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Russian Baroque

Russian Baroque – a common name for the varieties of the Baroque style, which were formed in the Russian state and in the Russian Empire in the late XVII-XVIII centuries:

The Moscow Baroque (from the 1680s to the 1700s, previously inaccurately called “Naryshkin Baroque”) is a period of transition from ornamented to full-fledged baroque, with the retention of many constructive elements of Old Russian architecture, processed under the influence of Baroque Rech Pospolita.
The Stroganov Baroque is a conservative provincial outpost of the Moscow Baroque, in which four churches are built in Nizhny Novgorod and the North.
Golitsyno Baroque – the most radical direction in the bowels of the Moscow Baroque, which consisted in a complete denial of the connection with the ancient Russian tradition.

Petrovsky Baroque (from the 1700’s to 1720’s) – a set of individual manners of Western European architects, invited by Peter I to build a new capital, St. Petersburg.
The Elizabethan Baroque (from the 1730s to the 1760s) is a hybrid of Petrine and Moscow Baroque with North Italian introductions. Most fully incarnated in the grandiose buildings of FB Rastrelli.

Historical background
Art on the Russian territory for a long period of time developed independently of the path through which other European countries went. It was only under the rule of Piotr I that there was a rapprochement with Western Europe and the inclusion of Russian art in the current of changes taking place on this continent. However, earlier, especially during the Renaissance period, the impact of European art on national traditions was visible.

In the second half of the sixteenth century, two stylistic trends appeared in architecture. Orthodox churches were built in which traditional and renaissance- inspired elements were introduced into the renaissance, as well as objects referring to wooden sacred architecture. Replacing commonly used wood with stones or bricks, churches maintaining the square or octagon plan were still erected and crowned with traditional, Russian tent roofs above the floors of the kosher trees – for example, the church of the Ascension in Kolomensky on the outskirts of Moscow, built in 1532year. In more complex solutions, the main interior was surrounded by chapels with roofs in the shape of traditional, onion domes – for example, the Cathedral of Basil the Blessed was built in 1555-1561 in Moscow.

In the first half of the seventeenth century, the West continues to influence the art of Russia. The most obvious deviations are visible in the new, more realistic way of painting icons (the so-called ‘the style of the Friars’) and the development of secular painting. Also in church architecture and especially their décor, there is a different approach to shaping the body and interior than the traditional one. A five-target system supported on four or six columns is preserved. However, the drums supporting the domes receive slender proportions and are often invisible from inside the building covered with a vault or roof. The previously used finials of the pyramids disappear, the ornate function continues to be fulfilled by numerous accumulated koshobotniki. An example of such a solution is the church of Our Lady of the Welfare Rubcowie in Moscow built in the years 1619- 1629.

Moscow Baroque
In 1652, Nikon became the patriarch of Moscow and all of Russia. His reforms, in which he sought to harmonize the liturgical practice of the Russian Church with the Greek tradition, also influenced architecture. He forbade the use of elements associated with Western art as well as traditional elements of Russian architecture that were considered too secular, eg tent roofs). It did not take long to stop western influences. The Perejaslav settlement (1654), the Andruszów truce signed in 1667, and the subordination of Moscow to the so-called Zadnieprza with Kiev and Smolensk and the withdrawal of Nikon from power (1666) reopened Moscow to new trends in design. The first influences of the Baroque in today’s Russia can be seen already in the first half of the seventeenth century, for example, the unserviced wooden church of St. Of the Holy Trinity in Sieba (1625) and the church in Trubczeska (1640-1645) in the style of the Polish Baroque. Baroque, which managed to enter Ukraine in the middle of the 17th century (the so-called Cossack Baroque), had a significant influence on the Moscow architecture in the early 1880s. The Polish, Sarmatian and Vilnius baroque also had a slightly smaller impact. Often, especially in view of the early phase of the Moscow baroque, the name Baroque Naryszkiński (from the surname of the boyars’ family) is also used.Naryshkin, founders of many new churches). Sometimes, short periods of Baroque and Strogan Baroque are distinguished. Despite the dominance of the Baroque, the architecture of the 17th-century style of Russian architecture was still developed in the provinces, based on old Moscow and local patterns .

