The knife is mainly used for cutting, cutting, cutting, cutting, and it is inconvenient for cutting soft things such as cotton and silk. When people use two knives to cut relative to each other in practice, scissors are produced. Unlike a knife that is unilaterally applied, a scissors is a cutting tool that splits an object by bilaterally applying a force to the blade. From the unearthed objects, Chinese scissors have appeared in the Western Han Dynasty at the latest, and have undergone a process from spring shear to spur shear. This transformation occurred during the Five Dynasties of the Northern Song Dynasty. Since scissors have never changed their identity as a tool since the day they were born, it is difficult to enter the field of literati and scholars. Although this affects our specific historical narrative of scissors, it does not hinder our judgment on the role of scissors in human life. Indeed, scissors have never played a role in the arena of war, but the invention of scissors not only improves the efficiency of people’s work, but also plays a role in daily life and production such as trimming hair, cutting shaving wool, cutting fish and poultry. The role that other tools cannot replace. In this sense, the invention of scissors is an important contribution in the history of human tools.
Unit 6: The Origin and Evolution of Scissors
Some people traced the invention of scissors to ancient Egypt in the fifteenth century BC. In the Babylonian literature and the Old Testament between 1300 and 600 BC, the record of shearing wool was also used. The earliest known scissors were found in ancient Greece in the second half of the 11th century BC. From the Chinese literature, scissors have entered people’s lives during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, but the real objects that can be corroborated are currently only seen in the Western Han Dynasty. Early Chinese scissors were a joint-stock type, which was different from the Western U-shaped scissors and should be an independent invention. During the period of the Roman Empire, a spur cut appeared. In China, this transformation was at the turn of the Five Dynasties Northern Song Dynasty. After the 16th century, spurs were commonly used in the West and China. In 1761, the Britishman Xu Lifu began to use casting methods to mass-produce cast iron shears in Sheffield.
6·1: Invention of scissors
The Three Kingdoms Zhou Zhou “Ancient History Examination” traces the origin of scissors to the legendary Yellow Emperor era, but it is still not valid. During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the emergence of bronzes from rituals and musical instruments to weapons, production tools and daily necessities appeared. Some scholars pointed out that scissors may appear in such a background. However, the evidence that the scissors can be confirmed at present is in the Western Han Dynasty. Some scholars believe that the Chinese scissors originated from the early bronze sharpening knife, and the two cutting knives intersected each other to form scissors, so the ancient scissors were also called “crossing knives.”
6·2: Early scissors – spring shears
The earliest scissors did not have any accessories. The whole scissors was self-contained. There was no shaft eye in the middle and there was no fulcrum. Just forged the ends of an iron bar into a knife shape, sharpened the sharp edge, and then bent the iron bar into 8″ word, this kind of scissors naturally opens when not in use. When you use it, you can cut things by pressing the blades at both ends. When you release your hand, the scissors blade is restored, just like the current scorpion.
6·3: Cutting from spring to arbor
After a thousand years of spring shearing of the reincarnation, people gradually found that it still has many defects, such as small double-edged mouth, not too strong force, easy to retreat, easy to break at the flex ring, and can not be cut hard and thick. thing. At the end of the Five Dynasties Northern Song Dynasty, which was more than a thousand years ago, there was a major innovation in the scissors. The method of using it was no longer a one-click, but a knife and a central axis, a fulcrum, and a fulcrum. Move between the knife and the handle. This means that traditional spring shears have been developed as spur shears. The spindle cutter is easy to use and labor-saving.
Unit 7: Scissors in life
Scissors come from the knife, but they have the function that the knife does not have. It is difficult for the knife to disintegrate the soft material without the bottom. In this case, it is much more convenient to use a bilateral force. Moreover, compared with the knife, the scissors are easier to control due to bilateral pressure, and the intention can be executed more accurately. After the invention of the scissors, it took a lot of time and effort to use the knife.
7·1: Scissors make our lives easier
Scissors play an important role in our daily lives and production. From the following groups of exhibits we can see that scissors appear in various workshops and appear in our lives. Thanks to its unique features, scissors make our lives convenient.
