the original one can still be visited.
The Seegrubenbahn is a cable car with 2 gondolas, taking visitors from the valley station in Hungerburg up the Nordkette mountain. Completely reconstructed in 2004, the Seegrubenbahn connects the Hungerburgbahn with the Nordkette ski area in the Karwendel Nature Park.
The highest section of the Nordkettenbahn, the Hafelekar chairlift takes visitors to the top of the highest point of the Nordkette moutain, from which the 27 Hafelekarspitze can be reached by foot in approx. 10 – 15 min. Halfway to the summit is the 28 Cosmic Radiation Research Station of the University of Innsbruck, and an amateur radio outpost.