The Naryshkin Baroque
Around 1682, the “Baroque of Moscow” eventually developed, sometimes called “the swan song of Old Russian architecture”. One of the first in the whole baroque temple in Moscow is believed to be the unserved church of Tsarevich Joazaf Indyjski (1684-1687), built on the plan of the “octagon on a quadrangle”. Traditional designs have been enriched with a new architectural detail used especially in window frames, portalsand with divisions on the facade. In the construction of buildings, many typical Russian elements have also been preserved. New architectural concepts and buildings were also created which constitute an extremely specific synthesis of tower designs of Ukrainian churches and traditional Muscovite architecture. The buildings were often characterized by a compact, piled up shape with symmetrically solved elevations. The solutions based on central and central-longitudinal systems were much more willingly used. Four or two semi-circular apses crowned with rich attics were added to the square plan. The raised central dome begins to resemble a lamp post . The leading architects of the Naryszki baroque were: Jakow Buchwostow, Iwan Zarudny, Piotr Potapow, Osip Starcew and Mikhail Czogłokow.

Examples of sacral architecture

Moscow and its surroundings:
Buildings of the Novodevichy Monastery in Moscow from 1682-1688, incl.
Orthodox church at the Transfiguration of the Transfiguration, built in 1687-1689
Orthodox church of the Dormition, built in 1685-1687

Donsk Monastery
New Council, built in 1684-1693
Orthodox church of the Resurrection in Moscow (1687, arch. Siergiej Turczaninow)
Orthodox Church of the Icon of the Mother of God “Znak” in Moscow (1689-1691)
Orthodox church of the Protection of the Holy Virgin (Russian: Церковь Покрова Пресвятой Богородицы) in the Branches near Moscow (1693 – 1696)
Orthodox church of the image of Christ, not the Human Hand of the One made (Russian: Храм Спаса Нерукотворного Образа) in Ubor, near Moscow (1694 – 1697)
Orthodox church of the Holy Trinity (Russian: Церковь Троицы Живоначальной) in the former village of Troice-Łykowo, today Strogino area, Moscow (1698 – 1704)
The Menshek Tower, built between 1704 and 1706, is an Orthodox church of St. Gabriel Archangel

Council of Boris and Gleb in Ryazan (1686, arch. Jakow Buchwostow)
Kremlin’s Cathedral of the Dormition of the Mother of God (Russian: Успенский собор Рязанского кремля)), built in 1693 – 1699
Orthodox church of St. Ducha (Russian: Церковь Святого Духа), built in 1688 – 1689 and the church of the nadbamna John the Baptist (церковь Ионн Предтечи) from 1698 in the monastery of the protection of the Mother of God in Sołotczi (Russian: Sólchinsky Покровский монастырь) near Ryazan,

Dormition of Mother of God in Astrakhan, (Russ. Успенский собор }, built in the years 1698 – 1710

Cathedral of the Nativity of the Mother of God of the Mołczański Monastery, rebuilt in the Baroque style in 1778 – a unique, the only preserved monument of the Moscow Baroque in Ukraine
Examples of secular architecture
The most noteworthy examples of secular architecture include the Sucharev tower in Moscow (1692-1695), which housed, among others, the second oldest (after Arkhangelsk) astronomical observatory in Russia, the building of the Slavo-Greek-Latin Academy in Moscow (1687), the Worobjowski Palace (1687), the Trojekurowa Chamber in Ochotny Rjada (1696), the mansion Court in Red Square (1697), the mansion Gagarina na Bolszoj Łubinace (1699) and the building of Prikaz Ziemski in Moscow (around 1700) .

Baroque stroganowski
The Strogan Baroque (1688-1712) was a conservative trend under the Moscow Baroque, typical of the Russian province. The name of the style comes from founders and buyers of Stroganow. The main examples of the Strogan style are four Orthodox churches in Nizhny Novgorod and the Russian North.

Main examples:

Monastery of the introduction of the Mother of God to the Temple in Solwyczegódku with the council of the same call (about 1680-1697)
Orthodox church of the Smolensk icon of the Mother of God in Gordiejewka (around 1680-1697)
Orthodox church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God in Ustudziena (1694)
Orthodox church of the Birth of the Holy Mother in Nizhny Novgorod (1696-1719).
The influence of the Strogan style is also visible in a number of consecutive buildings and related buildings in Moscow and the surrounding area:

Orthodox church of St. Nicholas the Miracle Worker “The Great Cross” in Moscow (around 1680-1688)
Saint. Of the Trinity in Wierchoturie (1703-1712)
Orthodox church of St. Nicholas in Niurbie (1704)
House of Stroganow in Usol (1724) .

