The art of theater in Azerbaijan – Azerbaijani literature is closely associated with one of the art forms.
The roots of theater art in Azerbaijan are related to the people’s activities, social life, festive and wedding traditions, as well as outlook. The spectacle elements in ceremonies, rites and games have played an important role in the creation of an independent folk theater. The Azerbaijani folk theater has been linked to the realistic peculiarities and working layers. The repertoire of the People’s Theater was composed of certain ethical small plays (Persians). People’s theater plays an important role in the formation of Azerbaijani professional theater.
The history of the theater art that dates back to ancient times begins with the performance of Mirza Fatali Akhundov, ” Vizier of Lankaran Khanate ” and “Haji Kara”, staged in Baku in March and April 1873. This is a professional national theater, in other words, the Academic National Drama Theater (AMDT) the foundation was laid. Earlier in the form of various troupes “Nijat”, “Safa”, “Zeal” cultural and educational societies, theater groups under the “Muslim Drama Artists Union”, “Brothers Hajibeyov administration,” he plays, the theater, 1919
She has been working as a State Theater since 1991. The name of the theater is Government Theater, United State Theater, Turkish Drama Theater and many others. named after Dadash Bunyadzade (1923 – 1933) and Mashadi Azizbayov (1933 – 1991).
The literary works created by our classics and our contemporaries occupy a special place in the treasury of the world culture.
Tabriz Azerbaijan Theater
The creation of the first theater samples in South Azerbaijan was closely linked with the artists working in Baku. The history of the first such works coincides with the period of the Iranian revolution in 1905-1911… In the early stages of the history of the theater of Azerbaijan, from the beginning of the twentieth, theaters of Baku and Tiflis went to different cities in Iran.
Those touring tourists from Baku, Sidqi Ruhulla, Mirzaga Aliyev, Jalil Bagdadbeyov, Abbasirza Sharifzadeh, Mirzali Abbasov from Tbilisi, Mammadtaghi Askerov, Ibrahim Isfahanli, Mirzakhan Guliyev, Mustafa Mardanov, Ashraf Hundredbashov, have repeatedly participated in several tours in Tehran, Tabriz, Rasht, Anzali, Qazvin, Khoje, Makuda, Urmuda, Julfa, Ardebil, Salmas and Anzali, as well as local lovers.
The history of the Tabriz theater dates back to that period. In Tabriz, twelve people, including Mehdi khan Shafizadeh and Hasan Baki, doctor Rahim khan, Alakbar Beradaran, Alesker khan and Alakbar khan, prepared a performance called “Cheating”, which was shown in 1908.
In 1909, the great theater artist Sidqi Ruhulla came to Tabriz with a tour and along with the local intellectuals he made several performances. The first performance they prepared and presented to the audience was the “Cajalat” by Huseynqulu Sarabski. This performance was shown in the club of the French Catholics.
The second show, which was then shown, was Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev’s tragedy of “Daglan Tifaq” and was played in a large room on the side-by-side shops in the garden called “Garden-Forest Gate”. At that time, Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev’s “Unforgettable youngster”, Jan Batist Molyer’s “Zoren tebib” works were also shown. These tours have yielded results. In Tabriz, local intellectuals showed greater interest in theater art.
1910-1919-cu illər ərzində ayrı-ayrı sənətkarlar tərəfindən İrana təşkil olunan qastrollarda daha çox Mirzə Fətəli Axundzadənin, Nəcəf bəy Vəzirovun, Əbdürrəhim bəy Haqverdiyevin, Nəriman Nərimanovun faciə və komediyaları, Sultanməcid Qənizadənin, Mirmahmud Kazımovskinin, Hüseynqulu Sarabskinin kiçik həcmli ibrətamiz məzhəkələri, Üzeyir opera and operetta of Mr Hajibeyov, Zulfugar Bey Hajibeyov and others. played.
