Categories: Architecture

Seljuk architecture

Seljuk architecture comprises the building traditions used by the Seljuq dynasty, when it ruled most of the Middle East and Anatolia during the 11th to 13th centuries. After the 11th century, the Seljuks of Rum emerged from the Great Seljuk Empire developing their own architecture, though they were influenced and inspired by the Armenian, Byzantine and Persian architectural traditions.

Historical background
As part of the Oghuz tribal union , the Seljuks belonged to the Turkic peoples who immigrated to Transoxania in the 8th century . Under their leaders Tughrul Beg and Chagri Beg conquered the Seljuk Turks in 1034 and defeated in 1040 at the Battle of Dandanqan the Ghaznawiden . 1055 Tughrul ended with the conquest of Baghdad the protection of the Bujiden on the Abbasid caliphate . Tughrul Beg subjugated large parts of Persia and 1055 Iraq . He relocated the capital of the Seljuk EmpireRey near today’s Tehran .

After defeating the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan extended its rule to the west. 1077/8 Sultan Malik Şah I. Suleiman ibn Kutalmiş appointed governor of the new province of Anatolia. Its capital was Nikaia . After the conquest of Antioch in 1086, Suleiman declared independence, but was defeated and executed by Tutusch I , Malik Şah’s brother. In the course of the immigration of large numbers nomadic Turkmens originated in Anatolia, independent Emirates, including the Danischmenden , between about 1092 and 1178 the region aroundSivas , Kayseri and Malatya dominated, the Saltukiden (1092-1202) to Erzurum , the Ortoqiden (1098-1234) to Dunaysir , Mardin and Diyarbakır , and Mengücek (1118-1252) to Erzincan and Divriği . The Emirates of Danischmenden and Saltukiden were later in the Sultanate of the Rum-Seljuks , the Ortoqidenherrschaft ended with the conquest by the Egyptian Ayyubiden , the rule of Mengücek ended only with the fall of the Seljuk rule in the Mongol storm,

In the battle of Köse Dağ, the Seljuks of Rum 1243 were subject to the Mongols and had to recognize the predominance of the Ilkhan . At the end of the 13th century, the Governor of Ilatane in Anatolia, Sülemiş, revolted against Ghazan Ilchan . The weakness of the Byzantine Empire to the west and the Ilkhanid Empire to the east gave the turkish Beys the opportunity to build independent smaller estates. It arose the Beyliks , among which the Beyliks of Aydın (1313-1425) to Ephesus , Saruhan (1300-1410) to Manisa , and especially the Beylik ofOsman I , from which the Ottoman Empire was to emerge within a short time from 1299 on , gained architectural historical significance.

Architecture of the Greater Sluks

Within two to three generations, the lifestyle of at least the Seljuk elite had changed radically: originally the nomadic steppe inhabitants lived in yurts , the traditional Central Asian living tent. After the conquest of Iran and Mesopotamia, they took over the governmental and administrative structures of their predecessors. In the field of architecture, the Seljuk architects developed an independent idiom of form: they succeeded in combining well-known building elements such as the central building with dome or ivan in a coherent and harmonious way.

Role models
The architecture of the Seljuk Turks takes up models from the architecture of the Karachanides and Ghaznavids : central buildings such as the later Seljuk building types can already be found in the architecture of Karachanid. The Deggaron mosque from the 11th century in the small town of Chasar near Bukhara is made of clay and brick bricks. Its 6.5 m wide dome rests with four pointed arches on only 30 cm wide, low columns. Above each corner of the hall there are smaller, 3.6 m diameter auxiliary domes. An important example of a domed central building is the Talchatan Baba Mosque, about 30 km from Merw, The all-brick construction from the 11th or 12th century measures 18 x 10 m. He has a central dome; laterally, the room is extended by smaller cross vaults. The façade is structured with niches; the façade is decorated in a decorative way by different bricklaying.

The Ghaznavid palace complex in the southern Afghan city of Leşker-i Bāzār was excavated in 1948 by Schlumberger . The South Palace measures 164 x 92 m. The walls are made of mud bricks on brick foundations. He owns a 63 x 45 m large courtyard with four Ivan. Other small outbuildings are also designed according to the Four-Ivan scheme. At the south facade of the palace complex were 1,951 unearthed the foundations of a mosque. This had two side halls, each with two rows of columns north and south of a central section, whose massive rectangular brick pillars most likely have worn a dome. The front of the building was open.