7·2: Customs in scissors
Scissors are a kind of daily utensils that cause complex emotions in folk customs. In traditional customs in some areas, scissors have the meaning of destruction and severance, so they are usually not used as gifts, and pregnant women are less likely to use them; however, in other areas, these characteristics of scissors make it a sinister The function can bring peace and good fortune to people. In the wedding ceremony in Guangdong, the phoenix shears became a must-have for brides and grooms. In their view, scissors are a symbol of the butterfly flying, implying a profit, meaning the beauty and wealth of life after marriage.
7·3: grinding people in the streets
Grinding scissors are closely related to people’s lives. If the knife and scissors are used for a long time, they will be blunt and will not be closed, so there will be a sharpener. In the streets and alleys of Beijing, people often see the sharpeners who walk in the streets. They had long benches on their shoulders, a whetstone on one end of the bench, a linen bag on the other, a hammer in the bag, a tool to grab the child, and a small bucket on the leg of the stool. That “wearing the scissors to the chives!” The crisp and sizzling sounds and the sound of the sheet metal “呱哒呱哒” from time to time echoed in the small alley. When people heard this sound, they knew that the sharpener had come, and took out the bad tools at home and handed it over to the sharpener to repair it.
Unit 8: China’s famous scissors production area
There were very few scissors unearthed during the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. It reflects that the use of scissors has become very popular, and people no longer use it as a burial object. Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, China’s scissors industry has made great progress, and well-known brand-name scissors such as Zhang Xiaoquan and Wang Mazi have appeared. In addition, the Danang scissors in Wuhu, Anhui, the Qingzhou scissors in Shandong, the “Laohehe” scissors in Changsha, Hunan, the Anshun scissors in Guizhou, and the Zhang Xiaoquan scissors in Suzhou are also famous brand-name products with a long history and distinctive features.
8·1: Hezhou fast cut
Taiyuan was called the state. Hezhou scissors began in the Northern and Southern Dynasties and has a history of more than 1,600 years. The state-owned scissors are made of fine materials and finely crafted. They are famous for their sharp edges, steel moisture and forging. The history of cutting bones is not a blade, and the shearing is not dusty. And the state cut in the Jin Dynasty has been famous in China. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, the production of knife and scissors in the state was quite large and was praised by scholars. Among the names of streets in Taiyuan City, there are large and small blacksmith’s alleys, large and small scissors lanes. These streets and lanes used to be the center of production scissors in the Song Dynasty.
8·2: Lin’an in the Southern Song Dynasty
In ancient times, scissors were called “reaps.” During the Southern Song Dynasty, the cutting industry flourished. The capital city of Lin’an (Hangzhou) became the national shearing center at that time, bringing together many skilled craftsmen from all over the country. At that time, the workshop for making scissors was called “nail hinge”. In the 23 kinds of workshops in Lin’an, recorded by Wu Zimu’s “Dream Liang” in the 13th “Group Tour” of the Song Dynasty, there is a “nail hinge”. The development of the scissors manufacturing industry has made scissors one of Hangzhou’s famous specialties and deeply integrated into the customs of Hangzhou.
8·3: Wuhu scissors
Wuhu scissors are native to Dagang Town, Wuhu City. The founder is Gong’s blacksmith from Taiping, Anhui. Founded in the late Song and Yuan Dynasties, it developed in Yuming and flourished in Qing Dynasty. It is one of Anhui’s traditional famous brand “Wuhu Three Knives” (ie scissors, kitchen knife, razor). It is also the three famous Chinese brand scissors in the Qing Dynasty (ie Wuhu Zhaoyun). One of the raw scissors, Hangzhou Zhang Xiaoquan scissors, Beijing Wang Mazi scissors. Zhang Xiaoquan, the father of Zhang Xiaoquan in Hangzhou, studied art in Wuhu, Hong Kong.
8·4: Qingzhou Scissor Lane
Located in Beiying Street in Qingzhou City, since the end of the Ming Dynasty, the people called the scissors lane. More than 20 blacksmith shops are scattered from the south of the street to the north. At that time, there was a saying that “Qijia awl is a home knife, and a junior scissors does not need to pick.” In the long river of history, the Scissor Lane has its glory. It is also famous for its famous brand scissors, and it is famous for its history.
