Motorbike in Japan

Motorbike in Japan (motorcycle in Nihonbashi) describes motorbike license classification, laws and environment in Japan. Regarding the history of motorcycle in Japan, see the history of motorcycle in Japan.

Motorcycle on traffic regulations

Classification according to legislation
According to the Road Traffic Act and Road Trucking Vehicle Law, categories according to the displacement are defined in Japan, handling of the driver’s license is different according to the division. The legal system concerning motorcycles has changed frequently, and the following is as of 2011.

Displacement classification (Unit cc)
-50 Over 50 – 90 Over 90 – 125 Over 125 – -250 Over 250 – 400 Over 400 –
Method classification Road Traffic Law

(Vehicle classification)

Motorized bicycle Small motorcycle Ordinary motorcycle Large motorcycle
Road Traffic Law

(License classification)

Large motorcycle license
Ordinary motorcycle license No
Normal two-wheel license (small size only) No
Master license or ordinary license No
Road trucking vehicle law

(License plate color)

Motorbike bicycle Mini car

Small car

(Green frame with white)
First kind

(Depends on municipality)
2nd species, 2nd class

(Depends on municipality)
Type II instep

(Depends on municipality)
Highway traffic No Authorization
Periodic inspection No system necessary
vehicle inspection No system necessary
Legal speed of general road 30 km / h 60 km / h
Two-seater No Possible (vehicle with 1 riding capacity is not allowed)
Two steps turn right Obligation Ban
Maximum loading capacity 30 kg 60 kg

Vehicles that use motors as prime movers are classified according to the rated power, classified as rated type 1 below, 600 W or less as moped type 2, original type 2 class B as moped type 2, former type 2 best type with 1000 W or less, light motorcycle with more than 1000 W, driving license Those corresponding to this category are applied.

Since Trike is an ordinary car, it is necessary to obtain an ordinary license etc, but from September 1, 2009 only two vehicles licenses corresponding to the displacement will be needed for the target model.

The color of the number plate shown in the above table is for private use, and for business such as motorcycle flight, the color of the letters and the background are replaced (green number). There is no distinction between private use and business use for 125 cc or less, but for public vehicles owned by police and others, as a tax exclusion sign, a license plate distinct from general taxable signs will be issued. The shape and color may differ depending on the city, town, village, municipality, roughly the first kind is white, the second kind B is Yellow, the second type is peach color, but some municipalities adopt peach color, Just can not judge the displacement. In many cases, the taxable signs are blue letters and tax – exclusion signs are often red. In the past, postal motorbikes were also exempt from tax but became taxable due to privatization.

The expression “motorcycle” in a road sign or the like means a large-sized motorcycle and a normal motorcycle, “small wheels” means type 1 and 2 type bicycles with a prime mover, “moped” means a type 1 bicycle with a prime mover Is in that range. When it is simply written as “two wheels” it means all of these.

When pushing with pushing the prime mover stopped, it is treated as a pedestrian. However, it is excluded when sidewheel attachment (including trike) and other towing vehicles are towed.

AT limited license
AT limited license of ordinary motorcycle and large motorcycle limited to AT cars came into force on June 1, 2005.

The AT car (AT motorcycle) according to the license regulation is “a motorcycle that does not require an automatic transmission or other clutch operation and is not equipped with a clutch operation device” and a scooter is mainstream, You can also drive “MT car without clutch lever” like Super Cub 110. In addition, the condition column of “those limited to AT cars of 0.650 liters or less” is written in the condition column of those who acquired the AT limited automobile two-wheeled license, but this is because when AT classification is set, AT large size This is because there was virtually no motorcycle. As a result, AT limited to large-sized motorcycles is limited to 650 cc or less. In this license, if you ride an AT car with displacement of more than 650 cc such as DCT car of VFR 1200 F, NC 700 series and imported cars, It is necessary to acquire a motorcycle license.

Regarding motorized bicycles (original, less than 50 cc), because there is no division between AT and MT according to Japanese legislation, there is no AT limited license.

Even after the AT limited license of the car was made in 1991, the license for motorcycles (motorcycle) continued for a while after the AT car became popular.

However, there is a demand for the introduction of an AT limited license of motorcycles, for example, on March 14, 2002, the president of Takehiko Hasegawa of Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd. (then in 2002) issued a message to the National Police Agency on “Introduction of Automobile Limited License for Motorcycles” I have submitted a request form. According to the request, the number of motorcycle shipments in Japan is said to be more than 90% for compact motorcycles (or two types of mushrooms, 51 – 125 cc) and about 35% for light two wheels (126 – 250 cc) classes, the proportion of AT vehicles in shipments of motorcycle as a whole was also about 60%.