Individual components
Seljuk architecture uses the same or similar components for different buildings. Mosques, caravanserais, medreses and tombs can be built as a hall or central building with or without dome, courtyard, Riwaq arcades, Ivan or minarets. Viewed individually, the individual components are derived from sometimes much older models. The architecture-historical achievement of the Seljuk architects, who with only a few exceptions is nameless, consists in the synthesis of these elements into uniform and architecturally harmonious, typical style buildings.

Dome and vault shapes
Already in Sassanidic time the system of corner trumps was known, by means of which a round dome shell can be put on a rectangular substructure . The construction of bricks , which have been transferred in a relatively thick layer of mortar, allowed a free brick construction of the dome without using a falsework . The spherical triangles of the trumps were split into additional subunits or to niche systems. These resulted in a complex play of supports and struts, ultimately an ornamental spatial pattern of small-scale elements that visually cancel the heaviness of the building.

Typical of the Islamic East was the non-radial rib vault , a dome-topped system of intersecting pairs of vault ribs. Starting from the Friday Mosque of Isfahan, this arch shape allows the ostislamischen architecture to the Safavid track time on the basis of key buildings. The main features of this vault type are:

A type dominated quadrant of crossing vault ribs, sometimes formed by doubling and entangling into an octagonal star;
the elimination of a transition zone between the vault and the support system;
a vaulted dome or lantern riding on the ribbed frame .
In the Seljuk architecture, the intersecting pairs of ribs still form the main element of the Baudekor.

Iranian Greater Sluks used the slender, cylindrical design of the minaret most frequently . The oldest surviving Manar of Seljuk time is that of the Tārichāne mosque in Damghan from the time of Tughrul Beg (1058). It is also the first Seljuk building to use glazed bricks. The staggered arrangement of the tiles in the tower wall creates an impressive decorative effect. The similarly designed minaret of Masjid-i Maidan in Saveh is dated by Aslanapa in the time of Alp Arslan (1061). Other Seljuk minarets are in the Friday mosques of Kashan and Barsiyan near Isfahan. For the first time, facades were also equipped with two uniform minarets.

Between about 1080 and 1160, the major Seljuk mosques were built. The Seljuk architects developed a monumental building type from the classical Islamic hall mosque, which consists of a hall over whose mihrab niche a wide dome is arched. The classic design of the Riwaq Arcade-lined court ( Sahn ) was expanded by adding four Ivan . In all buildings is a dome hall with upstream Ivan in the center. On the longitudinal and transverse axis of a cross-shaped ground plan, two ivans stand in the middle of the riwaq rows facing each courtyard. The Four-Ivan Plan shapes the design of Iranian mosques and madrassas to the modern day.

Friday Mosque of Isfahan
The Friday Mosque of Isfahan is the oldest extant mosque in the Seljuk era. The original structure was built under the Abbasidenkalifen al-Mansūr (reigned 754-775) as a classic courtyard mosque made of mud bricks . Sultan Malik Şah I (reigned 1072-1092) had the building restored and expanded. According to the building inscriptions, under Malik Şah the large mihrab dome as well as the smaller, also overcasted north hall were built. The Seljuk Grand Vizier Nizām al-Mulkand his rival Taj al Mulk built around 1080 two dome buildings along the longitudinal axis of the courtyard. Nizam’s dome rests on eight heavy, stucco-covered pillars, probably from a previous construction phase, and opens on three sides with nine arches to the prayer hall. A few decades later, the beamed ceiling of the hall was replaced by hundreds of domes. In a third construction phase, four Iwanes were erected in the center of the facades of the inner courtyard. In Seljuk and Timurid times, courtyard fronts and the interior of the Ivane were covered with glazed tiles. The geometric , calligraphic and floralOrnamentation disguises and conceals the due to the load distribution of the building conditional design. This was the basis of an architectural tradition that became the style of the buildings of the Islamic East of the subsequent period.

Great Mosques of Qazvin and Zavareh
Later Seljuk mosques were built on the model of the building of Malik Şah I in Isfahan. Again, older indoor mosques from Abbasid times were often revised. The Jameh Mosque of Qazvin (built in 1113 or 1119) has a dome that rests on simple but monumental acting squinches and strong brick walls. A calligraphic building inscription in Nashī- Schrift, which runs around the trumpet arches of the dome, identifies Muhammad I. Tapar , the son of Malik Şah , as the client .

