Before the Han Dynasty, the size of the umbrella was large, and the umbrella surface might be woven with silk cocoons and feathers of birds. Because of the high price, it was mainly popular in the upper class. In the Han Dynasty, with the invention of paper, the situation has undergone fundamental changes. When paper is used as a canopy, umbrellas become a tool that people can consume and begin to have a close relationship with daily life. The surface of the paper umbrella is coated with a layer of tung oil to enhance the water repellency. It is called a paper umbrella and has good rain resistance. After the rise of the cotton spinning industry, tarpaulins with cotton cloth as the umbrella material also appeared. It is stronger and more durable than oil paper umbrellas, and it is still popular. In modern times, the traditional umbrella industry was violently impacted by the modern umbrella industry, and a craft umbrella with a clear aesthetic function developed. While bringing beautiful enjoyment to people, it also carries a trace of nostalgic love.
2•1: History of oil paper umbrella
According to the Song Dynasty Gao Cheng’s book “Kiyuan Jiyuan”, in the 11th century BC, China had an umbrella made of silk, but there is no physical evidence. After the invention of Han Dynasty paper, it began to replace silk. During the Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties, the paper coated with tung oil became a canopy material, marking the birth of a paper umbrella. In the Tang Dynasty, there was a paper umbrella specially made of rice paper, so that the painter could write on the umbrella. Also during this period, oil-paper umbrellas spread to Japan, North Korea, and Nanyang. In the Song Dynasty, the “green oil umbrella” was widely used, and the color was mainly green. In the famous “The Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival”, people in the lively market used this kind of “green umbrella”. The oil-paper umbrella accompanied the Chinese for a long way. Until the 1970s, with the popularity of modern umbrellas, it was withdrawn from the historical stage.
2•2: The main producing area of oil paper umbrella
As a kind of rain gear, the development of oil-paper umbrella relies to a large extent on two conditions. One is the rainy weather, and the other is the main material of the umbrella – bamboo. In these two aspects, the conditions in southern China are far superior to those in northern China, which determines the development of the Chinese umbrella industry, especially the development of oil-paper umbrellas, mainly in the southern regions where rain is abundant and bamboo is abundant. This pattern is even the case when metal replaces bamboo as the backbone of the umbrella. There are not many records in the literature regarding the production and management of oil-paper umbrellas in history. In the modern times, the workshops for the production of traditional oil-paper umbrellas are mainly distributed in bamboo producing areas such as Zhejiang, Sichuan, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Fujian and Yunnan. In the second half of the 20th century, with the popularity of modern metal umbrellas, a large number of workshops were shut down and a small part of the production process umbrella.
Sichuan Luzhou Oil Paper Umbrella
Sichuan Luzhou oil paper umbrella originated in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties and featured the production of red umbrellas. During the heyday, there were more than 100 workshops in the territory, employing tens of thousands of people, mainly in Lantian, Tai’an, Shawan, Dishi, Amitabha and Xiaoshi, Jiangyang District, with an annual output of 20 million paper umbrellas.
With the rise of the tourism market and neoclassicalism, people gradually realized the special historical and cultural connotations of oil-paper umbrellas. The number of people who like oil-paper umbrellas has gradually increased, and the oil-paper umbrellas in Zhangzhou have begun to recover. Due to the strict maintenance of traditional crafts, Zhangzhou Oil Paper Umbrella has become the only “National Intangible Cultural Heritage” in this field.
Zhejiang Yuhang Oil Paper Umbrella
The history of Yuhang Oil Paper Umbrella can be traced back to the umbrella shop opened by Dong Wenyuan in the thirty-fourth year of Qing Emperor Qianlong (1769). The products mainly include fishing umbrellas and civilized umbrellas. Because of its high quality and durability, it is very popular. Some foreign pilgrims will even purchase umbrellas in the middle of the night in Yuhang, as gifts to relatives and friends in their hometown.
Jiangxi Wuyuan Jialu Oil Paper Umbrella
According to legend, in the Song Dynasty, the people of Jiayuan Village, Wuyuan, Jiangxi Province, based on the imitation of the oil paper umbrella brought back from the capital by Ma Yingxi, and constantly improved the craft, passed down from generation to generation, making Jialu Village one of the important producing areas of oil paper umbrellas. The road oil paper umbrella is beautiful and sturdy, and has a good reputation in the folk. According to legend, Emperor Kangxi’s micro-service suddenly rained when he saw the Huizhou drama in Wuyuan. The front row of spectators blocked the sight of the audience behind the audience. There were urchins throwing stones in the audience, and the stone hit one of the umbrellas but rebounded. Emperor Kangxi sent people to ask, and learned that the umbrella was produced from the road, so there was the saying that “the road umbrella, the world.” In 1936, the road umbrella won the gold medal in the International Product Fair.
