Nazarene movement was adopted by a group of early 19th century German Romantic painters who aimed to revive honesty and spirituality in Christian art. The name Nazarene came from a term of derision used against them for their affectation of a biblical manner of clothing and hair style.
The name Nazarene was adopted by a group of early 19th century German Romantic painters who aimed to revive honesty and spirituality in Christian art. The name Nazarene came from a term of derision used against them for their affectation of a biblical manner of clothing and hair style.
The Nazarenes had as an immediate precedent the romantic painter Philipp Otto Runge (1777 – 1810), for his opposition to the forms imposed by classical academicism, for its thematic and the spirituality that transcends in his work.
The Nazarenes rejected neoclassicism , aestheticism and pictorial realism , the superficial virtuosity of contemporary art. This was his main motivation. They hoped to recover an art that embodied spiritual values.
They sought inspiration from artists from the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance : first of all, Dürer , but also Fra Angelico , El Perugino and Rafael. You can also see in them a certain influence of the classicist baroque . The resulting style is a cold eclecticism . This “pictorial eclecticism” comes to be similar to the “historicism” of the architecture of the time.
They try to recover old techniques. Notably, the art of the Italian fresco typical of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, which had fallen into disuse. With this technique they decorated houses, like that of the Prussian consul or the Massimi Palace. Together with this technique of large surfaces, they return to the small tables, instead of the extensive neoclassical canvases. Prefers the refined drawing against color. They reject or limit the recourse to chiaroscuro , the effects of depth and volume. They use simple and intense colors. The technique is controlled and impersonal.
It is a medieval and patriotic art , although impregnated with a Christian mysticism and religiosity. They wanted to express their spiritual preoccupations, genuine and pure feelings typical of the medieval religious art that they considered closer to the authentic German nature, humble and profound. It is, therefore, a pictorial movement inspired by the Catholic faith . In fact, they were heirs of the wave of sentimentality, medievalism and blessed religiosity that invaded Germany.
In addition to religious themes, they painted allegories and themes from the chivalric Middle Ages. Their patriotic spirit leads them to interpret scenes from German history, both literary and real.
The Vienna Art Academy
The art direction was brought to life by students who had studied at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts Vienna since 1804 . Both the Lübeck patriciate son Friedrich Overbeck and Franz Pforr , son of a Frankfurt painter, began their education at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna , as the institution had an excellent reputation throughout Europe at the time.
The training at Friedrich Heinrich Füger’s Academy followed a strict curriculum. The technical aspects of artistic skill took precedence over artistic expression. The main residence of the students was the antique hall with casts of antique statues and reliefs , according to which the students had to draw. In the continuing painting classes, the themes were oriented strictly to ancient models, following the neoclassical concept of the time . Painters like Albrecht Dürer , Hans Holbein the Younger or Hans Baldung Grien were classified as primitives by classicism .
The founding of the Lukasbund
Some academy students missed something essential in their education:
“You learn how to paint an excellent drapery, draw a real figure, learn perspective, architecture, in short everything – and yet no real painter comes out. One is missing … heart, soul and sensation …
Pforr, who was particularly impressed by the old German painters and saw in them the emotional expression that he missed during his training, was already friends with Overbeck at that time. Both shared their critical view of training at the Vienna Art Academy. During the summer of 1808, the circle of friends was expanded to include Joseph Sutter , Josef Wintergerst , Johann Konrad Hottinger and Ludwig Vogel . From July 1808, the six artists met regularly, each to talk about an artistic theme. A year later, when the friends celebrated the one-year jubilee of their meeting, they decided to enter the Order of Luketo constitute. They chose the name because the evangelist Luke is considered the patron saint of painters. In literature, the artist group is also known as the Luke Brothers .
Although technically influenced by the academy education, these artists quickly moved away from the topics given by the academy. In keeping with the romantic and pietistic ideals of that time, they found their intended expression in romantic and especially religious themes. Her religiously motivated renewal ideal for art and society took her from the art theories of the German Romantics Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder , Friedrich Schlegel , Novalis and Ludwig Tieck .
Schlegel saw the original purpose of art as being to glorify religion and to make its secrets even more beautiful and clear . In addition to the biblical themes were in his view, only the materials of poets such as Shakespeare and Dante suitable as image content. Tieck influenced the Lukasbrüder with his artist novel Franz Sternbalds Wanderungen , published in 1789 , whose main character Franz dedicates his life to religious art and who modestly, faithfully and honestly carries out his craft. Just like this, the Luke brothers wanted to devote themselves primarily to religious art. Their role models sought them in the Renaissance, for example in Albrecht Dürerand in pre- Raphael Italian painters such as Fra Angelico and Giotto .