The Friday Mosque of Zavareh in Isfahan Province (1135) combines all the innovations of the Bulgarian architecture in its design: It has a 7.5 m wide mihrab dome, four ivans and a minaret. Here the Four-Ivan Plan is realized for the first time in a Seljuk mosque. The staggered arrangement of the bricks creates geometric patterns in the area of the trumpets and in the dome itself.

Great Mosque of Ardestan
Following the model of the Friday Mosque of Zavareh numerous other Seljuki four-Ivan mosques, including those of Ardestan (1158), only 15 km away from Zavareh were built. Inside, the upper part of the brick walls inside is again a calligraphic inscription in ThuluthSurrounded. The trumpets and the 9.30 m diameter mihrab dome, which looks similar to those of Taj al-Mulk in the Friday Mosque of Isfahan, set the scene for this. The design of the trumpets, which lead from the square base into the dome, is one of the masterpieces of the Seljuk domed building. Again, offset bricks make a pattern in the brickwork. In contrast to other Seljuk buildings, here the inner surfaces of the arches between the pillars are covered with stucco and decorated with calligraphic inscriptions and stucco ornaments. In contrast to the rich interior decor, the exterior walls form a system of massive brick cubes without any ornamentation. On a square base, slightly offset by an octagonal transition zone, the dome tapers towards the top. In this mosque, northern Ivan is much more monumental than the actually more important Ivan in the Qibi direction. On the other hand, it is highlighted by two lateral, lower two-storey side windows and two minarets.

Only a few examples of this important type of building are known and preserved from the time of the Greater Luks. In 1046, Tughrul Beg established a madrasah in Nishapur . From the time Malik SAHS I. comes the Heydarieh-Madrasa in Qazvin . It has a dome hall with simple trumpets and thick brick walls. With wide arches, the upper sections of which are completely occupied by a monumental Kufic inscription, it opens on three sides. The Seljuk vizier Nizām al-Mulk (1018-1092) had some significant madrasas built as Nizāmīya (al-Madrasa al-Niẓāmīya)are known to spread his Shafiite school of law ( madhhab ) : 1067 in Baghdad, further including in Nishapur and in his birthplace Tūs . Known and archaeological researched are only two Iranian Nizamiyye-Madrasas, in Chargird (1087) and in Rey . From the archaeological findings, however, only shows that the buildings could have possessed Iwane.

The caravan trade by land required secure accommodation for people, animals and goods at intervals of one day’s journey. In Karachanidischer time (8th-9th century) developed from the building type of the Arab border fortress ( Ribat ) the caravansary . In the Ribat-i Sherif, a representative caravansary in the northeastern Iranian Khorasan, a narrow gate leads first into an arcaded entrance yard. This is separated by a continuous wall with a narrow passage from a second, longer courtyard. This has a central pool and a richly ornamented, higher main Ivan. The inner facades of the courtyard are decorated with ornaments made of relocated bricks. The courtyards are surrounded by individual rooms, each opening to the courtyard. The main rooms, for example, behind the North, are overcoupled.

Seljuk tombs ( Turkish Türbe or kumbet ) follow the construction tradition of the Arab-Islamic, mostly freestanding tomb, the Qubba . In the traditional Persian architecture grave towers with dome or conical roof ( Gonbad ) are also known. The model may be the Gonbad-e Qaboos , built in the first years of the 11th century by the Ziyarid ruler Qaboos (reigned 978-981 and 987-1012) in the northern Iranian province of Golestan .

The tower-like central buildings of the grave architecture have a polygonal symmetrical base and a slender, semicircular , pyramidal or conical roof. The inner passage to the dome takes place in the Seljuk tombs through rows of superimposed keel arches. Frequently, the tombs of the founders of religious buildings were integrated into their buildings. Well-known grave monuments of Greater Seljuk architecture are the Charaghan Tombs in the Qazvin Province between the northern Iranian cities of Qazvin and Hamadan , from the 11th century.

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Architecture of the Anatolian Seljuk Turks
The Seljuk Turks were the first Islamic rulers in Asia Minor . For the first time, they introduced elements of Islamic architecture in Anatolia. They took over the construction of the Großseldschuken developed in Iran, but did not use brick and mortar, but Hausteine . Only higher upstanding components have been built in brick construction. Significant Seljuk buildings are still preserved today in the former capital Konya , as well as in the cities of Alanya , Erzurum , Kayseri and Sivas .