8·5: Lufeng scissors
Lufeng scissors began in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. It has the characteristics of beautiful appearance, good fire resistance, sharp edge, etc. The variety of products and colors are excellent, and the Qing Dynasty is famous for its late Ming Dynasty. It is sold by the caravans and sold well in India. In 1923, at the Yunnan Property Competition, “Hu Ji” Lufeng scissors won the first prize; in 1965, when the scissors held in Hangzhou was held in the country, Lufeng scissors kept “cutting copper and mud, and cutting iron is not lacking. “The characteristics of the cutting edge ranked first.
8·6: Huo Tong “Ren Kee” scissors
During the Jiaqing Period of Qing Dynasty (1796~1820), Fujian Ningde Huo Linlin Yuan Yuanfeng and Yuan Hong brothers went to Quanzhou to study art. After learning, they returned to their hometown to establish the “Ren Kee” scissors (later renamed as Zhengren, Changren and Chengren). ). “Ren Kee” scissors are made of stainless steel forging, and the steel is clamped on the edge of each pair of scissors. Strictly grasp the quenching heat, so that the scissors are soft and soft, so that the “soft silk silk brocade is not sticky.” Stagnation, the copper wire of the new one is not missing. From the Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, it was the heyday of the “Hen Ji” scissors of Huo Tong. With its excellent quality, it not only attracts merchants from all over the world, but also sells them to Southeast Asian countries through various ports.
8·7: Wang Mazi scissors
In the Eighth Year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty (1651), a Shanxi surnamed Wang opened a grocery store in Xuanwumen, Beijing, which operated fire, scissors, etc., and was named “Wan Shun”. He himself not only makes scissors, but also is good at doing business. He merged the “Wan Shun” with the best quality Zhang Xing and Li Shun scissors workshops to form the pattern of the former shop and the factory. The king treasurer often takes care of the goods at the counter. The characteristics of the pockmark on his face are remembered by people. It is called the “Wang Mazi” scissors shop. As the sales of scissors increased, production was in short supply, and they acquired scissors produced by other workshops. When they choose the inspection, they use the quality of their own workshops as the standard. Scissors that do not meet the standard will not be purchased and will not be sold. For a long time, the reputation of “Wang Mazi” “does not go away.” In the 21st year of Qing Jiaqing (1816), the grocery store officially hanged the signboard of “Three Generations of Wang Mazi”, and now opened the “Wang Mazi knife and shop” in the east exit of the Chongwenmen Outer Grinding Factory. The scissors are engraved with “Wang Mazi”. “As a mark, “Wang Mazi” has become a trademark since then.
Unit 9: Zhang Xiaoquan and his scissors
Zhang Xiaoquan scissors originated in Hangzhou in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties. Zhang’s father and son changed the routine of using raw iron for forging scissors. The good steel of Zhejiang Longquan and Yunhe was inlaid on the wrought iron, and it was ground with the fine mud brick of Zhenjiang’s special texture, which made the scissors shine brightly. Zhang Xiaoquan scissors are distinguished by the selection of materials, uniform steel, fine grinding, sharp and sharp, beautiful style and durable, and were listed as tributes during the Qianlong period. The civil shears of “Zhang Xiaoquan’s Recent Record” won the second prize of the No. 68 Prize of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce of the Beiyang Government, the second prize of the China National Goods Exhibition, the second prize of the first Nanyang Persuasion Association in 1910, and the fourth prize of the Panama International Exhibition of 1915. Famous at home and abroad.
9.1: From “Zhang Dalong” to “Zhang Xiaoquan”
During the Chongzhen years of the Ming Dynasty, the blacksmith Zhang Sijia came to Hangzhou from the county of Anhui Province, and opened the “Zhang Dalong” scissors store in Dajing Lane. Due to the use of the “Longquan sword” production process, the high-quality steel is inlaid in the cutting edge of the scissors, the first “scissors inlaid steel” process, greatly improving the quality of the scissors. After Zhang Sijia’s death, Zhang Xiaoquan succeeded his father’s business and renamed “Zhang Dalong” to “Zhang Xiaoquan” and took it to the next level in terms of scissors style, variety, specifications and sharpness.
9·2: Contemporary “Zhang Xiaoquan”
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Zhang Xiaoquan scissors maintained its traditional characteristics and further improved in terms of craftsmanship, output and quality, and developed into the largest scissors manufacturer in China. Through several major technological transformations and technological innovations, more than 90% of the processes have been mechanized and automated so far. Its product variety, specifications, there are more than 120 varieties of more than 120 varieties of clothing scissors series, household scissors series, garden scissors series, office scissors series, student scissors series, kitchen supplies series, tool series.