In 1920, at the initiative of Sidqi Ruhulla, M. Shafizade, MRVaizade and others, the first theater building in Tabriz – “Charity Theater” was built. In the cities of Tabriz, Urmia and Khoy, the famous comedies of U.Hajibeyli were performed on the initiative of the Azerbaijani Turks living there.
Theater troupe of “Azerbaijan” society in Tabriz
Mirseyfaddin Kirmanshahli, director and actor in state theaters in Baku and Tbilisi theaters in 1930 came to Iran and for three years he directed various theater groups in Tehran and Tabriz. She also has a special job in shaping her professional level in Tabriz. Rza Guluzade Sharzli and Rza Vaizadeh also had great services in the development of this theater. Among the theatrical groups are the “Mirza Rza Tarkmani”, “Murder”, “The Scourge of Blind”, “The Quarrel”, “The Land of the Wizards”, “Money or betrayal” (“Betrayal and Faith”), “Victim of Uncleanness” by Rza Vaizadeh Treasure “, Mirza Jabbar Asgerzade’s” Noi Bashar “,” Chadram’s Guardian “,” Teacher’s Life “, Abdulla Fahir’s” Bahram Çubin ”
The newspaper has appointed a board of directors consisting of 11 people to revive the theater process and concentrate retailers. A nine-member commission has been set up to select amateur actors who are entering the theater arts.
In 1940-1946 in Teheran, the Azerbaijani theater actors played plays in “Farhang-e Cinema”, “Honar”, “Shiri Khurshid” theater buildings. The repertoire featured Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh’s “Vizier of Lankaran Khanate”, “Khırs quldurbasan”, all operettas of Üzeyir bey Hacıbeyov and many operas, Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev and Najaf bey Vezirov’s small businesses.
Azerbaijan State Drama Theater… On December 12, 1945, the National Government of Azerbaijan was established in South Azerbaijan. “The Tabriz Azerbaijan State Drama Theater was created during the National Government and the basis of this theater troupe was made up by amateur actors of different troupes, and the grand opening of the theater was held on March 8, 1946 and a performance by Jalil Mammadguluzadeh’s” My Mother’s Book “drama, after Tabriz, in 1946 in Urmia State Theater has been opened in Sarabda, Aarda, Astara, Black Ziaid, Alamdar, Miyan, Heris, Binab, Shabestar, Zanjan, Maragha,
The Azerbaijan State Theater was closed in December 1946 after the national liberation movement and the collapse of the National Government. Only in a short period of time (1948-1949), a number of performances and concerts were performed by Azerbaijani art figures in the Turkish language at Tehran’s Ziba Theater. The organizing and demonstration of these events was led by well-known intellectual scientist Samed Sabahi, brother of Ganjali Sabah. The Arya Theater in Urmud was established in 1970 and soon the theater was closed. At the end of the 1950s and in the first half of the 1960s, film studios of Azerbaijanis “Mad film”, “Azer film” worked in Tehran. The Azeris working there also performed theater performances on certain holidays.
Tbilisi Azerbaijan Theater
In the 19th century it was considered Caucasus cultural center Tbilisi. The basis of the Azerbaijani theater history dating back to 1873 was originally from Tiflis. Previously, Mirza Fatali was named after Akhundzade and now Heydar Aliyev. The first state stutus theater, won in 1922. At the end of 1921, Tbilisi theater lovers worked together to create a state-of-the-art theater. And only a year later, this desire is achieved. The activity of the Tbilisi State Drama Theater named after Mirza Fatali Akhundov lasted until January 2, 1947. For some reasons, the rebuilding of the theater by the Georgian state was issued 51 years later, on 17 May 1998.
Yerevan Azerbaijan theater
The art of the theater today
The repertoire of the former Azerbaijan theater of complicated development has been expanding today. Different performances of the audience can be watched in the Academic National Drama Theater in Azerbaijan, Municipal Theater, Pantomime Theater, Young Spectators Theater and other theaters.