Baroque golicyński
The Baroque golicy (1690-1714) was the most radical trend within the Baroque of Moscow, completely rejecting all elements of traditional Russian architecture. The name of the style comes from the Golicynów princes, in particular Vasyloy Golitsyn, who was in charge of Zofia’s regency. The most prominent examples of the golican style include churches and palaces designed to order Golicynów.

Main examples:

Orthodox Church of the Icon of the Mother of God “Znak” in Dubrowice (Russian: Церковь Знамения Пресвятой Богородицы), built between 1690 and 1704 on a square plan with four apses adjoining to its sides, a three-story drum topped with a dome in the shape of a decorative crown
Orthodox Church of the Icon of the Mother of God “Znak” (Russian: Церковь Знамения Пресвятой Богородицы) in Pierów (district of Moscow), built between 1690 – 1705, a small church built on the central plan with adjoining apses and topped with a dome supported by a high drum, in which rectangular windows illuminating the interior.
Orthodox church of St. Nicholas in Poltiew (1706)
Orthodox church of the Nativity of the Mother of God in Podmokłów (1714-1722)
Golicyn Palace in Ochotnom Rjada (1880s).

Other trends of the Moscow Baroque
In addition to the above, you can also distinguish other groups of buildings: Prozorow temples, for example, the Orthodox Church of the Assumption in Petrovo-Dalnieje (1684-1688) and the church of the Holy Martyrs of Boris and Gleb in Zjuzin (1688-1704), tower churches of Jakowa Buchwostowa and related buildings, for example the church of the Nativity, walls and entrance gate with the church at the entrance of Christ to Jerusalem in the Monastery of New Jerusalem (1690-1697), church of the Image of the Savior, not the human hand made in Ubor (1690-1697) and tower Sjujumbike in Kazan (turn XVII and XVIII century).

Siberian baroque and other local forms
The Siberian Baroque (18th century) was characterized by a particularly rich decorativeness, the development of the traditions of the Uzoroczia, the Moscow and Cossack baroque, influences of Asian art, especially Buddhist and Chinese. The oldest examples of the Siberian Baroque are the church of the Savior in Irkutsk (1706-1710) and the church of the Savior in Tobolsk (1709-1713). The Orthodox church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross in Irkutsk (1747-1758) is considered a model example of Siberian baroque.

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The main examples of the local baroque style from Totem are: the church of the Entrance of the Lord to Jerusalem (1794), the church of Saint. Of the Trinity in Zielenskoj Słoboda (1772) and the Orthodox church of the Nativity of Jesus Christ (1746-1793). Local forms were also developed in Wielki Ustiugu, the Vistula and Ural lands. Baroque architecture also radiated to the construction of religious minorities. The oldest preserved Tatar mosques of the eighteenth century exhibit the characteristics of the Russian Baroque (eg, the Kazan Junusowski mosques from 1766-1770 and Apanajewski from 1768-1771).

Baroque times of Peter the Great
The Baroque of Piotrowski (from 1697 to the 1830s) – it was created under the influence of individual manners of Western European architects brought by the tsar Peter the Great. Tsar Peter I, after returning from a trip to Western Europe (1698), introduced a series of changes in Russia, striving for the economic and political transformation of the country and the construction of the new capital of the country – St. Petersburg. Vojeslav Molè notes thatthere were a lot of immigrants from foreign countries whose creativity did not imbibe with Russian content, which meant that it remained irrelevant to the development of Russian art; but the larger, more important among them are those whose work has grown so completely with the reality of Russia that it has become simply Russian. Of the native representatives of the Baroque of Piotów, Mikhail Zemtsov is particularly distinguished.

