A photograph (also known as a photo) is an image created by light falling on a photosensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic image sensor, such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus the scene’s visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of what the human eye would see. The process and practice of creating such images is called photography. The word photograph was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek φῶς (phos), meaning “light”, and γραφή (graphê), meaning “drawing, writing”, together meaning “drawing with light”.
Most countries have laws against the production or distribution of certain types of photograph such as child pornography.
The Photography is a medium that is used in very different contexts. Photographic images may, for example, objects with primarily artistic (art photography) or primarily commercial character in (industrial photography, advertising and fashion photography). The photograph may be artistic, technical (photo technology), economic (Photo economy) and social-social (amateur, workers and documentary photography aspects are considered). Furthermore, photographs in journalism and used in medicine.
Photography is partly the subject of research and teaching in art history and the still young science of photography. The potential art character of photography has long been controversial, but since the photographic style of pictorialism at the turn of the twentieth century, it is no longer disputed. Some branches of research assign photography to media or communication science, and this classification is also controversial.
In the course of technological development, the transition from classical analogue (silver) photography to digital photography gradually took place at the beginning of the 21st century. The worldwide collapse of the related industry for analogue cameras but also for consumables (films, photo paper, photochemistry, laboratory equipment) has led to photography becoming more and more cultural and cultural historicalView is explored. General cultural aspects in research are z. B. Considerations on the preservation and documentation of the practical knowledge of the photographic processes for recording and processing but also the change in the handling of photography in everyday life. The archiving and preservation techniques for analogue recordings as well as system – independent long – term digital data storage are becoming increasingly interesting in terms of cultural history.
Photography is subject to the complex and complex photographic rights; when using existing photographs, the image rights must be observed.
The first permanent photograph, a contact-exposed copy of an engraving, was made in 1822 using the bitumen-based “heliography” process developed by Nicéphore Niépce. The first photographs of a real-world scene, made using a camera obscura, followed a few years later, but Niépce’s process was not sensitive enough to be practical for that application: a camera exposure lasting for hours or days was required. In 1829 Niépce entered into a partnership with Louis Daguerre and the two collaborated to work out a similar but more sensitive and otherwise improved process.
After Niépce’s death in 1833, Daguerre concentrated on silver halide-based alternatives. He exposed a silver-plated copper sheet to iodine vapor, creating a layer of light-sensitive silver iodide; exposed it in the camera for a few minutes; developed the resulting invisible latent image to visibility with mercury fumes; then bathed the plate in a hot salt solution to remove the remaining silver iodide, making the results light-fast. He named this first practical process for making photographs with a camera the daguerreotype, after himself. Its existence was announced to the world on 7 January 1839 but working details were not made public until 19 August. Other inventors soon made improvements which reduced the required exposure time from a few minutes to a few seconds, making portrait photography truly practical and widely popular.
The daguerreotype had shortcomings, notably the fragility of the mirror-like image surface and the particular viewing conditions required to see the image properly. Each was a unique opaque positive that could only be duplicated by copying it with a camera. Inventors set about working out improved processes that would be more practical. By the end of the 1850s the daguerreotype had been replaced by the less expensive and more easily viewed ambrotype and tintype, which made use of the recently introduced collodion process. Glass plate collodion negatives used to make prints on albumen paper soon became the preferred photographic method and held that position for many years, even after the introduction of the more convenient gelatin process in 1871. Refinements of the gelatin process have remained the primary black-and-white photographic process to this day, differing primarily in the sensitivity of the emulsion and the support material used, which was originally glass, then a variety of flexible plastic films, along with various types of paper for the final prints.
Color photography is almost as old as black-and-white, with early experiments including John Herschel’s Anthotype prints in 1842, the pioneering work of Louis Ducos du Hauron in the 1860s, and the Lippmann process unveiled in 1891, but for many years color photography remained little more than a laboratory curiosity. It first became a widespread commercial reality with the introduction of Autochrome plates in 1907, but the plates were very expensive and not suitable for casual snapshot-taking with hand-held cameras. The mid-1930s saw the introduction of Kodachrome and Agfacolor Neu, the first easy-to-use color films of the modern multi-layer chromogenic type. These early processes produced transparencies for use in slide projectors and viewing devices, but color prints became increasingly popular after the introduction of chromogenic color print paper in the 1940s. The needs of the motion picture industry generated a number of special processes and systems, perhaps the best-known being the now-obsolete three-strip Technicolor process.