Hunan Changsha oil paper umbrella
Changsha’s umbrella industry has a long history. Changsha Paper Umbrella is one of the most famous handicraft products. From the end of the Qing Dynasty to the beginning of the Republic of China, the number of paper umbrella shops in Changsha increased greatly, and there was gradually a distinction between “this gang” and “Hengzhou gang”. The shop set up the old photo wall, the north gate, the college street, the chicken slope, etc., the Hengbang shop is mostly in the gun factory. The number of large umbrellas in the old wall is Li Hengmao; the north gate is Tao Hengmao. Tao Hengmao paper umbrella has become the leader of Changsha umbrella industry due to its excellent craftsmanship. In the early 1920s, the Pan Fei brothers’ “Fifi Umbrella” came out and became another famous umbrella industry in Changsha after Tao Hengmao.
Hunan Yiyang oil paper umbrella
Hunan Yiyang Umbrella has a fine workmanship and is well-known in history. It is deeply loved by people. Therefore, there is a saying that “Xiangtan Muyu Yiyang Umbrella, Lijiang Women are too good to pick”. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, Yiyang had more than 30 umbrella workshops and more than 1,500 umbrella workers. In the middle of the 20th century, Yiyang Paper Umbrella flourished, with a maximum annual output of more than 1.2 million. With the advent of nylon umbrellas, production has decreased and paper umbrella sales have turned to foreign markets. The contemporary Yiyang Umbrella has the characteristics of light umbrella, bright color, transparent and sturdy, beautiful and durable, and is exported to more than ten countries and regions in Japan and Southeast Asia.
Wuhan Suhengtai Oil Paper Umbrella
Su Wenfu, an entrepreneur at Su Hengtai Umbrella Store, is an umbrella in Changsha, Hunan. In the first year of Qing Tongzhi (1862), the family moved to Hankou. At first, he picked up the umbrella and traveled the streets and lanes, and sold a small number of homemade umbrellas. Three years later, Su Hengtai umbrella shop was opened at Guandi Miaobei Alley, and the Hunan oil-paper umbrella was specially made. Due to the high quality, the monthly output has grown from more than 100 to more than 6,000, still in short supply. Later, he opened a workshop in Xianxian Lane, Dahuo Road. In order to increase production, a divisional flow system is adopted, with a group of 7 people, 4 people to make umbrella stand (including the division of long bones, short bones, hoist and umbrella), 3 personality umbrella clothes (2 people with paper) 1 person brushing oil).
Fuzhou oil paper umbrella
The paper umbrella production in Fuzhou was passed down from the Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces during the Tang and Five Dynasties. Originally shaped as a straight shank, the umbrella is large but durable. Through the development of Song, Yuan and Ming for hundreds of years, the quality of Fuzhou paper umbrella has been greatly improved. During the Qing Emperor Qianlong’s reign, Fuzhou’s umbrella exports ranked second only to cloth and porcelain. From the late Qing Dynasty to the early Republic of China, there were a total of 300 umbrella shops in Fuzhou Prefecture. The larger ones were “Yang Changli” and “rich”. The medium-sized ones were Chen Shitai, Lin Xinli, Pan Zhongming, Chang Libing, Zhang Xingtai, and a group. There are more than ten households, such as He, Chen Tianli, Zhang Quanfa and Pan Youhe. There are about two hundred small households.
Fujian Yangkou oil paper umbrella
The oil paper umbrella of Yangkou Town, Nanping, Fujian Province began in the early 20th century, with an annual output of more than 50,000. In the southeastern part of the country, the girl was married to marry him. In the 1970s, the traditional oil-paper umbrella was gradually replaced by a new type of cloth umbrella and folded umbrella. The local area was changed to produce small, exquisite, light and beautiful small umbrellas. Draw a variety of patterns by hand.
Yunnan Fuyang Oil Paper Umbrella
According to legend, Zheng Yigong, the master of the Dangdang City, was the son of Zhang Xing and Zhou Xing from the West Street. He learned the craftsmanship and returned it to his hometown. The oil paper umbrellas produced were supplied to the whole Daisy. market. Since the middle and late 18th century, the oil-paper umbrella has become the main sideline of farmers in the village of Dianyang, and the products are divided into three types: large, small and small. The paper umbrella made by Fuyang Village has fine workmanship, bright colors and beautiful appearance. It was once popular in Baoshan, Dali and Kunming. After 1965, the small oil umbrellas were discontinued and only a small amount of large paper umbrellas were sold. In the 21st century, the local paper umbrella industry once again attracted attention and began to restore the production of small flowers and umbrellas.
Taiwan original township paper umbrella
As some Hakkas moved to settle in Taiwan, oil-paper umbrellas have also developed in Taiwan. In addition to blocking the sun and covering the rain, the oil paper umbrella is also an indispensable gift in marriage. Taiwan Mino has retained the production of oil paper umbrellas.
2•3: Structure of oil paper umbrella
What is the material of the umbrella is not controlled, and the basic structure of the umbrella is basically the same. It is mainly composed of upper nest, lower nest, rib (long bone), umbrella head (short bone), umbrella surface, handle, handle, elastic member and so on. When the umbrella is in use, the thrust is applied to the lower nest below the umbrella, and the force moves forward along the handle and is propped up by the umbrella. After the umbrella surface is propped up, the elastic member of the handle automatically pops up to fix it. The curved shape of the umbrella surface makes the umbrella surface not form excessive resistance to the wind, reduces the possibility of destroying the umbrella due to the wind, and also reduces the strength when holding the umbrella.