The art center is called Academic National Drama Theater since 1991. The theater was awarded the academic title (1959), Red Labor Day (1948) and Lenin’s orders (1974) for its high achievements. The theater’s 125-year history, Abulfat Wali Muhammad Bey Alvand, Hussein Arablinsky, Jahangir Zeynalov, Abulhasan Anaplı creation of actors school, the great actor and director generations have grown up, USSR People’s Artist Aga Aliyev, Sidqi Ruhollah, Marzieh Davudova, Alekperov, Adil Isgandarov (director), Hokma Gurbanova, Ismail Dagestani, Ismayil Osmanli, Mohsun Senani,Rza Tahmasib (director and director), Ajdar Sultanov, Sona Hajiyeva, Fatma Kadri, Barat Sheykinskaya, Leyla Badirbeyli, Kazim Ziya, Mammadali Valikhanli, Aliaga Aghayev, Melik Dadashov, Ali Zeynalov, Tofig Kazimov (directed by), Alesker Sharifov (director) Najiba Melikova, Hasanaga Salayev, Mammadrza Sheykhzamanov, Rza Afganli.
AMDT, who was inspired by the plays of MFAkhundov, NBVazirov, AGHagverdiyev, N. Narimanov, J.Jabbarly, H.Cavidin, S. Rahman, I. Afandiyev, has been one of the world classics in Shakespeare, Shiller, Molyer, Lope de Vega, Carlo Haldonine, A.Duman, V. Hugo, H.Hauptman, Moris Meterlinkin, Balzak, Yucin O Nilin, B. Nushich, M. Sebastian, H. Heinen, Volterin, A. Ostrovsky, A. Pushkin, M.Lermontov, L He has included in the repertoire of Tolstoy, N.Gogol, A.Chekhov and dozens of other playwrights. In 1930, 1948, 1959, 1974, 1996, in St. Petersburg (1930), Kazan (1930), Yerevan (1930), in Yerevan (1930, 1930), in Yerevan, after the State Statue in Turkey, Iran, Volgograd cities, 1926, 1927, 1954, 1957), Tbilisi (1960, 1984), Tashkent (1934, 1951), Ashgabat (1934), Turkey (1990, 1992), Cyprus (1992) and Germany (1992). AMDT’s 50 (1923), 75 (1948) and 100 (1974) annual jubilees were celebrated. Performance “The East of the East” (A.Mammadkhanli) The State Prize of the USSR, “Antoni and Cleopatra” (Shakespeare), “The song is in the mountains” (I. Afandiyev), “The city’s summer days” (Anar) and “Iblis” (Cavid) He was awarded the Republic State awards.
The establishment and development of the theater
The roots of theater art in Azerbaijan are related to the people’s activities, social life, festive and wedding traditions, as well as outlook. Ancient history, “Counter,” Novruz”In addition to choral, dance, and dialogues, such as” Gravasch “, dramatic plot, action, and sometimes even artistic sculpture are the main characters of the” Novruz “ceremony,” Kosa-kosa “is a true theater drama,, as well as a mask wearing special dress wearer. “Khan-khan”, “Mütiblerin Dansı”, “Bride’s Wife’s Speech” and other episodes performed during a few-day wedding ceremonies show the importance of playing and spectacular elements here The elements of the theater were strong at Ozan-ashug assemblies, in the “Zorhanah” scenes, in the speeches, as well as in the widespread “Yugh” ceremony.
The spectacle elements in ceremonies, rites and games have played an important role in the creation of an independent folk theater. Since ancient times there has been a wide circulation among the people, such as “Kosa-kosa”, “Garavelli” (one of the piano theater forms), “Kilimaro”, “Shah Selim” (puppet show). People’s theater in Azerbaijan has an independent history. While some of these forms of play were based on a fixed plot, the game was of a character, while the other part had a repertory of small fanciers and was a more mature stage of the Azerbaijani folk theater.