In response to these requests, the National Police Agency first made a “draft revision of the Road Traffic Law Enforcement Regulations” and solicited opinions from the public. Thereafter, “Cabinet Office Ordinance to amend part of the Road Traffic Law Enforcement Regulations” announced in May 2004, “Introduction of AT Limited Two-Way License” was included, followed by 2005 It was implemented from June.

Automatic car classification
The classification of the AT limited license is as follows. In addition, as a reference, the license classification of normal (without AT limitation) is also included.

Examination and upper limit transition examination and training will be conducted on the same vehicle as the test vehicle. The AT large-scale limited release examination is carried out by MT large type.

Driver’s license teaching time standard
The bolded part becomes the limit release cancellation examination, the license is not issued newly at the license center (testing center), it becomes the endorsement of the limit release.
● Parts can not take the exam because the upper licensee will take the lower level license.

Permitted license
No license / moped Four wheel drive license AT small size limited Small size limited AT ordinary two wheels Ordinary two wheels AT large motorcycle Large two-wheeled vehicle
Acceptance License
AT small size limited Practical 9 hours / Department 26 hours Practical 8 hours / department 1 hour
Small size limited Practical 12 hours / department 26 hours Practical 10 hours / department 1 hour 4 hours Unknown Unknown
AT ordinary two wheels Practical 15 hours / department 26 hours Practical 13 hours / 1 hour department 5 hours 3 hours
Ordinary two wheels Practical 19 hours / Department 26 hours Practical 17 hours / department 1 hour 8 hours 5 hours 5 hours Unknown
AT large motorcycle Practical 29 hours / Department 26 hours Practical 24 hours / department 1 hour Practical 18 hours Practical 17 hours Practical 10 hours Practical 9 hours
Large two-wheeled vehicle Practical 36 hours / department 26 hours Practical 31 hours / 1 hour department Practical skill 24 hours Practical 20 hours Practical 16 hours Practical 12 hours 8 hours

Two seater
In Japan, the conditions based on driving experience are stipulated by laws and regulations in the case of two-seater operation, and in general roads the period of receiving a large motorcycle license or ordinary two-wheeling license has been over one year, on highways it is over 20 years old Two – passenger operation is not permitted unless the sum of the periods in which a large motorcycle license or ordinary two – wheel drive license was received has totaled more than three years (excluding motorcycles with side cars). Also, in the section of the Metropolitan Expressway, two-seater is prohibited.

On the highway in Japan, except for motorcycles with side-cars, the situation of two-seater ban was continued for many years, but following the appeal of industry groups, was lifted from April 1, 2005.

Environment regulation
In Japan, motorcycles are not covered by the Law Concerning Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicles (Automobile Recycling Law), but as major voluntary efforts by four major Japanese companies, we will recycle motorcycles from October 1, 2004 It is.

Exhaust gas
In Japan, motorcycles were not covered by automobile emissions regulations, but one type of motorcycles and light-duty vehicles were from the new model cars in 1998, and the two types of mopeds were subject to exhaust emission regulations in 1998 from new models in 1999 In September 2008, numerical strengthening was carried out for all vehicles including imported vehicles according to the 2006 exhaust emission regulation. According to the announcement from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport at that time it is said that it is the most severe level in the world. As a result, like the four-wheeled vehicle, the two-stroke engine which was frequently used in small displacement vehicles was abolished, the car price was increased by adopting the electronically controlled fuel injection system with the carburetor eliminated.

From 1 October 2012 (Imported cars are from September 1, 2013) Exhaust emissions measurement for two-wheeled vehicles in the “World Technical Regulation Agreement on United Nations Vehicles and Others”, which is also participating in Japan as an exhaust gas regulation in 2012 Law (WMTC = the World-wide Motorcycle Test Cycle), and part of the numerical value was changed. However, some motorcycle bicycles continue to be regulated in 1998. Since July 2013, the WMTC measurement method is also treated as a measurement standard of fuel consumption in Japanese manufacturers.

From October 1, 2016, as exhaust gas regulation in Heisei 28, regulation values and categories based on European Euro 4 and WMTC have been met, and it is also obligatory to install fuel confirmation equipment and exhaust system operation checking equipment. The continuing production based on the Heisei 24 restrictions and the registration of imported cars will be until August 31, 2017.