Contrary to the architecture of Persian Greater Sluks, Romanian-Seljuk architecture has taken its own path in Anatolia, relying rather on Syrian architectural styles: Architecturally significant building elements such as the large portals are often constructed of alternating light and dark stone blocks. This as Ablaq ( Arabic أبلق, DMG ‘ablaq , multicolored, literally. Scheckig ‘) known wall way characterizes the 12th century Syrian architecture. In the year 1109 were repairing the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus carried out with masonry in Ablaq style. Its dome had been rebuilt at the end of the 11th century by Malik Şah I., who had also remodeled the Great Mosque of Diyarbakır. The name of one of the inscribed builders of the Alāeddin Mosque of Konya , Muḥammad Ḥawlan al-Dimishqī (“the Damascene”) suggests to Aslanapa that he derived this style from the then Zengidendominated Syria could have brought to Konya. Syrian architects built II Kılıç Arslan and Kai Kaus I. the fortifications of. Antalya , Alanya and Sinop , and the Sultanhanı – Caravanserai in Aksaray .

Epoch of the Seljuk Emirates
The first known Great Mosque , built in Anatolia, was the Great Mosque of Diyarbakır, erected in 1091 by the Sultan Malik Şah of Seljuk . Among the Seljuk sultans Kai Kaus I (1210 / 11-1219) and Kai Kobad I (1220-1237), the Seljuk architecture in Anatolia reached its “classical period”. There were numerous religious foundations ( Waqf ), which served the financing of building complexes. These usually consisted of a mosque, a madrassah, were often connected to a bath (Hamam), kitchens or a hospital. The flourishing trade demanded solid and secure accommodation ( caravanserais) along the trade routes.

Early mosque buildings
The Greater Bulgarian architecture had developed a building form, which was to be stylistic for the later Ottoman architecture : The mosque with a main dome above the Mihrabnische. One of the first mosques of this type was the Friday Mosque of Siirt , built in 1129 under Mughīth al-Dīn Mahmud , a Sultan of the Grand Slav dynasty . This ruled 1119-1131 as a vassal of the supreme Sultan Sandschar West Iran and Iraq . The Great Mosque of Siirt thus represents a link to the architecture of the Iranian Großseldschuken dar. The original building had a dome, on trumpetsrested and supported by four brick piers. Later, on the east and west side each side cupolas and an Ivan were added with two perpendicular vault. The leaning minaret, now a landmark of the city, is reminiscent of the brick minaret of the Mosque of Mosul , although the minaret in Siirt is simpler and more archaic.

The Great Mosque of Dunaysir , today Kızıltepe in the province of Mardin in Southeastern Anatolia , is a major work of Ortoqidian architecture. Similar to Diyarbakir once had two-story Riwaqsa courtyard (cream) enclosed on three sides. The façade of the prayer hall had richly decorated portals and outer mihrab niches. The three ships of the prayer hall are vaulted with barrel vaults. Above the inner mihrab niche rose a dome of about 10 m in diameter, which overlapped two ships. The prayer niche is flanked by two columns with Muqarnas capitals. It has the shape of a shell under a seven-pass arch and is decorated with deeply carved reliefs. The blueprint of this mosque follows that of the Umayyad Mosque.

The Great Mosque of Harput , built by the Ortoqid Emir Fahrettin Karaslan between 1156 and 1157, has only a very small courtyard, which is three arcade arches long and two arches wide. It is bordered by two-nave Riwaqs and borders a three-aisled prayer hall. In the Koluk Mosque in Kayseri , one establishing the Danishmends from the second half of the 12th century, the Sahn is reduced to the width of a single sheet which is surmounted by a dome. Below this is a water basin.

Great Mosque of Divriği
Divriği, the capital of Mengücek, is known for its Grand Mosque and the adjacent hospital (darüşşifa) . The mosque was built in 1228 by Ahmetschah, the hospital in the same year by Turan Melek Sultan, daughter of the ruler of Erzincan , Fahreddin Behramschah. The 63 x 32 m rectangular building extends north-south. In the south, the hospital occupies about one third of the floor space, its only entrance is on the west side. The northern longitudinal wall of the hospital is also the QiblaWall of the mosque. Its prayer hall is subdivided into five naves by four rows of columns, with the central nave being significantly wider than the two aisles. From the main entrance in the north, the view through the middle row of pillars falls onto the central mihrab . The second entrance leads from the west wall into the space between the middle pillar pair. The attached to the pillared hall of the mosque hospital is a closed dome structure with four cross-shaped Ivan around the central hall. The walls are made of equal stone blocks of about 40 cm high and 40-100 cm edge length. Both buildings are UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Turkey .

