Museo della Civiltà Romana, Roma, Italy

The Museum of Roman Civilization documents the various aspects of Roman civilization, including its uses and customs, through a rich collection of statue copies, bas-reliefs, architectural models of individual works and monumental and even large-scale complexes; All the artefacts are made with such accuracy as to make them real works of art. Among the works exhibited there are two of them: the complete set of columns of the Trajan Column and the great plastic of Imperial Rome

The visit to the Museum of Roman Civilization is complementary to the observation of the ancient monuments of the capital, as it allows to know the most important works that romanity has left out of Rome, in all the lands concerned by it, and to know its many aspects Of everyday life Moreover, thanks to the models of Roman monuments, the visit makes it easier to understand the original structure and appearance. For these reasons, despite the almost total absence of original finds, the museum has a great educational and documentary value

The museum is located in Rome in the EUR area and is part of the “common museums” system of Rome

The prominent closure has protests and hundreds of archaeologists, scholars, intellectuals and actors have signed an appeal that is concerned about the works being preserved under conditions that expose them to the Degradation and to urge the reopening of the prestigious museum

Archaeological exhibition – 50th anniversary of the Italian Unity
The material exhibited in the museum comes largely from two historic exhibits: the first was the archaeological exhibition organized by Rodolfo Lanciani in 1911 at the Baths of Diocletian on the occasion of the first fiftieth anniversary of the Unification of Italy; It was devoted mainly to illustrating Roman civilization in the provinces

The materials prepared for the 1911 exhibition were not scattered but placed in the seat of the ancient Pantanella pasta factory at the mouth of the Truth (residual of industrial plants occupying the Circus Maximus area up to the thirties), rebuilt as the Museum of the ‘Roman Empire, inaugurated in 1929

Augustea’s Show of the Romanesque – Augustus’s birthday of Augustus
In 1937 it was organized by the Fascist government, at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni, the Augustea of ​​Rome, to celebrate the twentieth birthday of Augustus and basically the Fascist regime, which had just proclaimed the Empire in 1936. The exhibition exposed the materials already Collected in the Museum of the Roman Empire, which were supplemented by many others made for the occasion; Among them the great plastic of Imperial Rome, nowadays the most famous exhibition of the Museum, also at international level. The exhibition was of great interest and, for this reason, it was decided to set up a museum that permanently exhibited the materials in it Presented It was so that the idea of ​​a Museum of Roman Civilization was set up at the EUR

The project of the museum’s headquarters
Thus, in 1939, the design of the building that hosts the museum, the work of the architects Pietro Aschieri, Cesare Pascoletti, Gino Peressutti and Domenico Bernardini, was originally planned to be initially used for a celebratory exhibition of fascist victories to be held on the occasion The 1942 Universal Exhibition of Rome The work was commissioned by FIAT, which remained for years proprietary; At that time the great Turin industry was ruled by senator Agnelli Solo after the 1942 exhibition, the building should have permanently accommodated the great amount of material that had already been exhibited at the Augustea Show of the Romanesque; A new large educational museum, rich in plastics, models and molds, would be able to reconstruct before the eyes of the visitors all aspects of Roman civilization and all the most important monuments that this civilization left on the three continents in which it spread

Museum of Roman Civilization
Due to the outbreak of the Second World War, the exhibition scheduled in 1942 did not take place and the construction work of the facility that was supposed to host the museum was interrupted. Only in 1952 the building was completed and could finally accommodate the planned Museum of Roman Civilization , Part of which opened in that year and was completely inaugurated in 1955. The monumental architectural structure was donated by FIAT to the Ente EUR and entrusted to the management, in a commodity of use, to the City of Rome. Among the materials that Were set up after the inauguration stands out the great plastic of archaic Rome, which allows a useful comparison with the already existing plastic of Imperial Rome

