Naryshkin Baroque

Naryshkin Baroque, also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of Baroque architecture and decoration which was fashionable in Moscow from the turn of the 17th into the early 18th centuries.

Naryshkinskoye or Moscow baroque is a conditional name for a specific style trend in Russian architecture at the end of the XVII – beginning of the XVIII centuries, the initial stage in the development of Russian baroque architecture. By its name, the architectural trend is due to the young, boyar-oriented Naryshkin family, oriented to Western Europe, in whose Moscow and Moscow estates churches were built with some elements of a new Baroque style for Russia of that time.

The main significance of the Naryshkin style is that it became the connecting link between the architecture of the old patriarchal Moscow and the new style (Peter’s Baroque) built in the West European spirit of St. Petersburg . The Golitsin style, which was closer to the West European baroque, was built at the same time as the Naryshkinsky style (the buildings erected in it are sometimes considered to be Naryshkin style or they use the generalized concept of “Moscow baroque”) was only an episode in the history of Russian baroque and could not play such an important role in the history of Russian architecture.

The name “Naryshkinsky” stuck to the style after careful study in the 1920s. Church of the Intercession, built in the late XVII century. Naryshkin Fili . Since then, Naryshkin architecture is sometimes called “Naryshkin”, and, given the main area of the spread of this phenomenon, “Moscow baroque”. However, there is a certain difficulty in comparing this architectural trend with Western European styles, and it is connected with the fact that, stadially corresponding to the early revival, the Naryshkin style on the part of the form does not lend itself to definition in the categories formed on West European material, it features features like Baroque, so and Renaissance and Mannerism. In this regard, it is preferable to use the term “Naryshkin style”, which has a long tradition of use in scientific literature .

Prerequisites for the emergence
In the XVII century. in the Russian art and culture a new phenomenon appeared – their secularization, expressed in the dissemination of secular scientific knowledge, a departure from religious canons, in particular, in architecture. Approximately from the second third of the XVII century. the formation and development of a new, secular culture begins.

In architecture, secularism was expressed primarily in the gradual departure from medieval simplicity and rigor, in the pursuit of external picturesqueness and elegance. More and more often, customers of church construction became merchants and townspeople. This played an important role in the nature of erected buildings. A number of new elegant churches were built, which, however, did not find support in the circles of church hierarchs who resisted the secularization of church architecture and the penetration of secularism into it. Patriarch Nikon in the 1650s forbade the construction of tent churches, putting forward the traditional five-domed church, which contributed to the emergence of tiered churches.

However, the influence of secular culture on Russian architecture continued to grow, and also some Western European elements penetrated it fragmentarily. After the conclusion by Russia of Eternal Peace with the Commonwealth in 1686, this phenomenon took on a larger scale: established contacts contributed to the large-scale penetration of Polish culture into the country. This phenomenon was not homogeneous, because then the eastern outskirts of the Commonwealth were inhabited by Orthodox cultures close in culture, and a part of the culture, including purely national elements, was borrowed from them. The combination of features of different styles and cultures, as well as a certain “rethinking” of their Russian masters and determined the specific nature of the new emerging architectural trend – the Naryshkin style.

Naryshkin baroque is essentially a fusion of traditional Russian architecture with baroque elements imported from Central Europe. It is in contrast to the more radical approach of Petrine baroque, exemplified by Cathedral of Ss. Peter and Paul in St. Petersburg and the Menshikov tower in Moscow.

“Naryshkin style” is closely connected with the pattern, but this is to some extent its further stage, in which the transformed forms of Western European architecture – orders and their elements, decorative motifs, undoubtedly of Baroque origin, come through.

From the architecture of the XVI century. it is distinguished by the piercing vertical energy sliding along the sides of the walls, and throwing out lush waves of patterns.

For buildings “Naryshkin style” are characterized by a mixture of contradictory trends and trends, internal tension, heterogeneity of structure and decorative finish. They feature features of European Baroque and Mannerism, echoes of Gothic, Renaissance, Romanticism, merged with the traditions of Russian wooden architecture and ancient Russian stone architecture. A dual scale is characteristic – one giant, vertically aspiring, and another – miniature-detailed. This feature was embodied in many architectural projects in Moscow during the entire first half of the XVIII century. Many traditions of the Naryshkin style can be found in the projects of IP Zarudny (Menshikov Tower), Bazhenov and Kazakov.

The elements of the exterior decoration of the typical mannerist style are used not for dismembering and decorating the walls, but for framing spans and decorating the ribs, as was customary in traditional Russian wooden architecture. The opposite effect is produced by elements of interior decoration. The traditional Russian floral pattern acquires Baroque splendor.

Characteristic for the European Baroque continuous movement, the dynamics of the transition of stairs from the outer space to the interior, in the Naryshkin style did not receive such an obvious embodiment. The stairs are rather descending, than ascending, isolating the internal space of buildings from the outside. In them the features of traditional folk wooden architecture are visible.

The best examples of the Naryshkin style are the centric tiered temples that appeared, although in parallel with this innovative line a lot of traditional, besstolpnyh, overlapped by a closed vault and crowned with five chapters of churches enriched with new architectural and decorative forms – first of all, borrowed from Western European architecture elements of the warrant , denoting the tendency of the transition from medieval bezordernoy to consistently order architecture . Naryshkin’s style is also characterized by the two-color combination of red brick and white stone, the use of polychrome tiles, gilt wood carvings in interiors following the traditions of “Russian uzorochya” and “grass ornament”. The combination of red brick walls, trimmed with white stone or gypsum, was typical for the buildings of the Netherlands, England and Northern Germany.