The artistic contrast to the academy education eventually led to open conflict. When in 1809 the Academy had to reduce the number of its students, the Luke brothers were not resumed.
The artist colony in Rome
Monastery of Sant’Isidoro
In 1810 Franz Pforr, Friedrich Overbeck, Ludwig Vogel and Johann Konrad Hottinger left Vienna to move to Rome to study their Italian role models. They settled in the vacant Franciscan monastery of Sant’Isidoro on the Pincio (near today’s Piazza del Popolo ) and led an artistic outsider life apart from the world (Overbeck: “Undertake in the quiet of ancient sacred art”).
Unlike the ” German Romans “, who had earlier pilgrimaged to Italy and especially to Rome, the Nazarenes did not seek the Rome of antiquity, but the medieval churches and monasteries, the “Christian” Rome.
For more than half a century, Rome had attracted artists and art theorists such as Johann Joachim Winckelmann , Raphael Mengs , Jacques-Louis David , Antonio Canova, and Bertel Thorvaldsen , who wanted to revive the ideal of beauty in antiquity. In Rome artistic stagnation prevailed at that time. There was a lack of both a liberal middle class and a progressive upper class that could have stimulated new artistic directions. After 1814 had ended the French occupation of Rome, the city was mainly from the Vaticanpolitically and artistically dominated. The members of the Lukasbund soon understood themselves as the true successors of Rome’s spiritual and artistic heritage and were convinced that the combination of classical beauty, German intimacy and true Christianity would lead to a new renaissance . In Overbeck’s paintings Italia and Germania , in which two female figures symbolize the art of their respective countries, this view is reflected. The picture, which shows a Roman basilica and a German, medieval city in the background , is therefore sometimes referred to as the program of the Luke Brothers: The blond-haired Germania bends over to Italia and instructs the patient listeners.
The new art movement achieved its breakthrough and public recognition through two major contracts: the fresco cycle for the Casa Bartholdy and the fresco cycle for the Casa Massimo . These two major assignments are the most important works that the Nazarenes performed as a group during their early years in Rome.
The frescoes for the Casa Bartholdy
The cycle of frescoes of Casa Bartholdy was created between 1815 and 1817 on behalf of the Prussian Consul General Jakob Ludwig Salomon Bartholdy . Bartholdy lived at the time in an apartment in the Palazzo Zuccari , not far from the monastery of Sant’Isidoro. The frescoes were intended for the reception room of this apartment. The Palazzo Zuccari was later renamed Casa Bartholdy and is today the Bibliotheca Hertziana . Art historically, these paintings are therefore referred to as “frescoes of Casa Bartholdy “.
The Luke brothers were not practiced in the fresco painting , since this had been out of fashion in favor of panel painting for several decades. They therefore had no knowledge of the technical requirements of this painting technique, which includes , among other things, several years of fused lime , an order of the plaster in fining layers and a wet-in-wet technique in different, previously planned exactly steps. However, after some searching, they came across a Roman craftsman, who died for Raphael Mengs, who died in 1779Plaster walls had been prepared for fresco painting. Without this craftsman, the four artists involved in the frescoes would probably not have been able to complete the commission.
The frescoes depict scenes from the Old Testament Joseph story. Friedrich Overbeck, Philipp Veit, Wilhelm von Schadow and Peter von Cornelius were involved in the execution. Cornelius had even in favor of this first major contract, even abandoned the work on his painting The wise and the foolish virgins on which he worked since 1813, and he already referred to 1814 as his best painting so far.
In terms of style and quality, the frescos of the four artists are inconsistent. Art historians today rate the works of Cornelius and Overbeck as the artistically more interesting among the executed frescoes. In Joseph’s Dreams of Pharaoh Cornelius contrasts the calm figure of Joseph with a group of courtiers expressing doubt, envy, bewilderment and admiration. The landscape in the background is reminiscent of early Renaissance paintings. In the fresco Joseph is recognized by his brothers Cornelius portrayed the commissioner of the works, the consul Salomon Bartholdy, as a distinguished dressed spectator.
