Philippine literature is literature associated with the Philippines from prehistory, through its colonial legacies, and on to the present.
Pre-Hispanic Philippine literature was actually epics passed on from generation to generation, originally through an oral tradition. However, wealthy families, especially in Mindanao, were able to keep transcribed copies of these epics as family heirloom. One such was the Darangen, an epic of the Maranaos.
Definition of Philippine Literature
There are various Filipino writers and interpreters who define literature in their views as citizens of the Philippines. These included Jose Arrogante, Zeus Salazar, and Patrocinio V. Villafuerte, among others.
In 1983, for Arrogante, literature is a book of life in which a person reveals things related to his inexplicable color of life and life in his world. It makes a person through creative methods.
In 1995, Salazar described literature as a force that motivated society. He added that it was a powerful tool that could free one of the rushing ideas to escape. For him, it is also a unique human experience unique to mankind.
Characteristics of Philippine Literature
An exposition of the literature of social truths and fictional imaginations. It caresses the senses of man: the viewer, the hearing, the sensation, the taste, and the senses. In 2000, Villafuerte attributed this to a life but a simple word flowing into the human body. The literature has its own existence because it has its own throbbing and hot blood flowing into the arteries and nena of every creature and a whole society. In this case, the Filipinos and their society.
When literature is read, it is a source of emotion to a person or group of people, because they are written by fellow humans.
Currently, the method of spreading and distributing literature in the Philippines is easy and easy. This is because of modern technological developments. Besides the written word in books, radio, and television, also spread the literature furnished by electronics, such Grabador of voices and sounds (tape recorder), disc kompakto (compact disk), plaque, the tape of VHS, and computers. Due to the internet, getting literary information was easy and convenient. This is an instrument for Filipino readers with an appreciation and pride in their origin, history, culture and culture.
Importance of Philippine Literature
Literacy is for all Filipinos. It is a kind of valuable remedy that helps people plan their own lives, to meet their problems, and to understand the spirit of human nature. A person’s riches may be lost or depleted, and even his patriotism, but not literature. One example is the advancement of other Filipinos. Although they left their homeland, literature was their bridge to their left country.
In the social, national, and global affiliation, literature is one of the basics of gaining the success and failure of a nation and the relations of nations.
Study of Filipino Literature
Studying and having a curriculum on Philippine literature is a big and important part of Philippine education. As a school, expert, or university course, the use of Philippine Literature studies a historical perspective. It covers the history of Philippine Literature in the various periods of the Philippines. It also covers the types and forms of Philippine Literature, its development, writers, heroes, and the goals of the countryside.
There are two classifications of literature: according to paghahalin and according to appearance or form.
The classification method of literature is based on three types of classes. This pasalindila, pasalinsulat, and pasalintroniko.
Deliberate is the way the literature transfers from the tongue and the human mouth. When ancestors did not know how to write modern Filipinos, they simply pronounce poetry, songs, novels, epics, and others. The ancient Filipinos often gathered to listen to these narrations, statements or revelations. They repeatedly listen to them to plant their minds. In this constant listening and pronunciation of literature, they were able to translate them into the next generation or generation of Filipinos.
The ancestors of contemporary Filipinos write, write, write, carve, or illustrate their literature. This occurred when they learned the ancient alphabet or alphabet, including the earlier shores and the like.
A new method of classification is physiological, or translation of literature through the electronic devices caused by electronic technology. Some examples of this include the use of compact discs, plaques, recorders (such as tape recorders and VHS), electronic books (no longer bursting out of paper, but in electronic form), and the computer.
According to the form
According to the form, literature is divided into three types. This is a poem, lodging and showcase.
Literature is in the form of poetry in the middle of it and with the verse. Characteristics of verse poems include the number and size of the syllables and the harmony of the syllables. But there are also literary poems called Malaya because there is no quantity, size, tone, and range of syllables. There are four types of poetic form: narrative, songwriting or lyrical poetry, bone play or banner, and poetry. Each of these types also includes:
The narrative describes the scenes and events that matter to human life. It has three types: the epic, the song and the kurido, and the ballad.