Features of the building
The building is made up of two lateral factory bodies connected by a third body, consisting of a raised colonnade raised and open towards the green area of ​​the Three Fountains. The walls are covered with a peat bog and the colossal columns are in travertine Below On the floor of the colonnade lies the long underground tunnel that connects the two lateral bodies and where the columns of the Trajan Column are exposed. The striking feature of the structure is the almost total absence of windows and skylight ceilings, which avoid contact with the visitor The outside world and help him immerse emotionally in the past I remember the contribution from FIAT, the square between the three bodies of the building is titled Senator Giovanni Agnelli

In 2004, the Planetarium was installed in the museum, coming from the Ottagona Room of Diocletian Baths, and the Astronomical Museum of Rome

Since the Second World War, the square in front of the museum is often used as a scenery ready for mythological historical films such as the peplum of the 50s and 60s, one of the first movies filmed on the site was OK Nero, Mario Soldati of 1950, Recent television series on Ancient Rome In 2015 the colonnade was transformed into a cemetery to shoot Specter scenes, a James Bond series movie

The museum is currently divided into 59 sections, occupying an area of ​​12000 square meters and is ordered in rooms of an average height of 10 meters, allowing to reconstruct 1: 1 scale of monuments facades

Among the most important pieces of interest are the great plastic of ancient Rome at the time of Constantine I, ie in the 4th century AD (Room XXXVIII) The model (to which a vast room is dedicated) is in scale 1: 250 The reconstruction, realized by ‘Architect Italo Gismondi, meets strict scientific criteria, having as a basis the Urbis Severiana form, a marble card from the 3rd century AD, and the Forma Urbis Romae of the archaeologist Rodolfo Lanciani. The model also continues to be updated and modified in the light of new discoveries

Of great interest are also the cast stones of the Trajan Column, built in 113 AD on the project of Apollodorus of Damascus to celebrate the victories reported by Emperor Trajan on Daci in the two Dacic wars of 101-102 and 105 and 106 AD (Hall LI) The reproduction of the column reliefs in this museum is one of the three series made by Napoleon III in 1861; The other two are exhibited in France, in Saint-Germain-en-Laye and in England, at the Victoria and Albert Museum. The copy present at the Museum was donated by Bonaparte to Pope Pius IX and subsequently granted by Pius XII as a perpetual deposit at the Museum of Roman Civilization The current horizontal exposure of the scenes, which develop for about 200 meters, allows a close view of all the reliefs in the conservation state of 1800 and allows to contact the 2500 figures of one of the greatest masterpieces of Roman art

Also of great interest are the castles of the great frieze of Traiano, 3 meters high and over 18 meters (room XXXVIII). They allow to admire in its original unity this important sculptural work, which at the time of Emperor Constantine was divided In four parts and placed on the bow dedicated to him, where he is still divided into four blocks, two in the middle of the central jacket and two on the top

Other plastics of great interest are those of Villa Adriana (room XII) and that of archaic Rome (room XVIII), scale 1: 1000

The route is divided into two sectors, one chronological and one thematic The first, which is articulated in twelve halls, offers a historical synthesis of Rome from the beginning to the 6th century AD; The thematic sector is running along the other twelve halls and documenting the various aspects of daily life and material culture. The column of the Trajan Column is displayed in the thematic sector and at the end of it is the great plastic of Imperial Rome

Chronological Sector:
The first four halls host the ticket office and services The following are the most important materials displayed in each single room; Numbering of rooms is not always progressive but reflects the current visit path The listed materials are just a choice of the many present

Room V: Roman legends
Copy of Capestrano Warrior, an example of pre-Romanesque art; Model of the archaic houses of Rome
Room VI: the origins of Rome
The copy of the Lupa capitolina, a copy of the Sarcophagus of Martha and Rea Silvia of the Vatican
Room XVIII: Archaic Rome
Archaic Rome plastic; The first group of modern statues that reconstruct the appearance of warriors of pre-Romanesque Italy (piceno, etruscan, sannita)
Room VII: The conquest of the Mediterranean