Medresen of Seljuk emirs
One of the oldest Medresen from the time of the Seljuk Emirates is the Yağıbasan-Medrese in Tokat : Built 1151-57 by Danischmenden-Emir Yağıbasan, it has an asymmetrical ground plan two Iwane, opening onto a courtyard with trumpet dome. The masonry consists of raw rubble and has no further decoration in its present state. The Mas’udiyya Madrassah(1198-1223) at the northern arcade of the Diyarbakir Grand Mosque was built under the Orutuqid emir Qutb ad-Din Sokkamen (II) ibn Muhammad by the architect Dzhar Ibn Muhammad of Aleppo, with only one large Ivan, two-storey arcade on three Pages of the courtyard form a Kreuzachsengrundriss, which is based on the north portal. An example of a Medrese / Darüşşfa with an open courtyard can be found in the single-storey foundation of Kai Kaus I. , the Şifaiye Madrassahin Sivas (1217-18). The stone construction has a rectangular court lined only by the long sides of the arcade with only one large Ivan opposite the main portal. A cross axis is pointed out by further arched arches. On the right side of the courtyard is the brick-built Türbe of the 1219 deceased emir.

Mosque construction of the Rum Seljuk Turks
One of the oldest Seljuk mosques in Anatolia is the Alāeddin Mosque of Konya , begun in 1150 by Rukn ad-Din Mas’ūd and completed in 1219 by’Alā’ ad-Dīn Kai-Qubād I. The architectural design is still strongly based on the Arabian indoor mosque The central section of the prayer hall with a mihrab dome is more in keeping with the Anatolian building tradition. The floor plan is irregular, two tombs in the courtyard are not yet, as later customary, fully integrated into the building. The pillars of the flat wooden-covered prayer hall are antique spolia. The courtyard is surrounded by walls that have narrow open arches on rather clumsy pillars only in the upper quarter of the representative north facade; above the portals there are wider ogive niches.

The last mosque built by the Rum Seljuk Turks in Konya is the Sahip Ata Mosque (1258). Her main portal (tac kapı) features a filigree muqarnas decor. The facade is moved displaced by, partly decorated blue glazed tile, the monumental Quadratkufischrift the names of the caliphs Abu Bakr and ‘Alī play.

A late-era mosque, one of the few Seljuk-era mosques with wooden columns and Hozdach, is the Eşrefoğlu Mosque in Beyşehir , whose faience tiles are among the masterpieces of the Seljuk style of Islamic ceramics .

The Asia Minor Medresen from the Seljuk period are usually smaller than the Persian ones. Often the tomb of the builder is integrated into the system. In addition to buildings with a central dome are also those with a rectangular courtyard ( avlu ) and a single large Ivan opposite the entrance. The Seljuk Medresen was proposed on April 15, 2014 for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Medresen in Erzurum
Two important Seljuk medrests, the Çifte Minareli Madrassah (1230-1270) and the Yakutiye Medrese (1310/11), are located in the center of Erzurum. One of the original two typical Seljuk brick minarets is still preserved. Detailed building descriptions can be found in the article about the city of Erzurum .

Medresen in Konya and Sivas
At the Sırçalı (“mosaic”) Medrese in Konya of 1242, the roughly square Ivan on the south back wall has a prayer niche and side dome rooms. Centrally located in the courtyard is a pool. The small burial room of their donor Bedreddin Muslih is located on the west side of the large entrance portal in the east.

In the Ince Minareli Medrese ( “Medrese with the thin minaret”; 1260-65) in Konya is the gateway increased so far that it takes up almost the entire facade. Calligraphies in Thuluth’s scripture reproduce the first 13 verses of the 36th sura of the Koran , Ya-Sin , and the sura al-Fātiha . The inscription of the upper rosette reliefs of the entrance gate also mentions in Kufic script the name of the architect: Kelük bin-Abdullah. The inner courtyard of the madrasah is over-clad, inside the dome is lined with dark purple and turquoise tiles. Around the base of the dome runs an inscription: “Il-mülkü l’illah – God is the property “.