Overbeck’s Lunette The seven lean years on the other hand show a depressing picture of hunger and distress. The desperate mother he painted reminds of Michelangelo’s sibyl of Cumae . The sale of Joseph to the Egyptian merchants , also by Overbeck, is in a balanced, reminiscent of Raphael composition with harmonious, mixed mainly of earth colors and color light fine perspective painted.
The three frescoes by Wilhelm von Schadow The blessing of Jacob , Joseph’s interpretation of dreams in prison and Jacob recognizes Joseph’s blood-stained garment , in which even the strongest the connection to the classicist historical picture can be seen. The works of Veit, who painted the fresco Joseph and the wife of Potiphar in addition to the Lunette The Seven Fat Years , do not match the quality of his colleagues.
1886-1887, the frescoes were removed from the Casa Bartholdy and added to the collection of the National Gallery in Berlin. Today they are in the building of the Alte Nationalgalerie , together with a watercolor copy. The decrease was possible because the outer layer had joined to form a solid sinter shell. It could therefore be transferred without major damage in the National Gallery.
The frescoes for the Casa Massimo
Despite the varying quality, the frescoes attracted a great deal of attention. It is reported that on completion, onlookers lined up in front of Casa Bartholdy to visit the factory.
Consul General Bartholdy even sent copies of the works to the Prussian Chancellor Prince Karl August von Hardenberg . The copies were watercolors made by each artist after completing his work on the frescoes for the Casa Bartholdy . Five watercolors were then mounted on a common canvas and connected by painted architectural motifs. The first time this work was on the autumn exhibition of the Berlin Art AcademyShown in public in 1818. The aim of both Bartholdy and the artists was to promote the work of the artists in Rome and to be commissioned with similar large orders in Germany. However, the next major follow-up commission for the artists of the Luke Association came again from Rome.
Already in 1817 commissioned the Marchese Massimo, a member of the Roman aristocracy , members of the Lukasbunds, in his near the Lateran Casa Massimo three rooms to the tales of Dante , Torquato Tasso and Ludovico Ariosto to make. Cornelius, however, broke off his work on the Dante fresco, after 1819 by Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria to the Royal Academy of Munichhad been appointed. Overbeck did not complete his work on the Tasso frescoes, because he decided to paint only religious motifs. Philipp Veit and Joseph Anton Koch carried out this work. Only Julius Schnorr of Carolsfeld completed his Ariosto cycle as planned.
The patron and collegiate councilor Immanuel Christian Leberecht of Ampach , canon in Naumburg and Wurzen , in 1820 commissioned another collaboration with the Nazarenes in Rome. The painter friends Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld , Friedrich von Olivier and Theodor Rehbenitz lived since 1819 in the building of the Prussian Legation at the Holy See , in the Palazzo Caffarelli on the Capitol Hill; they became the three Capitolinescalled. The nine paintings depicting the life of Jesus were produced under the project of Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld by nine artists personally selected by Ampach, including the other Capitoliners Olivier and Rehbenitz, for his private band in Naumburg. Ampach passed the cycle with his death to the Naumburg Cathedral , where eight of them are still shown in the Three Kings Chapel. Julius Schnorr von Carolsfelds Let the Infants come to me burned in 1931 in the Glaspalast Munich . The cardboard boxes for the paintings were donated by Ampach to the Dom St. Marien in Wurzen.
Further development in Vienna
In Vienna, its starting point, the new artistic movement found it harder to prevail. In 1812, the German Roman Joseph Anton Koch moved from Rome to Vienna. He was admitted to a circle of romantically minded citizens and artists, among them Wilhelm von Humboldt and his wife Karoline, Joseph von Eichendorff , Clemens and Bettina Brentano , and a circle of young painters who met in the house of the brothers August Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel . Supported by assignments from this environment, a series of landscape paintings with religious themes, in particular by Ferdinand Olivier andJulius Schnorr from Carolsfeld .
Despite the support of the romantically minded bourgeoisie, the movement met with sharp opposition in the official, state-dominated art business. In 1812, Prince Metternich was appointed curator of the Vienna Academy. The latter continued to be committed to the ideals of classical art, and Metternich, who was politically minded in all things, saw in art a domain of the state and, in any deviation from the official line, approaches of secret bundling.
The feast in the villa Schultheiß
The breakthrough of the Nazarenes to public recognition in Germany began in 1818 with a visit of the Bavarian Crown Prince Ludwig in Rome. The Crown Prince had visited during his arduous journey Sicily and part of Greece and arrived on January 21, 1818 in Rome. He was regarded as inclined to new art, and he knew that he wanted to make Munich the new center of romantic art in Germany and Italy.