The Azerbaijani folk theater has been linked to the realistic peculiarities and working layers. The repertoire of the People’s Theater was composed of certain ethical small plays (Persians). “Kose-bride,” “Shepherd’s Shepherd,” “The Brave Brother” (trilogy comedy) and others. The performances were popular among the people. These performances mainly reflect the economic and household life of the village. Their character is their main character. In those performances, laughter sometimes slipped into a bitter jealousy and satirical scandals of labor, household and psychology of people.
During the Safavid era (XVI century) defending Shia as an official religious sect, he resorted to various means to influence the conscience of the people. From this period “Shabih” religious performance was widely spread. “Shabih” has a profound impact on the creation of a professional theater in Azerbaijan, as well as the opportunity for many artists to come to the stage.
People’s theater plays an important role in the formation of Azerbaijani professional theater.
The history of the Azerbaijan theater begins with MFAkhundov’s performances “Vizier of Lankaran khan” and “Haji Gara” staged in Baku in March and April 1873. These first amateur performances, shown by pupils of the real school, with the participation of H. Zaradi’s initiative, N.Vezirov and A. Adigozalov (Gorani), were a powerful impetus for the creation of the national theater.
Leading Azerbaijani intellectuals, and later Gori seminary teachers, performed theater performances in Shusha, Nakhchivan and other cities, at the same time they acted as “actors” in these performances. In Shusha, the leading teachers and intelligentsia performed regularly during the summer holidays under the leadership of Y. Melik-Haqnazarov, and regularly played plays at the club and Khandamirov’s theater, playing MFAkhundov’s comedies (“Hirs-gurdurbasan”, “Musyou Jordan and dervish Mastali shah”).
It is known that MFAkhundov’s plays are composed. Since 1876 MFAkhundov’s comedies were played in Tbilisi (in Azerbaijani). Among the prominent intellectuals are N.Vezirov, B. Badalbeyov, A.Valibeyov, F.Kocharli, H.Sarialinsky, Mukhtar Muradov, I.Shafibeyov, famous singer Jabbar Garyagdioglu (Shusha), M.Sidqi, J.Mammedguluzade his brother Mirza Alekper, playwright E.Sultanov (Nakhchivan), R. Efendiyev (Nuha) and others should be especially noted. In the 1970s and 1980s, theaters in various cities of Azerbaijan gradually began to form around theater figures in Baku. Therefore, the theater life of Baku revives to the end of the 80s and, in essence, creates a certain theater collective. Since 1887, H. Mahmudbeyov, SM Janizadeh and N.Valiyev are leading the theater group in Baku. They strengthened the band and made it a troupe, and this troupe began functioning as an independent theater group since 1888.
Since 1890, N.Narimanov has been a great service in the development of the Azerbaijani theater in a healthy way and the realization of the reality reality in the theater. He teaches the theater as one of the most important means of raising public awareness and promoting ideas in the past, and using the theater as a bench. Narimanov invited intellectuals to the actor’s troupe and at the same time he played key roles in many performances. In 1896 H.Zardabi organized the first professional drama group “First Muslim Drama Troupe” in Baku. In 1897 for the first time in Baku the “Union of Artists” was created. Before the revolution, the repertoire of the Azerbaijan theater was played by national playwrights – MFAkhundov, N. Vezirov, H.Vezirov, N.Narimanov, A.Hagverdiyev, C. Mammadguluzade and others, as well as works of classics from Russian (NVGogol, IS Turgenev, LNTolstoy) and Western Europe (V. Shakespeare, F. Shiller, H. Heyne, JBMolier). Azerbaijani theater was loyal to enlightenment and democratic ideas from the first years. In addition to MFAkhundov’s comedies, N. Vezirov’s “Fakhradin Mushabeti”, “We went out of the rain, fell into the rain”, A.Hagverdiyev’s “Daglan Tifaq”, “Unkempt youth”, “Agha Mohammed Shah Gajar”, N.Narimanov’s ” Shah “, feudal traditions, oppression and despotism of the land-capitalist structure were exposed to ignorance. Molyer) were enriched by the works of classics. Azerbaijani theater was loyal to enlightenment and democratic ideas from the first years. In addition to MFAkhundov’s comedies, N. Vezirov’s “Fakhradin Mushabeti”, “We went out of the rain, fell into the rain”, A.Hagverdiyev’s “Daglan Tifaq”, “Unkempt youth”, “Agha Mohammed Shah Gajar”, N.Narimanov’s ” Shah “, feudal traditions, oppression and despotism of the land-capitalist structure were exposed to ignorance. Molyer) were enriched by the works of classics. Azerbaijani theater was loyal to enlightenment and democratic ideas from the first years. In addition to MFAkhundov’s comedies, N. Vezirov’s “Fakhradin Mushabeti”, “We went out of the rain, fell into the rain”, A.Hagverdiyev’s “Daglan Tifaq”, “Unkempt youth”, “Agha Mohammed Shah Gajar”, N.Narimanov’s ” Shah “, feudal traditions, oppression and despotism of the land-capitalist structure were exposed to ignorance.