2•4: Production of oil paper umbrella
Making a beautifully shaped umbrella, the whole process includes dozens of processes, which can be summarized into five major stages: material selection, processing parts, assembly umbrella frame, umbrella surface, and umbrella decoration. The production of traditional handmade umbrellas adopts an orderly division of labor in the production mode. The various components of the umbrella are processed in different workshops. Finally, in a factory, a line is used to assemble the skeleton, the umbrella surface, and the decoration.
Shaving bamboo green, making ribs, umbrella stand, edge line, paste umbrella, umbrella, shape, cut umbrella, sun umbrella, umbrella pole, umbrella handle, umbrella, tung oil, glazing oil, wrap umbrella Head, wear inside
Bamboo, wood, tissue paper, cloth, silk, tung oil, persimmon oil, etc.
Umbrella: The part that supports the umbrella surface is best for bamboo (hair bamboo).
Umbrella: The bamboo stem that is straight in the middle, generally with arrow bamboo.
Umbrella: The common material is special handmade cotton paper.
Umbrella support: support the umbrella frame part (one upper and lower), generally made of high quality wood.
Umbrella handle: The part that is held by hand, usually with a wooden handle or rattan.
2•5: tarpaulin umbrella
With the invention of cotton cloth, people used oil-paper umbrella to coat tung oil on cotton paper and invented a rag umbrella that was oiled on cotton cloth. Together with the oil paper umbrella, it has become the main rain gear of the Chinese people. In the Qing Dynasty, Guangdong, Fujian and other places also produced black cloth umbrellas, which were sold abroad. Although the tarpaulin umbrella is durable and durable, it can withstand the scorching sun and is not afraid of heavy rain. However, due to its cumbersomeness and lack of color, it is less popular than a paper umbrella. However, older people still remember that in the rainy days, the apricot tarpaulin umbrellas joined together to prop up a clear sky.
2•6: Classical craft umbrella
On the one hand, the accumulation of experience and the improvement of taste of umbrella makers, the production of umbrellas began to transcend the practical level and became a kind of handicrafts; on the other hand, with the popularity of modern metal umbrellas, traditional oil-paper umbrellas quickly withdrew from people’s daily lives. In this context, some traditional umbrella industries turned to craft umbrellas. Because the practical value of the craft umbrella gives way to aesthetic value, it strives for lean in material selection, process and decoration. The craft umbrella ribs are made of selected light bamboos, which are combined by hand to make the umbrella surface gather and return to a natural bamboo knot. The umbrella surface is made of oil paper, lace, silk as raw material, and the pattern can be divided into brush umbrella, painting umbrella and embroidered umbrella, each with its own unique artistic style.
2•7: Umbrella and umbrella
Umbrella shops are usually located in densely populated towns, mostly family-run, small in scale, and the workshops are connected with the shops to form the pattern of the former shop and the back square. There are also some places that take the form of sub-work, some workshops specialize in ribs, others engage in umbrella painting, and some specialize in assembly and sale. In some workshops and shops, a red oily paper umbrella hangs, making it a beautiful view in the town. The oil paper umbrella will break for a long time, but it doesn’t matter. Whether in the city or in the country, you can see the figure of the umbrella man from time to time. After their dexterous hands, a complete umbrella, will appear in front of your eyes.
Chinese Umbrella Museum
The China Umbrella Museum is located in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. The misty rain Jiangnan derives a unique umbrella culture. The aesthetics of the umbrella, the poetry of the umbrella and the symbolic meaning of the umbrella accompany this historical development wheel, and a unique cultural track is crushed.
The China Umbrella Museum is a world-first umbrella theme museum that combines umbrella culture, umbrella history, umbrella stories, umbrella crafts and umbrella art represented by China.
The exhibition area of the China Umbrella Museum is 2411m2, and the temporary exhibition hall has a construction area of 527m2. Located in the historical and cultural district of the West Bridge of Gongyi Bridge, with the arched bridge as the landmark, the Hangzhou Arts and Crafts Museum, the Chinese Knives and Sword Museum, the Chinese Fan Museum, and the Handicraft Living Exhibition Hall form a museum full of rich history and culture. The community has become a new cultural landscape in the north of Hangzhou. Walking through the museums is a journey of nostalgia and love with a memory of the canal.
The umbrella is fascinated by the rain. The Chinese Umbrella Museum and the rain are inseparable. The virtual rain scene and small water mist of the multimedia interpretations are used as renderings. The entire venue is dominated by white-walled gray tiles, which reminds people of Dai Wangshu’s pen. In the long and lonely rain alley, the girl with a paper umbrella alone.
The museum also has an interactive area where you can assemble parts for the umbrella, draw umbrellas and repair umbrellas.