In his honor, the numerous German artists who were in Rome organized a celebration at Villa Schultheiß, in which the entire decoration had the Nazarene view of the role of the artists and the patrons to the motto.
The idea had obviously originated with Cornelius, and the participating artists created in a big hurry to matching banners and decorations. The large paintings that greeted the crown prince in the main room of the Villa Schultheiß came from Cornelius, Fohr, Veit and Overbeck as well as Wilhelm von Schadow and Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld. Among the paintings was an allegory of poetry sitting on a throne under a German oak tree; a painting The Ark of True Art, carried by Raphael and Durer ; a painting Overbeck’s, depicting the greatest aristocrat of all time and on the other Emperor Maximilian, a Doge of Venice and the patrimonial popes Leo X. and Julius II.and a painting with the most distinguished poets and artists. On this were represented among others Raphael, Durer, Michelangelo, Wolfram von Eschenbach , Erwin von Steinbach , Homer and King David.
Breakthrough in Germany
The success of Munich
A few years after the feast at Villa Schultheiß, the directorships at the academies in Dusseldorf, Berlin and Frankfurt am Main were occupied by Nazarenes. This is due to the successful work of Cornelius as well as the protection by the Bavarian king and the emerging romantic nationalism.
The first important commission that Cornelius received from Louis I was the frescoes of the Glyptothek , which were created between 1820 and 1830. The building, a design by Leo von Klenze , was supposed to serve as a museum of sculptures, in which mainly antique statues were to be seen. The frescoes should show matching individual representations from Greek mythology. As in Raphael’s time, not only Cornelius was involved in the execution, but also his pupils. Already after the completion of the Göttsaal in 1824 Cornelius was appointed Academy Director.
The effect in the rest of Germany
The second capital of the Nazarene movement was Frankfurt am Main . Philipp Veit was appointed director of the painting school and director of the gallery in Frankfurt in 1830 . Johann David Passavant became the inspector of the Städel and contributed significantly to the fact that this museum today has such a large collection of medieval art. For example, the purchase of the Lucca Madonna by Jan van Eyck can be attributed to him.
Eduard von Steinle created frescoes for the Cologne Cathedral , the Ägidienkirche in Münster , the Kaisersaal and the Kaiserdom in Frankfurt am Main and the Marienkirche in Aachen . After Cornelius had become estranged in 1839 the Bavarian King Ludwig I, he went to Berlin and was there for the near the reconstructed Berlin Cathedral planned Camposanto also paint frescoes. In the wake of the revolution of 1848 , Frederick William IV.However, the plans for the construction of Campo Santo again. Cornelius, who had been working on the preliminary studies since 1843, continued to work on it until his death almost twenty years later. He was aware that they would probably never come to fruition, because due to their size, no other place than the planned Campo Santo in question came into question. The charcoal drawings, which Cornelius regarded as his most important artistic works, are today stored in the storerooms of the National Gallery in Berlin. Particularly impressive among them is the 472 centimeters high and 588 centimeters wide charcoal drawing The Apocalyptic Rider .
The end of the movement
From Secularization to the Kulturkampf
The conclusion of Nazarene art was caused by external and internal reasons. Romanticism polarized between religiosity and political storm and urge . An external reason for the concentration of the Nazarenes on the religious were the revolutions of 1830 and 1848/49 and their subsequent repression. Successively a Prussian political dominance emerged from 1848.
After a brief period of arrangement with the Catholic Church, this was associated with an aggressive cultural policy of Prussia : The Prussian Kulturkampf followed on the local church disputes , such as in the Duchy of Nassau . He was opposed to all currents that were associated with Roman Catholic attitudes, because behind an anti-Prussian attitude was suspected. The Prussian fight against ultramontanismIt was accompanied by the transformation of the Vatican State state into an ideal ‘state’ entity whose territorial determination was not to take place until the following century. The territorial loss of the Vatican – as the supposedly ‘favorable opportunity’ for Prussian politics to enforce ideological and hegemonic claims against the Catholics in Prussia and Germany – was not accompanied by the abandonment of its intellectual and religious leadership, but rather by a state in the true sense an institution of the spiritual teaching and guidance of the church. He manifested himself in sculptures whose dissemination through modern printing methods made them known privately. The crafting ideal of the early Nazarenes found their way into technical reproducibility.