The “Muslim Drama Artists” company was established in Baku in 1906. The company was headed by well-known theater figure J. Zeynalov. In spite of financial difficulties, the company continued to perform interruptions, expanding its repertoire. During these years drama associations and theater troupes (“Balakhani Drama Association”, “Hariam”) were performed in Baku’s working districts. In the staff of the “Harium” troupe created under the “Evolution” newspaper, besides its direct organizer MAAliyev, Rzayev, C.Hacinski and others. There was a. Members of Truppa were both spectators and audience members. Because there were no funds for good building, performances were given in the Grand Prix of the trade passage. In 1906, N.Narimanov’s “Nothing” play was played. After the 1905 revolution, a number of “societies” were allowed to be established in Baku; One of them was “Nijat” cultural-educational society. In 1907, the organization of the theater troupe played an important role in the life of the theater. In 1908, under the “Nijat” society, a single drama troupe was created, combining professional actors such as H.Arablinski, S.Ruhulla, A.Vali; he had his permanent wardrobe and props. Truppa once or twice a week served at the Tagiyev Theater as well as in the workshops. Agha Mohammed Shah Gajar, N.Narimanov’s “Nadir Shah”, N. Vezirov’s “Pahlavanani-Zaman”, Shamami’s “Gaveyi Oveni”, F.Shiller’s ”
Development of Azerbaijani theatre in the Soviet period
All theatres in Azerbaijan were nationalized after establishment of the Soviet power and their repertoire was strictly controlled by authorities. Government united destroyed troupes, listed their actors to government service. National theatre acquired its further development due to financial support of the government. In 1920, a United State Theatre including Azerbaijani, Russian and Armenian drama and opera theatres was created. In 1922, Azerbaijani drama troupe was transformed into Academic Drama Theatre. In 1920, a Russian satire-agitation theatre, transformed into Baku Labor Theatre in 1923, was created. Miniatures, revues, parodies to actual socio-political and everyday life themes were staged in the theatre. Along with these, stage versions of classic literature (“The Overcoat” by N.V.Gogol, “The little house in Kolomna”, “The Tale of the Priest and of His Workman Balda” by A.S.Pushkin, “The Grand Inquisitor” by F.M.Dostoyevski, “The Mask”, “Pharmacist” by Chekhov and others) were included into its repertoire. In 1921, Azerbaijani satire-agitation theatre was created, on the basis of which Azerbaijani worker-peasant theatre of Baku transferred into Turkish Labor Theatre of Baku in 1927, was established in 1925.