Forerunner and Prehistory
The name camera is derived from the forerunner of photography, the Camera obscura (“Dark Chamber”), which has been known since the 11th century and was used by astronomers for solar observation at the end of the 13th century. Instead of a lens, this camera has only a small hole through which the light rays fall on a projection surface, from which the inverted, upside down image can be signed. In Edinburgh and Greenwich near London, walk-in, room-sized camera obscurae are a tourist attraction. The German Film Museum also has a camera obscura, in which a picture of the opposite bank of the Main is projected.
A breakthrough in 1550 was the reinvention of the lens, which can produce brighter and sharper images. In 1685 the deflecting mirror was invented, with which an image on paper could be drawn.
In the 18th century, the lanterna magica, the panorama and the diorama came on. Chemists like Humphry Davy have already begun studying light-sensitive substances and looking for fixatives.
The early proceedings
Probably the first photograph in the world ” Blick aus dem Arbeitszimmer ” was made in early autumn 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce using the heliography method. In 1837, Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre used a better procedure, based on developing the photos with the help of mercury vapors and subsequent fixation in a hot saline solution or a normal tempered sodium thiosulfate solution. The images produced in this way, all unique on silver-plated copper plates, were called daguerreotypes. Already in 1835 had the EnglishmanWilliam Fox Talbot invented the negative-positive process. Even today, some of the historical methods are still used as fine- print methods in the fine arts and artistic photography.
On April 13, 1839, four months before Daguerre, Carl August von Steinheil and Franz Ritter von Kobell published the Steinheil process developed by them. They used as a light-sensitive material chlorosilicone paper. The recorded negatives photographed them again and received positive. Her first photos showed, among other things, the Glyptothek and the towers of the Munich Frauenkirche.
In the year 1883 appeared in the significant Leipziger weekly magazine Illustrirte newspaper for the first time in a German publication a rastered photo in the form of an autotype, which Georg Meisenbach had invented about 1880.
The American Baptist preacher and daguerreotypist Levi Hill was the first to claim the invention of color photography around 1850/1851. Hill, however, refused to disclose how his process works. In 1860, Niépce de Saint-Victor worked on a process to record all colors on a single photosensitive layer (heliochromism).
An illustration by James Clerk Maxwell 1861 is considered the first color photograph.
Social significance of early photography
Two years after the invention of photography, the first photo studios opened in 1840/41. By Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling and Alexander von Humboldt photographs were taken even in their old age. Images of rulers emerged, including Abraham Lincoln, Otto von Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm I. They were kept in countless copies in private homes, but only with the advent of the press as a mass-produced from the 1880s spread. In parallel emerged documentary photographs, such as from natural disasters. The first German photographer Hermann Biowphotographed the major fire in Hamburg’s Alster district in May 1842. Photographs were taken in all subsequent wars, such as the Crimean War (1853-1856) and the American Civil War (1861-1865). At the beginning, the art character of photography was behind its documentary, technical-objectifying claim. In the natural sciences, photography was introduced early, including astronomy or medicine (X-ray). The world of work was photographed from the 1860s, the travel photography was created. The travel photography brought people to previously unknown regions of the earth in a new form. The eight-volume magnificent work “The Peoples of India” (1865-1875) showed 460 shots. The four-volume Illustration of China and Its People (1873) documented a country unknown to Europeans at the time. The same photographer, John Thomson, later turned his camera to the poor in London. Photo studios were created in the big cities. Towards the end of the 19th century, the family picture or the group photo at the workplace had long been part of the cultural basic equipment. The photography had penetrated into everyday life, including advertising, propaganda, picture postcard and postcard, Finally, the private use of photography was strongly promoted by the roll film camera.
At first, photographs could only be made as unique pieces; with the introduction of the negative-positive method, a duplication in the contact method was possible. The size of the finished photo in both cases was the same as the recording format, which required very large, unwieldy cameras. With the roll film and in particular that of Oskar Barnack at the Leitz plantsdeveloped and introduced in 1924 35 mm film camera, which used the conventional 35 mm film, created completely new opportunities for a mobile, fast photography. Although, due to the small format, additional devices were required for enlargement and the image quality could not keep up with the large formats by far, the small image prevailed in most areas of photography as a standard format.
Types of photographs
Non-digital photographs are produced with a two-step chemical process. In the two-step process the light-sensitive film captures a negative image (colors and lights/darks are inverted). To produce a positive image, the negative is most commonly transferred (‘printed’) onto photographic paper. Printing the negative onto transparent film stock is used to manufacture motion picture films.