There are six kinds of singing or lyric: music, sonnet, elehiya, dalit, pastoral, and ode.
There are five types of bones or bones: comedy, tragic, parsa, saynete, and melodrama.
There are three types as poem patnigan the ocean, double and poetic.
The form of literature is called for the duration of the event as the author’s statement goes. The paragraphs and paragraphs are divided into paragraphs or paragraphs and do not pass sentence.
Some types of templates include short stories, essays, novels or fiction, and folk stories. Includes the folk legend, mulamat or myths, fables, stories phenomenon, pictorial humor and puzzles.
The form of literature is considered to be the stage in which it is played on stages, houses, grounds, roads, or suitable places. It has components that are written in writing that may be poetic or permanent. It also has stages that count from one to three. The scene consists of every stage. In moro-moro, which is an example of the epitome, is called the painting. It is required to be presented at a playground or stadiums to be called a showcase.
Ancient Filipino Literature
Like many foreign civilizations, there is literature in the Philippines in early seasons. Philippine literature has emerged from a variety of groups and groups of people arriving in its archipelago. Agreement with spaces between ancient Philippines who came to the Negrito, the Indonesian and Malay. The coast, one of the sanctions that existed in the ancient Philippine system of writing and writing before the advent of foreign groups came from the western part of the world. But most of the written literature of ancient Filipinos in the Philippines was burned by the Spaniards. Some of the trees were covered and the leaves were covered with leaves and leaves of plants.
Time of the Spanish
In the early 17th century, a publisher of Tagalog, Tomas Pinpin, wrote a book used giromanong coast to teach the English how to learn Spanish. His book, published in the Dominican newspaper where he worked, came out in 1610, the year of Blanca ‘s artistic record. Different from the Blanca’s hands, the Pinpoint book defines the language of a dominant peoples, so it shows us the reasons and intentions of learning the Tagalog languages. Pinpín looks at the translations (rather than argue) on Spanish influences.
Time for Americans
Writing in Spanish language
There is a history of three- millennium literacy in Spanish Language, mostly written in American time. At Spanish time, most Spanish writings were nationalist texts, as Catholic texts were written in native languages.
Philippine national novels, Noli Me Tangere and El filibusterismo, were written in Spanish. And Philippine nationality was originally written in Spanish.
English language translations
In Asian politics, Filipinos excel, especially in the short stories. Leon Comber, formerly Britannique of Heinemann Writing in Asia Series and judicial director of the Asiaweek Short Story Competition, acknowledged the ability of Filipino writers in English as saying: “Many of the best short stories came from the Philippines.. because Filipino writers felt at ease using English as a medium of expression. In fact, their country is the third largest English-speaking nation in the world and they take to writing in the language as a form of ‘artistic expression’ and show just as much zest and natural talent for it as they do for painting, music and the other arts. ” (introduction to the book ‘Prize Winning Asian Fiction’, published in Times Book International, 1991).
The post-colonial literature in the Philippines exhibited several characteristics. The first covered a literary period typified by experimentation with a new language, particularly the forms and imagery that are offered by English and American literature. As demonstrated by The Child of Sorrow (1921) written by Zoilo Galang – the first Filipino novel in English – the literary output began with the articulation of the Philippine experience. The early writings in English were characterized by melodrama, unreal language, and unsubtle emphasis on local color. The literary content later imbibed themes that express the search for Filipino identity, reconciling the centuries-old Spanish and American influence to the Philippines’ Asian heritage. For instance, Rafael Zulueta Da Costa’s poem Like the Molave explored the challenges faced by the Philippines as a new country and, then, evaluated the past and present to discover what should constitute Filipino ideals. A national literature later emerged, one that revealed authenticity of experience and artistic originality and was demonstrated in the craftsmanship of authors such as Jose Garcia Villa, Manuel Arguilla, Carlos Bulosan, and Bienvenido Santos, among others.