After winning the Swedish army defending the strongholds of Noteburg (1702) and Nienczac (1703), Russia gained access to the Baltic Sea. Taking advantage of the location of Noteburg, in 1703, the tsar begins the construction of the new fortress of Petersburg. After the victory at Poltawa (1709) the decision is made to build not only the fortress but also the entire port city in this place. From the very beginning, according to Piotr’s wishes, foreigners from England, Germany, Italy, France and the Netherlands worked on the construction of St. Petersburg. By implementing projects of foreigners, the city was built in the style of the Baroque, influencing its various shades. The first urban concepts were presented by Domenico Trezzini and Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond. At the request of the Tsar, they also developed designs of typical houses for residents, representatives of various social strata (Trezzini developed two designs of small houses for the poorer strata, Le Blond designed a two-story house for wealthy residents). Buildings were built along one line of buildings marked out on the streets. Mansard roofscovered with tiles, attics illuminated with dormer windows, rectangular windows in decorative frames (counters) and colorful plaster are the features of a typical building set in St. Petersburg in the early eighteenth century. The actions taken by the Tsar ensured that the city’s buildings were coherently expressed. The most interesting objects of this period include secular and sacral representative buildings. The designs of many of them were created with the active participation of the Tsar (eg the palace and garden complex of Peterhof). Representational buildings of this period are distinguished by quiet, flat elevations covered mostly with dark blue plaster. They are enlivened by pilasters and modest sculptural decoration in a white color contrasting with the background. Among the foreigners working on behalf of Piotr I and his successors distinguished:

Domenico Trezzini, Italian born in Switzerland, before the arrival in Russia working in Copenhagen, designer:
Saint Peter and Paul Cathedral, built between 1712 – 1733 on the plan of a three-aisled hall preceded by a small portico. The building is dominated by a high tower with a dome, from which a slender spire grows;
Twelve Colleges building, built in the years 1722 – 1744. It is a complex of 12 buildings connected in one unit along the building line;
two-story church built in 1717 – 1722 in the monastery of Alexander Nevsky;
Summer Palace of Peter I, built in the years 1710 – 1716. A wooden, two-storey building with a high roof is decorated with modest window frames and panels with bas-reliefs made by Andrzej Schlüter.
Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond (Jan Baptista Leblond), French architect, designer:
The Grand Palace of the imperial residence of Peterhof (from 1714). The suburban palace built on the hill is preceded by numerous terraces gradually descending towards the sea. At the stairs leading to the residence, there is a Great Cascade with fountains and sculptures. The whole area is surrounded by a large park, where, over time, caves and pavilions were created. After the death of Le Blond, the construction of the palace continued (introducing a series of changes), among others Johann Braunstein (1719), during the reign of Elizabeth Niccolo Michetti and Bartolomeo Rastelli (1745 – 1752).
House of Peter I travel in Strelna, built in 1718, rebuilt in the years 1719 – 1720. The cottage served as a stopover place while traveling from St. Petersburg to Peterhof.
Niccolo Michetti, one of the continuators of the works of Jan Baptista Leblond (Peterhof), designer of the Grand Palace in Strelna (Konstantynowski Palace), built from 1720.
Johann Friedrich Braunstein, continuator of the works of Jan Baptista Leblond in Petrehof: he worked on the construction of the Grand Palace, co-founder (together with Leblond and Michetti) of the Montplaisir palace project (1714 – 1725), designer of the two-storey facade of the Hermitage (1721 – 1725) and Marly Palace (1720 – 1723); designer of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo (1717 – 1723).
Johann Gottfried Schädel Giovanni Mario Fontana, designers suburban Menshikov palace in Oranienbaum (1710 – 1727)
Giovanni Mattarnovi, designer of Kunstkamery (1718), after his death the work was continued by Mikhail Grigorevich Zemts.

Baroque times of Elisabeth
The baroque of the time of Tsarist Elisabeth, called from her name “jelizawetynski” (from the 1930s to the 1860s) or the Russian “mature baroque”, was a combination of the Baroque and Moscow baroque with North Italian architecture patterns. The main representatives of this style were: Bartolomeo Rastrelli, Pietro Antonio Trezzini, Gottfried Johann Schädel, Dimitrij Uchtomski, Iwan Miczurin, Fiodor Argunov, Savva Czewakinski and Andrei Krasov. This style covered both Petersburg and Moscow, as well as many provincial cities (eg Kharkiv, Yaroslavl, Kiev).

The most prominent artist in the last period of the Baroque was an architect personally employed by Tsarist Elżbieta Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Creator of monumental works with rich decorations. In this period, in addition to the tsars, aristocratic residences are created above all. Public and sacred buildings are less numerous. The most important works of Rastrelli include:

expansion of Peterhof (from 1745)
Stroganov Palace built in the years 1752 – 1754 in St. Petersburg,
extension of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo, the first reconstruction was carried out by Aleksy Kwasow and Sawa Iwanowicz Czekawski, from 1752 Rastrelli managed the works, who superstructed the first floor and designed a new facade decoration
Winter Palace, built in 1754 – 1762 (works were completed after the death of the Tsarina), the largest Baroque building of Russia,
Smolny Cathedral, built between 1748 – 1764 as a temple monastery Smolny.
Orthodox church of St. Klemens in Moscow (baroque reconstruction in 1730 and 1756)
Rastrelli’s student, Savva Iwanowicz Czewakinski, designed the Council of Saint. Nicholas and Epiphany (Sea council). Pięciokopułowa building was designed on a Greek cross was built between 1753 – 1762. The nearby belfry was designed for the Smolny Monastery.