As a result of this repression, the artistic horizon of many Nazarenes narrowed to religious themes as the only means of earning a living, while previously historical themes and landscapes had an important part in the overall work. At the same time, the solution from the Italianized background limited the presentation horizon. If one had previously sought or constructed common roots, for example in the picture Italia and Germania , the formation of the nations brought a mutual demarcation.
Religious renewal sought between secularization and cultural struggles according to a suitable pictorial language. Biblical themes were originally bound to rural living conditions and were also depicted. In contrast to this was the increasing industrialization. The double homelessness – factual and spiritual – found its counterpart in the idealized rural past, which found itself as a backdrop for the Church’s clear action. The Nazarenes met this need with their religious seriousness.
The Catholic Church was able to place orders on a broad scale. At the same time, because of the evolving reproduction techniques, she was able to transport contemporary art into any household with the content she wanted. In this context, the association for the dissemination of religious images, founded in 1841, had a special significance for the late Nazarene devotional images of engravers of the Düsseldorf School and made them internationally known. Innumerable neo-gothic new churches were decorated in the second half of the 19th century with works of second and third generation Nazarenes. These numerous orders contributed to the popularization of Nazarene art.
The work of Professor of Religious Painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, Martin von Feuerstein (1856-1931) , gave a final boost .
The Trivialization of an Art Ideal
While Impressionism gained in importance in the second half of the nineteenth century, the artistic ideal of the Nazarenes had become exhausted and had become a template. The entire art movement was increasingly belittled by art connoisseurs and fell into oblivion.
“In the language of non-specialists,” Nazarene refers to a bloodless and sentimental religious imagery that was alive until the Second World War and can still be understood today in its last foothills. It is about as German equivalent of that ecclesiastical decorative arts understood that in Paris was located around the church of Saint-Sulpice and apply its standardized mass production as the epitome of bad taste. ” With these words, Sigrid Metken the impact of the second in half of the 19 Century of popularization together. This judgment also included early protagonists who were outstanding painters and courageous innovators in their day.
To this judgment contributed significantly the abundance of sweetish, qualitatively weak and pious images, which found their copy in cheap mural prints and in the second half of the 19th Century gained popularity in broad layers. This trivial art was industrially produced and marketed at fairs. Even when reproductions of works by the main representatives of the Nazarenes, such as Overbeck and Steinle, originals were sentimental simplified. This intensified as the color came on. Sigrid Metken has shown in her investigation, as Schnorr, Overbeck and Steinle for the production of sacred and devotional images were picked up and verkitscht, in order to accommodate a broad public taste.
The Rediscovery of the Nazarenes
The first art historical works on the Nazarenes belonging to the painters, which were more than a pure source and material collection, were published in the 1920s and 1930s. These were monographs that dealt mainly with the main characters among the Luke brothers. In the 1930s, this was enhanced by a more extensive work on the frescoes in the Casa Massimo.
However, the detailed examination of Nazarene art did not begin until the second half of the 20th century. In 1964, The Nazarenes – A Brotherhood of German Painters appeared in Rome by Keith Andrews , a book that, like several smaller exhibitions, including one at the Germanic National Museum in Nuremberg, initiated a more detailed and factual examination of the Nazi art concept. From the 1970s, there was a reassessment of artistic historicismof the 19th century and, in this context, a renewed interest in Nazarene art. In 1977, a large exhibition in the Städel in Frankfurt am Main dedicated itself to the Nazarenes and united in the exhibition catalog basic articles on this art movement. This was followed in 1981 by a similarly large exhibition in Rome, as a result of which the frescoes at Casa Massimo were extensively restored. In the first half of 2005, the Schirn in Frankfurt am Main again showed works of the Nazarenes in an exhibition dedicated to them.
One of the centers of art of the Nazarenes today is the Museum Behnhaus / Drägerhaus in Lübeck, Overbeck’s hometown. The museum has had its artistic estate since 1914.
Characteristics of Nazarene Art
In one sense, Nazarene art resembles the neoclassical school from which it developed: the clear, contoured form takes precedence over the color, the drawing takes precedence over painting. The predominant element of composition is the human figure.
The protagonist of this direction was Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803), the leading theorists of Sturm und Drang. He turned against some of the central teachings of the Enlightenment (Classicism) and emphasized the beauty also of the random, primal things, the antiquity (Middle Ages).