Alternatively, the film is processed to invert the negative image, yielding positive transparencies. Such positive images are usually mounted in frames, called slides. Before recent advances in digital photography, transparencies were widely used by professionals because of their sharpness and accuracy of color rendition. Most photographs published in magazines were taken on color transparency film.
Originally, all photographs were monochromatic or hand-painted in color. Although methods for developing color photos were available as early as 1861, they did not become widely available until the 1940s or 1950s, and even so, until the 1960s most photographs were taken in black and white. Since then, color photography has dominated popular photography, although black and white is still used, being easier to develop than color.
Panoramic format images can be taken with cameras like the Hasselblad Xpan on standard film. Since the 1990s, panoramic photos have been available on the Advanced Photo System (APS) film. APS was developed by several of the major film manufacturers to provide a film with different formats and computerized options available, though APS panoramas were created using a mask in panorama-capable cameras, far less desirable than a true panoramic camera, which achieves its effect through a wider film format. APS has become less popular and has been discontinued.
The advent of the microcomputer and digital photography has led to the rise of digital prints. These prints are created from stored graphic formats such as JPEG, TIFF, and RAW. The types of printers used include inkjet printers, dye-sublimation printer, laser printers, and thermal printers. Inkjet prints are sometimes given the coined name “Giclée”.
The Web has been a popular medium for storing and sharing photos ever since the first photograph was published on the web by Tim Berners-Lee in 1992 (an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes). Today popular sites such as Flickr, Picasa, PhotoBucket and 500px are used by millions of people to share their pictures.
In principle, photographs are usually taken using an optical system, in many cases a lens. This throws the light emitted or reflected by an object onto the photosensitive layer of a photographic plate, a film or a photoelectric converter, an image sensor.
The photograph is taken by a photographic apparatus (camera). By manipulating the optical system (including adjusting the f-number, focus, color filtering, the choice of exposure time, the lens focal length, the lighting and last but not least the recording material) the photographer or cameraman numerous design options are open. As the most versatile camera design, the SLR camera has gained acceptance in both the analog and the digital field. For many tasks, the various special cameras continue to be needed and used.
In film-based photography (e.g., silver photography), the photosensitive layer on the image plane is a dispersion (generally speaking, emulsion). It consists of a gel in which evenly small grains of a silver halide (for example, silver bromide) are distributed. The smaller the grain size, the less photosensitive the layer is (see ISO 5800 standard), but the better the resolution (” grain “). This photosensitive layer is given stability by a support. Support materials are cellulose acetate, formerly served as cellulose nitrate (celluloid), Plastic films, metal plates, glass plates and even textiles (see photo plate and film).
In digital photography, the equivalent of the photosensitive layer is chips such as CCD or CMOS sensors.
Development and fixing
By developing in film-based photography, the latent image is made visible chemically. In fixing, the unexposed silver halide grains are made water-soluble and then washed out with water so that an image can be viewed in daylight without darkening.
Another older method is the dust process, which can be used to make burnable pictures on glass and porcelain.
With the exception of raw data (RAW files), digital image files need not be developed for viewing or processing on the monitor; They are electronically stored and can then be processed with the electronic image processing on the computer and if necessary, printed on photographic paper or printed, for example, with an inkjet printer. Raw data is first brought into usable formats (eg JPG, TIF) by means of special development software or RAW converters on the computer, which is called digital development.
When deduction is called the result of a contact copy, a magnification or a closing date; This usually creates a paper picture. Prints can be made from movies (negative or slide) or from files.
Copies as contact copies have the same size as the dimensions of the recording format; If you make an enlargement of the negative or positive, the size of the resulting image is a multiple of the size of the original, but usually the aspect ratio is maintained, which is 1.5, 3, 2 or 5 in classic photography: 4 lies.
An exception to this is the cropping magnification whose aspect ratio can be set arbitrarily in the stage of an enlarger; however, the cut-out magnification is usually on a paper size exposed to certain dimensions.
The print is a frequently chosen form of presentation of amateur photography, collected in special cassettes or albums. In the presentation form of the slide projection, one usually works with the original slide, which is a unique piece, while prints are always copies.