Chinese Palace in Oranienbaum, Antonio Rinaldi (1762-1768). Rococo and chinoiserie
In the middle of the 18th century, the rococo trend in art intensified in Russia, mainly influenced by artists such as Bartolomeo Rastrelli, Antonio Rinaldi and Étienne Maurice Falconet. The only entirely Rococo buildings in today’s Russia include the Palace of Peter I (1758-1762) and the Chinese Palace (1762-1768) in Oranienbaum designed by Rinaldi. Rococo decorations of the palace faces and interiors of B. Rastrelli and the stucco of Sawna Czewakinski also appeared. From this period come, among others rococo interiors of the Great Palace in Gąbin . The period of the reign of Elżbieta’s successor, Tsarina Catherine IIends the Baroque and Rococo era in Russia and begins the time of classicist architecture.

Historiographer of the Russian Baroque artists
It was Jakob Stelin (1709-1785). Invited from Germany to serve in the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, he traced the situation in the art of the Russian Empire and recorded biographical data and descriptions of works by many artists of the Baroque era.

Echo of the Baroque in Russian Classicism
Catherine II, who occupied the royal throne in 1762, made every effort to forcibly push out the Baroque and replace it with Newfangled Classicism. Baroque for Catherine was associated with the rule of Elizaveta Petrovna, the relationship with which was almost hostile. Samples of the new style were imported from Europe, inviting foreigners Wallen Delamota, Charles Cameron, Giacomo Quarenghi and sending Russian architects to Europe for internship (Bazhenov Vasily Ivanovich, Ivan Ivanovich Starov, Volkov F. I., etc.).

However, the baroque ostracism, however, had little echo in the supersmall of some of the buildings of classicism, small in general (the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg, the Sheremetyev’s Hospice in Moscow, the Gatchina Palace, the complex of palaces in Pale), despite the exterior forms of classicism. Baroque complexity and grandeur is also characteristic of the projects of the architects of early Russian classicism (I. Stara’s Noble Chamber for St. Petersburg project, the project of the Palace of the Vyshenky estate for Rumiantsev-Zadunaysky in Ukraine, etc.).

In the days of Peter I, the palace of the nobleman, built by a three-part scheme: palace, two lateral through-galleries, final pavilions or wings, was distributed. Under this scheme, the Baroque palace of the Far Oaks and the palace in Strelna were planned. This scheme was used for the construction of palaces in the estates of Ostafievo, Sukhanovo (farmstead), and in Valuyevo, even for the palace of Empress Catherine II in Pale, where baroque decoration was replaced by the classicism. Three-part composition with cross-cutting galleries has been preserved until now only in the estate of Valuev.

The magnificent, carnival stylistics of the Baroque also preserved theatrical and decorative art.
Provincial Baroque (in Totmi, Siberia)
Displaced from the capitals, the Russian Baroque did not give up its positions in the provinces of the empire, defining the forms and decoration of religious buildings and their interiors (churches in Velikiy Ustyug, estates of Moscow region) for a long time. The numerous monuments of various provincial schools of Baroque period are known in the late 17th and 18th centuries in the province.

Extremely interesting was the architectural school of the city of Totma, where they developed special forms of church structures in the style of V. Rastrelli or D. Ukhtomsky. The founders of these churches were the newest wealthy merchants who earned a lot of money in trading operations with fur in Siberia and America, and invested them in the construction of churches (Panovyh, Kholodilovyh, Cherepanov’s families, etc.). Unusual stylistics of the church arose in Totti, Tomsk, Siberia, giving birth to the name “Siberian Baroque”.

Ukrainian Baroque in Russia
At the end XVII – early XVIII centuries due to the reforms of Peter I in Russia at the highest church office found itself a significant number of Church leaders – those from contemporary Ukraine. They made a contribution in architectural tastes of contemporary Russia. In many buildings, the influences of Ukrainian art were noted, and some were constructed directly in the style of the Cossack (Ukrainian) baroque. The best examples of Ukrainian art in the territory of Russia are the complex of the Trinity Monastery in Tyumen and the Resurrection Cathedral in Starokretskaya.