Reconstruction of Gaio Duilio’s rostrum column, second group of modern statues that reconstruct the appearance of warriors of pre-Roman Italy
Room VIII: of Caesar:
Scale reconstruction of the most important battles and war machines used by Caesar during the conquest of Gaul, including a plastic depicting the siege of Alesia, as well as a copy of Giulio Cesare’s (age-old) statue painted today in Council hall of the City of Rome)
Room IX: Augustus
Copies of statues depicting the various functions performed by the emperor: Augustus of Prima Porta, Augustus of Via Labicana, of the portrait of Augusto understood veiled from Ancona; Model of aqueduct in the tract through a valley; Model of the Marcello Theater, re-building in the real dimensions of the Augustus temple pronaos and Rome (Monumentum Ancyranum) by Ancyra
Room X: Emperors of the giulio-claudia dynasty
Room XI: of the emperors of the flavia dynasty
Architectural model of the Colosseum, with a fragment that allows to observe the structure; Section of the Coliseum showing the lifting mechanisms; Model of Ludus Magnus; A model of the Ark of Tito, and the relief of the reliefs on it representing the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem by Tito; Architectural model of the Domiziano Stadium
Room XII: by Trajan and Adriano
Statues of the most important statues and portraits representing Trajan; Architectural model and reliefs of the Arch of Benevento; Architectural model of the Arch of Ancona; Statues of statues; Plotin portrait; Plastic of the Villa Adriana; The statues of the Adamclisi Tropaeum Traiani, an example of Roman provincial art
Room XIII: Emperors by Antonino Pio ai Severi
Room XIV: of Constantine (or Emperors from Macrino to Justiniano)
Architectural models of the Arch of Constantine and the Circus of Massenzio; Rock of the colossal Statue of Constantine
Room XV: Christianity
Statue of the Good Shepherd of the profane Gregorian Museum of the Vatican; A copy of the sarcophagus of Constantine of Rome and the sarcophagus of Giunio Basso in Milan
Room XVI
Representation of the triumph of Trajan celebrated after the victory in the Dacica War (provisional placement)
Rooms from XVI to XXXVI: currently closed to the public
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HVAC room: ports
Sketch of stage 58 of Trajan’s Column, where you can see the structures of the harbor of Ancona, a birema and a trireme
LV Room: Business and Economic Life
Reproduction of the Arch of the Argentari of Rome; The relief of the relief with merchants who thank the Emperor Trajan, from the Arch of Benevento; Leptis Magna and Serzio’s Reconstructive plastics at Timgad
LIV Room: hunting, fishing and feeding
Sculpture of the winery sarcophagus from Ancona (National Archaeological Museum)
Hall LIII: Agriculture, Sheep and Crime
Reproduction of grain mills, such as those found in ancient Ostia; Architectural model of a Roman rustic house: that of Boscoreale (Naples)
LII Room: Industry and Handicrafts
Sala LI: of the Trajan Column
You will find here the complete set of castles of the Trajan Column and the model of the monument
Room L: Medicine and pharmacy
Copy of the statue of the goddess Igea from Rhodes (National Archaeological Museum); Copy of the statue of the god Asclepius of the Capitoline Museums of Rome
XLIX room: letters and sciences
Copy of the mosaic with a portrait of the poet Virgil da Sousse (Tunisia), now at the Bardo Museum in Tunis; Reproduction of solar clock

The imposing hall that keeps copies of all the traces of the Trajan Column
Room XLVIII: of music
Reproductions and reconstructions of ancient musical instruments
XLVII Room: Libraries
Natural-size reproduction of a private library, based on Villa Adriana’s; Reproduction of tabulae ceratae; Reconstructive plastic of the Library of Trajan’s Forum in Rome
Room XLVI: Right
Inscriptions containing the texts of the main laws, including those of the XII tables
Room XXXVI: of the school
Copy of the relief depicting a teacher among his pupils from Neumagen (Germany)
Room XXXVIII: of the great frieze of Trajan – seen from the top of the imperial Rome plastic
Reconstruction of the original aspect of the great frieze of Trajan
Room XXXIX: of the dwelling
Reconstructive model of the house of the Poet Tragic of Pompeii; Reconstructive plastic of Diocletian’s palace in Split; Architectural models of Ostia Imperial palaces