In 1910, the new cultural education society called Safa and its theater department were created. The “Safa” society drama troupe was relatively poor compared to “Nicat”. However, the actors of “Nicat” gradually passed to “Safa”. D.Bunyadzade, poet Samed Mansur, actors J.Zeynalov, AMSharifzadeh actively participate in the activity of the society from “Nijat” to H.Arablinski, MAAliyev, S.Ruhulla, H.Sarabski and others. from time to time. Apart from watching the troupe of “Safa” society, she also engaged in cultural-enlightenment activities related to the life of the teat. In 191, the troupe celebrated the 25th anniversary of Zeynalov’s stage performance, the 100th anniversary of MFAkhundov’s birth in 1911, and the 40th anniversary of N.Vezirov’s literary activity in 1913. “Healing” One of the theoretically attractive aspects of the troupe’s work was his orchestras performances in cities and villages of Azerbaijan or in a broader circle (South Caucasus, Central Asia, Quzei Caucasus, Iran, Astrakhan, Kazan, etc.). Generally, both Nijat and Safa societies have played a significant role in strengthening the organizational and creative view of the Azerbaijani theater. On January 12, 1908 (25th in a new way) the first national opera in Baku – the musical theater of Azerbaijan was laid by the performance of U.Hajibeyov’s “Leyli and Majnun”. In the early years of the musical theater, his repertoire included “Leyli and Majnun”, “Sheikh Sanan”, “Rustam and Zohrab”, “Shah Abbas and Khurshid Banu” created by U.Hajibeyov in 1908-1913, Olenskayas, R. Darabli, A.Anapli and others. they spoke. There was no clear division between musical theater and drama theaters, and the repertoire of the troupes included both drama and musical compositions (musical performances dominated in the 1910s).
In 1916, the performance of J.Mammadguluzade’s “Dead” comedy was an event that demonstrated the idea of the Azerbaijani theater. This performance was a great success, calling it a triumph of ignorance and ignorance, as a libel against the world of lies and oppression. In 1917, the Union of Muslim Artists was created in Baku. AM Sharifzadeh was elected chairman of the alliance. The Alliance teamed up with all the theater groups and played on the basis of friendship. However, this alliance was able to operate until March 1918. Mayilov’s anterprends did not allow the Azerbaijani actors to come out of the building. Most actors were on tour. Only Ü. and the troupe of Z. Hajibeyov brothers were relatively regular.
In 1928-1930, Maxim Gorky Azerbaijan State Theatre of Young Spectators and in 1938, Azerbaijan State Theatre of Musical Comedy was established.
In 1922, M.F.Akhundov Azerbaijan State Theatre of Young Spectators of Tbilisi was created on the basis of Azerbaijani Theatre of Tbilisi and it existed until 1947. In 1928, Azerbaijani Theatre was organized in Irevan – it was the first theatre of other nation in Armenia.
Truppa united drama, opera and operetta artists. The Azerbaijani theater, which is closely linked with advanced, democratic ideas, has played an important role in the cultural development of the nation. However, at the same time, in these years, the theater has not yet risen to a high level of culture.
Azerbaijani Musical Theatre
Popularity of theatre among nation and development of national Azerbaijani instruments favored formation of a new form of theatrical art – musical theatre. One-acted scenic images to poems such as “Leyli and Majnun” by Fuzûlî and “Farhad and Shirin” by Navai were displayed in 1897-1898, in Shusha and in 1901-1902, in Baku. On January 12, 1908 the first national “Leyli and Majnun” opera by Uzeyir Hajibeyov was staged in Baku. History of professional musical theatre of Azerbaijan was originated since that time. Initially, repertoire of Azerbaijani Musical Theatre consisted of works by U.Hajibeyov, who created “Leyli and Majnun”, “Shaikh Sanan”, “Rostam and Sohrab” “Shah Abbas and Khurshid Banu” operas, and also such musical comedies as “Husband and wife”, “If Not That One, Then This One” and “Arshin mal alan” musical comedies in 1908-1913. Soon, the repertoire of the musical theatre was enriched with new works by Z.Hajibeyov (“Ashiq Garib” opera” and “Fifty years old young” and “Married bachelor” musical comedies), “Shah Ismayil” opera by M.Magomayev, “Molla Jabi” and “Vurhavur” musical comedies by M.M.Kazimski, “Seyfalmulk” opera by M.Amirov and others.
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