Ideal photograph storage involves placing each photo in an individual folder constructed from buffered, or acid-free paper. Buffered paper folders are especially recommended in cases when a photograph was previously mounted onto poor quality material or using an adhesive that will lead to even more acid creation. Store photographs measuring 8×10 inches or smaller vertically along the longer edge of the photo in the buffered paper folder, within a larger archival box, and label each folder with relevant information to identify it. The rigid nature of the folder protects the photo from slumping or creasing, as long as the box is not packed too tightly or under filled. Folder larger photos or brittle photos stacked flat within archival boxes with other materials of comparable size.
The most stable of plastics used in photo preservation, polyester, does not generate any harmful chemical elements, but nor does it have any capability to absorb acids generated by the photograph itself. Polyester sleeves and encapsulation have been praised for their ability to protect the photograph from humidity and environmental pollution, slowing the reaction between the item and the atmosphere. This is true, however the polyester just as frequently traps these elements next to the material it is intended to protect. This is especially risky in a storage environment that experiences drastic fluctuations in humidity or temperature, leading to ferrotyping, or sticking of the photograph to the plastic. Photographs sleeved or encapsulated in polyester cannot be stored vertically in boxes because they will slide down next to each other within the box, bending and folding, nor can the archivist write directly onto the polyester to identify the photograph. Therefore, it is necessary to either stack polyester protected photographs horizontally within a box, or bind them in a three ring binder. Stacking the photos horizontally within a flat box will greatly reduce ease of access, and binders leave three sides of the photo exposed to the effects of light and do not support the photograph evenly on both sides, leading to slumping and bending within the binder. The plastic used for enclosures has been manufactured to be as frictionless as possible to prevent scratching photos during insertion to the sleeves. Unfortunately, the slippery nature of the enclosure generates a build-up of static electricity, which attracts dust and lint particles. The static can attract the dust to the inside of the sleeve, as well, where it can scratch the photograph. Likewise, these components that aid in insertion of the photo, referred to as slip agents, can break down and transfer from the plastic to the photograph, where they deposit as an oily film, attracting further lint and dust. At this time, there is no test to evaluate the long-term effects of these components on photographs. In addition, the plastic sleeves can develop kinks or creases in the surface, which will scratch away at the emulsion during handling.
Handling and care
It is best to leave photographs lying flat on the table when viewing them. Do not pick it up from a corner, or even from two sides and hold it at eye level. Every time the photograph bends, even a little, this can break down the emulsion. The very nature of enclosing a photograph in plastic encourages users to pick it up; users tend to handle plastic enclosed photographs less gently than non-enclosed photographs, simply because they feel the plastic enclosure makes the photo impervious to all mishandling. As long as a photo is in its folder, there is no need to touch it; simply remove the folder from the box, lay it flat on the table, and open the folder. If for some reason the researcher or archivist does need to handle the actual photo, perhaps to examine the verso for writing, he or she can use gloves if there appears to be a risk from oils or dirt on the hands.
Myths and beliefs
Because daguerreotypes were rendered on a mirrored surface, many spiritualists also became practitioners of the new art form. Spiritualists would claim that the human image on the mirrored surface was akin to looking into one’s soul. The spiritualists also believed that it would open their souls and let demons in. Among Muslims, it is makruh (offensive) to perform salah (worship) in a place decorated with photographs. Photography and darkroom anomalies and artifacts sometimes lead viewers to believe that spirits or demons have been captured in photos.
The first CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) still video camera was constructed in 1970 by Bell. In 1972, Texas Instruments filed its first patent for a filmless camera using a television screen as a viewfinder.
In 1973, Fairchild Imaging produced the first commercial CCD with a resolution of 100 × 100 pixels.
This CCD was used in 1975 in Kodak’s first fully functional digital camera. It was invented by the inventor Steven Sasson. This camera weighed 3.6 kilograms, was larger than a toaster, and took 23 seconds to transfer a black and white 100 x 100 pixel resolution image to a digital magnetic tape cartridge; it took another 23 seconds to make the image visible on a screen.
In 1986, Canon introduced the RC-701, the first commercially available still video camera with magnetic recording of image data, while Minolta presented the Still Video Back SB-90 / SB-90S for the Minolta 9000; by replacing the rear panel of the 35mm SLR camera, the Minolta 9000 became a digital SLR camera; the image data was stored on 2-inch floppy disks.