This development began in the 17th century, but rather in elite circles and with little technical possibilities. In the 18th and especially in the 19th century, these efforts were considerably intensified. Now books were also published, which were to reproduce works of art from these eras. For reproduction these works were transformed into wood engravings or woodcuts – and in this form the works of the so-called “primitives” became popular. The emphasis on the linear element- as a main characteristic of the woodcut – in the art of the Nazarenes thus comes from a technically misunderstood view of medieval art. The undoubted preponderance of the draughtsmanship and contours of older painting was emphasized even further by the requirements of the printing press of the time.
This version of “pre-Raphaelite” painting became known and loved by Overbeck as a work of pious simplicity and monastic devotion before he saw the originals in Rome. The sweetness and bloodlessness of Nazarene art, which is sometimes noticeable today, is based on these limited possibilities of technical reproduction.
Above all, colors have the function of internalizing and spiritualizing the scene. In warm, pastel-like enamel, figures and landscape are connected. Special emphasis is placed on the lighting that leads to the central figures. In many Nazarene pictures she is the only dramatic element in an image composition, which, by the way, is determined by deep calm, inwardness and seriousness. This solemnity transports scenes that seem thematically very commonplace into the Supermundane. The airy, transparent blues of Baroque Classicism, which remove the scene into allegorical distance, are taboo. The low spatial depth effect and the avoidance of glaring color contrasts support the celebration. They are external features that connect the Nazarenes with their medieval role models.
The facial expression of the depicted figures is serious and internal; you do not see a single cheerful or even laughing face. Striking are the soft, clean-shaven facial features of the men. In this respect too, Nazarene art is similar to medieval models. This also applies to the Nazarene portraiture. As an example is a painting by Overbeck, a so-called friendship picture , as the Luke brothers called the portraits that painted them from each other. With serious, big eyes in the 1810 created painting Franz Pforr looks at the viewer. Pforr wears “old German” clothesand leans over the parapet of a wine-covered window. Behind him is his imaginary future wife, who knits and at the same time reads in a religious book. A Madonna Lily , a medieval symbol of Mary , equates it to a Madonna . The opposite window reveals the view of a medieval northern European street, but in the background is an Italian coastal landscape.
The eroticism is almost completely excluded as a theme in Nazarene painting. The people in Nazarene paintings are usually fully clothed, striking often in flowing robes with a strong drapery and classicist appearance. Representations of almost naked bodies, as in Friedrich Overbeck’s Roman monumental fresco Olindo and Sophronia at the stake , completed in 1820 , as well as the nudes of Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld , are exceptions.
Influence of Nazarene art on other styles
The artistic influence of the Nazarenes was far-reaching and long-lasting.
Italy: The first successes for the Nazarenes were in Italy, where they had long been home, even in the Vatican and Assisi (Overbeck in the Porciuncula Chapel in Santa Maria degli Angeli ). Especially Tommaso Minardi followed her style, who gave up his caravaggeskes Frühstil around 1820 and spokesman of the movement “Il Purismo”, who introduced the Nazarene principles in the religious Italian painting.
France: In France, its influence led to a renewal of religious art in the school of Lyon and coined the painter Maurice Denis . Nazarene elements can be found in the church painting by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres . His pupil Hippolyte Flandrin created a large mural in St. Germain-des-Prés in 1846. Center of German influence in France was Lyon , where Paul Chenavard designed huge murals with complex philosophical themes.
Holland: The Dutchman Ary Scheffer introduced Nazarene simplicity to his salon painting.
England: In Great Britain, Julius Schnorr of Carolsfeld’s 240 Bible illustrations, published in 1860, was particularly influential. Already the Pre-Raphaelites , an English artist association founded by the painters Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Everett Millais in 1848, had taken up ideas of the Nazarenes. Ford Madox Brown had contacted the Nazarenes. The Pre-Raphaelites, too, strove for a religious-spiritual deepening of art and regarded Italian early-Renaissance art as a model. One painfully missed a tradition in history painting. And in 1840 the House of Parliament should be equipped with murals, you did that in German manner.
Germany: In Germany it was mainly the school of Beuron , which took up the ideas of the Nazarenes in the second half of the 19th century. The Beuroner direction was founded by the master builder, sculptor and painter Peter Lenz and Jacob Wüger and Friedolin Steiner in the Benedictine monastery Beuron with the aim of reviving religious art.
Source from Wikipedia