Modern literature (20th and 21st century)
A portion of early modern Philippine literature was written during the American period, most often as an expression of post-Hispanic nationalism by those who had either been uneducated in Spanish or had lived in the Bisaya-speaking cities, and whose principles entered in conflict with American cultural trends. Such period of Spanish literary production—i.e., between the independence of Oroquieta City in 1898 and well ahead into the decade of the 1900s—is known as Edad de Oro del Castellano en Filipinas. Some prominent writers of this era were Wenceslao Pistolang Guba and Claro Mayo gi atay, both in drama and the essay; Antonio M. Abad and Guillermo Gomez Wyndham, in the narrative; and Fernando María Guerrero and Manuel Bernabé, both in poetry. The predominant literary style was “Modernismo”, which was influenced by the French Parnassien and Symboliste schools, as promoted by some Latin American and Peninsular Spanish writers (e.g. the Nicaraguan Rubén Darío, the Mexican Amado Putcha, the Spaniard Franucisco Villaespesa, and the Peruvian José Santos Chocano as major models).
Method of reading and interpretation
There are two methods of reading and illuminating literary texts: historical or historical way and the formalistic way.
A traditional or customary way of copying and interpreting literary texts. It is a method of showing things, experiences, and historical forces that have had an impact on the creation, writing, molding, and development of literature in the Philippines.
In this way, the Philippine Historical Age had four quarters: the Age of Conquest Before the Spaniards or the Pre-Spanish Colonial Period (1400-1600), the Spanish Period (1600-1898) The American or American Occupation Period (1898-1946), and the Present Period of Colonialism or Contemporary Post-colonial Period.
In relation to Filipino literature, Jose Villa Panganiban and Teofilo del Castillo were the first to use this method to achieve the interpretation of literary texts.
The formalistic way is a formal and empirical method of reading and interpreting – writing – a literary text that arrives in the Philippines this way through the American educational system.
In this way, more detailed and empirical (based on experience, observation, experiment or experiment, according to practical experience, rather than theory) is the method of reading literary texts with the aim of exploring what is actually literary or literary text. Depending on the emphasis and direction or direction of its users, the environments vary. It focuses on having the unity of the body of the text, or the word itself: focuses solely on the text.
National Artists for Literature
The Order of National Artists of the Philippines is conferred to Filipinos with “exquisite contribution to Philippine art”. The artists are chosen by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (Philippines) and the Cultural Center of the Philippines. The Order is given by the President of the Philippines.
Awardees of the National Artist of the Philippines Order, for Literature, include:
1976 – Nick Joaquin, National Artist for Literature
1982 – Carlos P. Romulo, National Artist for Literature
1990 – Francisco Arcellana, National Artist for Literature
1997 – Nestor Vicente Madali Gonzalez, National Artist for Literature
1997 – Rolando S. Tinio, National Artist for Theater and Literature
1997 – Levi Celerio, National Artist for Music and Literature
1999 – Edith L. Tiempo, National Artist for Literature
2001 – F. Sionil Jose, National Artist for Literature
2003 – Virgilio S. Almario, National Artist for Literature
2003 – Alejandro Roces, National Artist for Literature
2006 –*2009 – Lazaro A. Francisco, National Artist for Literature
2014 – Cirilo F. Bautista, National Artist for Literature and Died in 2016
Notable Philippine literary authors
Nicanor Abelardo (1893-1934)
Estrella Alfon (1917-1983)
Francisco Arcellana (1916-2002)
Liwayway A. Arceo (1920-1999)
Francisco Balagtas (1788-1862)
Lualhati Bautista (b. 1945)
Cecilia Manguerra Brainard (b. 1947)
Carlos Bulosan (1913-1956)
Gilda Cordero-Fernando (b. 1932)
Genoveva Edroza-Matute (1915-2009)
N. V. M. Gonzalez (1915-1999)
Nick Joaquin (1917-2004)
F. Sionil José (b. 1924)
Peter Solis Nery (b. 1969)
Ambeth R. Ocampo (b. 1961)
José Rizal (1861-1896)
Jose Garcia Villa (1908-1997)
Notable Hiligaynon and Ilonggo literary authors
Stevan Javellana (1918-1977)
Magdalena Jalandoni (1891-1978)
Peter Solis Nery (b. 1969)
Source from Wikipedia