In 1987, followed by other models of Canon RC series and digital cameras from Fujifilm (ES-1), Konica (KC-400) and Sony (MVC-A7AF). This was followed in 1988 by Nikon with the QV-1000C, 1990 Kodak with the DCS (Digital Camera System) and 1991 Rollei with the Digital Scan Pack. From the early 1990s, digital photography in the commercial image production sector can be considered as introduced.
Digital photography has revolutionized the possibilities of digital art, but in particular facilitates photo manipulation.
The Photokina 2006 showed that the time of the film-based camera is finally over. In 2007, 91 percent of all cameras sold worldwide were digital, the conventional photography on films shrunk to niche ranges. In 2011, around 45.4 million people in Germany had a digital camera in their household and in the same year around 8.57 million digital cameras were sold in Germany.
Photography as an art
The art character of photography has long been controversial; The art theoretician Karl Pawek formulates sharply in his book The Optical Age: “The artist creates reality, the photographer sees it.”
This view is seen by photography only as a technical, standardized process, with which a reality is depicted in an objective, quasi “natural” way, without the use of artistic and thus artistic aspects: “the invention of an apparatus for the purpose of production… (perspectival) images ironically reinforced the conviction… that this is the natural form of representation. Obviously, something is natural if we can build a machine that does it for us. ” However, photographs soon served as a teaching tool or template in the training of visual artists (Études d’après nature).
Even in nineteenth-century texts, however, attention was already drawn to the art character of photography, which is based on a similar use of technique as in other recognized contemporary graphic techniques (aquatint, etching, lithography, etc.). This also makes photography an artistic process, with which a photographer creates his own pictorial realities.
Many nineteenth-century painters, such as Eugène Delacroix, recognized this and used photographs as a means of finding and shaping their images, as an artistic design tool for painterly works, but still without attributing their own artistic value.
The photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson, himself trained as a painter, also wanted to know photography not as an art form but as a craft: “Photography is a craft. Many want to turn it into an art, but we are simply craftsmen who have to do their job well. “At the same time, however, he claimed for himself the image-finding concept of the” decisive moment “, originally by Gotthold Ephraim Lessingdrama poetologically worked out. He refers directly to an artistic process for the production of works of art. Cartier-Bresson’s argument served on the one hand the poetological Nobilitierung, on the other hand, the artisanal immunization against a criticism that could doubt the artistic quality of his works. For example, Cartier-Bresson’s photographs were shown very early in museums and art exhibitions, for example in the MoMa retrospective (1947) and the Louvre exhibition (1955).
Photography was early on art (Julia Margaret Cameron, Lewis Carroll and Oscar Gustave Rejlander in the 1860s). The decisive step towards the recognition of photography as an art form is due to the efforts of Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946), who prepared the breakthrough with his magazine Camera Work.
For the first time, photography in Germany appeared in the Werkbund exhibition in Stuttgart in 1929 to a noteworthy extent with international artists such as Edward Weston, Imogen Cunningham and Man Ray to the public; At least since the MoMA exhibitions by Edward Steichen (The Family of Man, 1955) and John Szarkowski (1960s), photography has been recognized as art by a wide audience, and at the same time the trend towards utilitarian art began.
In 1977, documenta 6 in Kassel, for the first time as an internationally significant exhibition in the famous photography department, presented the work of historical and contemporary photographers from the entire history of photography in the comparative context of contemporary art in the context of the 150 years of this year Photography”.
Today, photography is accepted as a full-fledged art form. Indicators for this are the growing number of museums, collections and research facilities for photography, the increase in professorships for photography, and not least the increased value of photographs in art auctions and collectors’ circles. Numerous areas have developed, such as landscape, nude, industrial, theatrical photography and others that have unfolded their own fields of influence within photography. In addition, the artistic photomontage develops into an art object equivalent to the painting art. In addition to the increasing number of photo exhibitions and their visitor numbers, the popularity of modern photography is also visible in the sales prices achieved at art auctions. Five of the ten highest bids for modern photography have been auctioned since 2010. The currently most expensive photograph “Phantom” byPeter Lik was sold to the press in December 2014 for $ 6.5 million. Recent discussions within the photographic and art sciences, however, point to an increasing arbitrariness in the categorization of photography. Accordingly, it is increasingly being absorbed by art and its institutions, which once belonged exclusively to the applied fields of photography.
The production or distribution of certain types of photograph has been forbidden under modern laws, such as those of government buildings, highly classified regions, private property, copyrighted works, children’s genitalia, child pornography and less commonly pornography overall. These laws vary greatly between jurisdictions.
Source from Wikipedia