Unit 10: Manufacturing of scissors
Although scissors is a very common commodity, there are dozens of processes from raw material to finished product, and some processes also include several small processes. Therefore, it has the characteristics of complex process and comprehensive technicality. It can be seen from the following process links that it is not an easy task to produce a pair of scissors with sharp cutting, opening and closing, and easy to feel.
10·1: In the traditional scissors workshop – taking the traditional craft of Zhang Xiaoquan scissors as an example
The ancient scissors manufacturing process lacked a systematic record. Since the modern times, Zhang Xiaoquan’s scissors have excavated, inherited and innovated traditional techniques, which have produced a wide range of influences and become a prominent representative of the modern Chinese scissors industry. In order to help the audience understand the traditional cutting process, we take the traditional process of Zhang Xiaoquan scissors as an example for analysis. Traditionally, Zhang Xiaoquan’s scissors have been produced in three power segments and 72 processes, including 23 processes from collocation materials to semi-finished products, 41 processes from semi-finished products to finished products, and 8 processes for making money. . From the perspective of modern science, its process flow is mainly composed of 26 links. Because the traditional scissors structure name and craft name are not uniform, they are mostly common names. For the convenience of description, the name of the scissors structure name issued by the Ministry of Light Industry is adopted here, and the name of the craft is also called the scientific name.
10·2: China Modern Scissors Enterprise
Until the second half of the 20th century, China’s famous scissors industry still has the title of “North Wang Nan Zhang”. Zhang Xiaoquan scissors has a “three hundred years of history, three hundred years of credibility”, known as the “crown crown.” In recent years, technology updates have been continuously carried out to further improve product quality, and the export volume has increased greatly. It has been favored by people all over the world. The “Wang Mazi” scissors, which has a history of more than 360 years, has gradually declined in recent years for various reasons. On the other hand, many new types of scissors companies have emerged across the country, including Yangjiang, Guangdong, which has formed a large-scale production group and has become a new center of the contemporary scissors industry. With the development of the modern scissors industry, Chinese scissors have greatly improved in shape, materials, technology, quality, variety, and function.
10·3: Modern scissors of all shapes and sizes
After a long evolution, scissors have formed a rich variety of types. According to the material, there are bronze, white copper, copper, silver, stainless steel, alloy, etc.; according to the shape, there are double-stranded ring, pin joint opening and closing, sickle shape, pliers shape, squat shape, curved blade shape, fish head Shape and so on. The decoration process is also different. There are liú gold, gold plating, silver plating, titanium plating, and more flowers, engraving and casting. As new materials and new features continue to expand, the ancient invention of scissors has entered our lives deeper and broader.
China Sword and Scissors Museum
The China Knives and Swords Museum is mainly aimed at publicizing and promoting China’s long-standing skills in knife and scissors, umbrellas and fans, and discovering and protecting traditional handicrafts, while taking into account display and collection. The museum has become a national-level museum with professional characteristics, Hangzhou characteristics and canal features, integrating collection, research, display, education, publicity, entertainment, shopping and other functions, and strives to build it into a “domestic leading, world.” A state-of-the-art, state-of-the-art museum. Knife-cut swords, umbrellas, and fans belong to the material culture of human civilization, and are the inventions of human beings to better adapt to nature, increase their ability to act, and improve their quality of life. The construction area of the China Knife and Sword Museum exhibition hall is 2,460 m2, and the construction area of the temporary exhibition hall is 1,060 m2.
On the basis of preserving the intangible culture, fully explore the spiritual world behind the object. For example, by reviving the scene of the sword, and matching the bronze sword-casting process model, the audience can understand the process of the bronze sword, understand the story behind the sword, and feel how important it is to cast a good sword for the swordsmith. .
Through the multi-angle and diversified approach, the China Knives and Swords Museum introduces and demonstrates the unique culture of the knife-cutting sword, “opening the knife as a knife, cutting the sword on both sides, and cutting the double-knife into a cut”. Through exquisite exhibits, the audience can learn about the history and culture of the sword-cutting sword in the pavilion, and also experience folk customs and life from the perspective of life.