Like the İnce-Minareli, the Gök (“Blue”) Medrese in Sivas is also a foundation of the Grand-Seljuk Grand Vizier Sahip Ata (died 1288/1289). Originally, the building was two stories created, only the lower floor is preserved. The building complex ( külliye ) had a hammam and a kitchen (imaret), The 31.5 m wide building with a 24.3 x 14.4 m inner courtyard in the classical four-Ivan scheme has like most buildings Sahip Ata two here 25 m high minarets on both sides of the typical Seljuk entrance portal. Unusual for the Seljuk architecture are the rooms with two unequal wide, not visible from the outside and with blue glazed tiles covered domes in the courtyard behind the entrance facade. The walls of the medrese are made of limestone, the turrets and minarets of brick; the main portal is complete, individual details such as the capitals of the columns are executed in marble. The smaller Buruciye Madrass in Sivas (1271) has a more symmetrical four-Ivan blueprint than the Gök Medrese.

At present, about 200 Seljuk Caravanserai are known, of which about 100 are still preserved in different condition. In the architecture of Anatolian Hans and caravanserais three types can be distinguished: A simple walled courtyard, as in Evdir Han (1215), a simple portico as in Ciftlik Han, or a hall with upstream yard, such as in Alayhan close Aksaray , in Kırkgöz Han (1237-1246) in Antalya , or in Sarıhan (1200-1250) in Avanos . In the latter, one longitudinal side of the courtyard is designed as an open arcade, the opposite side has closed spaces. A monumental main Ivan forms the entrance to the hall. In the Tuzhisari Han in Kayseri (1202) is located in the center of the courtyard, a representative Kioskbau , which is supported by four pillars on pointed arch. The passage under the pointed arch remains open in both main axes. The design of this kiosk with a prayer room or lounge on the upper floor can also be found in tombs. Steep steps to the right and left of the main axis lead to a small mescit upstairs. These rooms were mostly overcoupled. The domes are usually no longer present, rich withMuqarnas (“dripstone vaults”) decorated trumpets are still common. The outer facade of the entrance portal is accentuated by a monumental Ivan with a Muqarnas niche and two massive side columns.

The Ağzıkarahan (1231), about 15 km east of Aksaray , also has a kiosk in the courtyard. The courtyard has no ivan, instead the entrance portals are richly decorated with ornaments and calligraphy. Here, too, are closed rooms on one side of the courtyard, while the two other sides have open arches towards the courtyard. Similar to the Tuzhisari Han in Kayseri, steep stairs lead to the right and left of the pointed arch up to the Mescit on the upper floor. The undersides of the stairs are ornamented with muqarnas in the Ağzıkarahan. One of the largest Seljuk caravanserais is the Sultanhanı (1229) near Aksaray .

The oldest known Seljuk tombs in Anatolia are the Halifet Ghazi Kumbet (1145-46), part of the Külliye of the Danischmenden-Emirs Halifet Alp ibn-Tuli in Amasya . The archaic-looking building once had a pyramid-shaped roof. The niche above the entrance is the oldest well-known Muqarnas semi-vault in Asia Minor architecture. The Sufi Melik Kumbet in Divriği , province of Sivas, probably built in 1196 for the Mengücekiden -Emir Suleyman ibn Said al-Din Şahinschah (1162-1198), has a similar prismatic floor plan, but the ornaments of this structure are already much more elegant and more uniform than Halifet-Ghazi-Kumbed.

The mausoleum of Kılıç Arslan I (before 1192) in the courtyard of the Alâeddin Mosque of Konya has a dodecagonal layout . The tomb of İzzedin Kai Kaus in the darüşşifa of Sivas is ten-shaped. This monument was built by the architect Ahmad of Marand, whose name is preserved in the monumental Kufic inscription of turquoise, purple and white glazed mosaic on red brick over the main portal of the hospital. The octagonal Türbe of the wife Sultan Kai Kobads I. , Hunat Hatun, in Kayseri possesses on each wall blind arches with richly decorated gussets. The corners are adorned with small pillars resting on a muqarnas cornicerest and end in another cornice, which marks the transition to the pyramidal roof. Also in Kayseri is the Doner Kumbet, probably built around 1275 for Princess Shah Jihan Hatun. Its twelve sides are provided with blind pointed arches, over which a Muqarnas ledge leads to the tent-like roof. Although made of stone, the roof panels are cut so that they look similar to lead plates. The architectural form of this Kumbet is so similar to the architecture of the dome lanterns of Armenian churches of the 10th and 11th centuries that Hoag (2004) considers an Armenian influence probable.

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