The buildings built in the Naryshkin style can not be called truly baroque in the West European sense . Naryshkin style in its basis – the architectural composition – remained Russian, and only individual, often barely perceptible elements of the decor were borrowed from Western European art. Thus, the composition of a number of erected churches is opposite to the baroque one – individual volumes do not merge into one whole, plastically passing into each other, but are placed one on top of another and are severely delimited, which corresponds to the principle of formation typical for the ancient Russian architecture. Foreigners, as well as many Russians familiar with Western European Baroque patterns, Naryshkin’s style was perceived as a truly Russian architectural phenomenon.

The buildings
Some of the first buildings in the new style appeared in the Moscow and Moscow estate of the Boyar family of the Naryshkins (from the clan of the mother of Peter I, Natalia Naryshkina), in which the elegant multi-tiered churches of red brick with carved white stone ornamental elements (vivid examples: the Church of the Intercession in Fili (1690-1693), Trinity Church in Trinity-Lykov (1698-1704), which are characterized by the symmetry of the composition, the consistency of the masses and the location of the lush white-stone décor, in which a freely interpreted warrant , borrowed from Western European architecture, serves as a means to visually link the multifaceted volume of construction.

The Church of the Intercession in Fili is built according to the principles of formation, typical of Russian architecture of the 17th century, representing a five-headed tiered temple in which the severely delimited volumes of the bell tower and the church are located on the same vertical axis, the so-called octagon on the quadrangle. The Chetverik, surrounded by the semi-circles of the apses, is actually the Church of the Intercession itself, and above, on the next tier, the octagon is the Church in the name of the Savior Not Made by Hands, covered with an eight-toned arch . On it rises a ringing tier, made in the form of an octagonal drum and topped with a delicate gilded faceted onion head, while the remaining four chapters complete the apses of the church. At the base of the church there are gulbisches, surrounding the church are spacious open galleries. At present, the walls of the temple are painted in pink, emphasizing the snow-white decorative elements of the building.

Similar features are completely snow-white church of the Trinity, located in another Naryshkin’s manor, Trinity-Lykovo, and built by Yakov Bukhvostov. With the name of this serf by the origin of the architect are connected and many other buildings in the Naryshkin style . It is significant that in Bukhvostov’s buildings there are elements of an intentionally introduced West European warrant (the corresponding terminology is used in contract documentation), however, the use of order elements is different from that adopted in the European tradition: the main supporting element, as in the old Russian architectural tradition, remains the walls that almost disappeared Among the many elements of the decor.

Another outstanding building in the Naryshkin style was the fortress architect Peter Potapov built for the merchant Ivan Matveevich Sverchkov, the thirteen-headed Uspensky church on Pokrovka (1696-1699) , which Bartolomeo Rastrelli admired, and Vasily Bazhenov put it on a par with St. Basil’s Cathedral. The church was so picturesque that even Napoleon, who ordered to blow up the Kremlin, put a special guard near her, so that she was not struck by the fire that had started in Moscow. To date, the church has not reached, because it was dismantled in 1935-1936 years under the pretext of expanding the sidewalk.

In the traditions of the Naryshkin style, many churches and monasteries were rebuilt, which was reflected, in particular, in the ensembles of Novodevichy and the Don monasteries, Krutitskoy metochion in Moscow. In 2004, the Novodevichy Convent complex was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, including as an “outstanding example of the so-called” Moscow Baroque “(Criterion I), and as” an outstanding example of an exceptionally well-preserved monastery complex, in detail reflecting the “Moscow Baroque,” the architectural style of the late 17th century. “(Criterion IV) . In the monastery are preserved the walls and a number of churches, built or rebuilt in Naryshkin style.

In the architecture of St. Petersburg at the beginning of the XVIII century. Naryshkin style did not receive further development. However, between the Naryshkin architecture and the Petrine Baroque of Petersburg in the first quarter of the 18th century. there is a certain continuity, typical examples of which are the buildings serving the secular needs of the Sukharev Tower (1692-1701) and the Church of the Archangel Gabriel or the Menshikov Tower (1701-1707) in Moscow . The basis of the composition of the Menshikov Tower, built by the architect Ivan Zarudny on Chistiye Prudy in Moscow for the closest associate of Peter the Great, Prince Alexander Menshikov, is based on a traditional scheme borrowed from Ukrainian wooden architecture – somewhat decreasing upwards

Importance for Russian architecture
Naryshkin’s style most strongly affected the appearance of Moscow, but it also had a great influence on the development of the entire architecture of Russia in the 18th century, being a connecting element between the architecture of Moscow and St. Petersburg under construction. In many respects it was thanks to the Naryshkin style that the original image of the Russian Baroque was formed, which was especially clearly manifested in its late Elizabethan period: in the masterpieces of Bartolomeo Rastrelli-Jr. The features of the Moscow baroque are combined with elements of the Italian architectural fashion of the time, in the exterior decoration of such Moscow baroque buildings as the Church of St. Clement (1762-69, architect Pietro Antoni Trezzini or Alexei Evlashev), the Red Gate (1742, architect. Dmitry Ukhtomsky) also features Naryshkin architecture, especially its characteristic combination of red and white flowers in the decoration of the walls.

Later, at the end of the XIX century. Naryshkin architecture, which was widely perceived by the time as a typical Russian phenomenon, had a definite influence on the formation of the so-called pseudo-Russian style.

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