Cossack baroque

Saint. Nicholas in Nieżyna (1654-1658)
Since the fall of the 12th century, Kiev and the Ukrainian lands did not play any decisive role in Ruthenian art. Ancient, great Kiev temples were even before Tatar neglect, then they fell into disrepair and were abandoned by the clergy. The resurrection of artistic life in Ukraine took place in the 1740s in connection with the activities of the metropolitan Piotr Mohyla, Bohdan Chmielnicki and Ivan Mazepa. Formed in the mid-seventeenth century, the Ukrainian Baroque resulted, in a sense, from attempts to refer to traditional Russian Orthodox art, but to a large extent it was influenced by Western architecture. The Cossack Baroque was developed in Russia from the settlement of Pereyaslav(1654), mainly in the areas of Cossack settlement, mainly in Małorosy and neighboring lands, in Siberia and occasionally in large cities, such as Moscow. In the style of the Cossack baroque, no work of a breakthrough artistic significance arose, but it had a significant impact on the architecture of Moscow and the Moscow Baroque, where a number of much more original buildings were created.

Between the new Ukrainian architecture of the 17th century and Old Russian architecture there was no development continuity. The oldest preserved wooden Ukrainian churches were built already in the Baroque period, for example, the council of St. Of the Trinity in Nowomoskowsk (1775-1778). Despite significant differences, they can be divided into two main types, like churches from Central and Northern Russia: churches on a rectangular plan (type “kleti”, most often found in Galicia and the Carpathians) and an octagonal orthodox church, typical for the Transnistrian region. Bricked, baroque Cossack churches can be divided into two groups. In the first of these, types with a traditional Ruthenian-Byzantine assumption (five-membered or only cross-domed) received the outer Baroque layer. The second group is simply Western, basilic Baroque churches, adapted to the needs of Eastern cult.Saint. Mikołaja in Nieżyna (1654-1658), church of Saint. The Trinity of the Hustyński Monastery (1672) and the All Saints’ Church at the Market Gate of the Pechersk Lavra, which was built on the commission of Hetman Mazepa, a Moscow builder OD Starcew in 1696-1698. In 1685-1706, the Kiev Cathedral of the Wisdom of God was renewed. The reconstruction changed the appearance of the temple from the ground, giving it a Baroque character from the outside. Only the apse-like and internal part of the building have preserved the Older character.

In the style of the Cossack baroque, today’s Russia was created, among others the Council of the Nativity of Jesus Christ in Staroduba (1677), the unresolved Council of the Annunciation in Voronezh (1682), the military Council of the Resurrection in Cherkassy (1706-1719) and the Council of the Holy Trinity in Tyumen (circa 1710). A special compilation of the Moscow and Cossack baroque is the Orthodox Church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God in Jasieniewo (1698).

Reviews about baroque
Even at the time of the empire, reviews of Baroque and Peter’s reforms have not always been commendable. In the 19th century. Stasov VV wrote: (Russian)

Peter the First was, of course, one of the greatest sovereigns of the world, but he did not understand or appreciate anything in the people, and hence in art. And because of this, he completely destroyed all the folk forms with superfluity and without any need… He struck out Russian architecture, magnificent, original, talented, and led us to an absolutely unsuitable for the country and people an architectural Europeanism – the style of Dutch and German, and, unfortunately, even the most the base from the most disadvantageous era.

He is in sympathy with Zabelina I. E., who spoke about Russian art of the 18th century as “miserable copying of Western models.” In the heat of controversy they spoke even worse. It took a distance of 150 years to look at the Russian Baroque from an impartial point of view. Reopen uniqueness and talent works of that era did master the art of association “World of Art” (Benois Alexandre, Eugene Lanceray, Dobuzhinsky Mstislav Valer’yanovych organizers of exhibitions in St. Petersburg N. Wrangel, Sergei Diaghilev, etc.) along with scientists beginning of the 20th century. Baroque architecture caused the emergence of buildings in the baroque stylistics at a new stage (the Freilylinsky Corps in Peterhof – now the Benoit Museum, buildings in St. Petersburg, Voronezh, etc.). The Russian baroque in the 20th century art history has occupied a significant place.

Source from Wikipedia