Noise regulation
In Japan, noise regulation of motorcycles is regulated by the noise regulation law, and concrete allowable limit and measurement method are indicated by public notice from the Ministry of the Environment or the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. One is the “allowable limit of the size of automobile noise” (March 18, 2008 Notification of Environment Agency No. 27) applied to new cars released under the type approval by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, enforcement of regulations From the fiscal year “Heisei 28 year noise regulation” and others are called, the other is applied to the use process vehicle (vehicle after purchase) “Partial revision of the notice that specifies the details of the safety standards of road transport vehicles (Notification No. 1532 issued by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism on December 26, 2008), and it applies to vehicles manufactured after April 2010, “Noise regulation for 2010″ (hereinafter referred to as ” Heisei 22 year regulation) and so on.

Numerical values by noise regulation in motorcycles in Japan are the most severe in the world. In the “1998 regulation” and “2001 regulation” (hereinafter referred to as the Heisei 10 and 13 regulations) which was a former regulation and was announced by the Environment Agency on February 21, 2000, due to differences in test methods Although it can not be unconditionally compared, concretely when comparing the regulation value of acceleration noise of new cars with Europe, it is 4 dB as a type and 4 – 7 db as a motorcycle strictly, even from domestic sales of domestically produced cars There were many vehicles that were hindered and sold only abroad.

However, in the regulations of Heisei 10 and 13, imported vehicles and vehicles in use are excluded from the application of accelerated noise regulation values and so from the viewpoint of noise problems due to remodeled mufflers and the like, There was a movement to apply the same numerical values to the whole, but because there was a refutation from the rider and the motorcycle industry concerned about the decrease in imported vehicles, the European standard was applied according to the regulation values of imported vehicles and used process vehicles It was settled in a way that it would be impossible to mount a muffler without confirmation, and it was enforced in 2010 from April 2010 that it is the 2010 regulation.

Under the 2010 regulation, the upper limit of the acceleration noise regulation value is set to 82 dB (79 dB for the bicycle with the prime mover), and when the muffler is exchanged, it is checked whether the criteria are met. As for the muffler, even if there is a mark such as performance confirmation and European standard conformity, it is treated as satisfying the criteria, but even those not marked are subjected to noise inspection together with structural confirmation at the public institution and meet the criteria of acceleration noise regulation It can be used . However, in strengthening this regulation, a regular dealer importing vehicles from manufacturers outside of Japan will release vehicles that have reduced maximum output and vehicles that made long mufflers as “Japan specifications” The number of cases has increased.

Among the verification experiments carried out until the 2010 regulation, it has been confirmed that the regulation value itself of the acceleration noise in the 1993 and 2001 regulations is severe, further noise control In addition to the fact that it is physically difficult to adapt to noise regulations only for new cars that are subject to type approval in Japan, the cost of domestic sales will increase, so the noise regulation will also shift to international standards as well as emission control Voices calling for increased from manufacturers in Japan. As a result of deliberation by the advisory body of the Ministry of the Environment, as a result of these opinions, regulations on motorcycle acceleration noise control were restricted in accordance with ECE R 41 – 04 of the European Economic Commission for Automotive Standards of the United Nations Economic Commission for European Union It will be changed to measurement method, it is enforced by revision of related laws and regulations in January 2013 and it has been applied as a regulation in Heisei 20th year from new model certified to be released from 2014 Annotation 8].

Regarding accelerating noise regulated by Heisei 20th year, the regulation value will be divided by the numerical value instead of the displacement amount calculated from the power mass ratio (PMR), and the high output vehicle with PMR exceeding 50 “Additional noise regulations” to measure noise at a wide range of speeds were introduced. This makes it easier for Japanese manufacturers whose European specifications to be released by Japanese manufacturers outside Japan to release them in Japan, so that it is now possible to set more appropriate engine output within the limits. However, some of the bicycles with type 1 motors are out of scope. In addition, this regulation is applied not only to model certified vehicles but also to non-model designated vehicles (parallel import vehicles), and these vehicles have been applied since 2017.

From October 1, 2016, the noise regulation of 1992 was applied and the regulation of proximity noise was also to comply with European ECE R41-04 From the “absolute value” regulation for which the upper limit of the noise figure was set, it was changed to the “relative value” regulation that sets the numerical value for each vehicle type, thereby measuring the proximity noise at the time of application for model approval or initial registration of the vehicle After that, there was no significant increase from the measured value after that. As a result, the numerical value of the proximity noise was raised from the vehicle to which the noise regulation was applied in 2008 to the range that does not conflict with the numerical values of other noise regulations such as acceleration noise, but instead it is requested not to increase the noise from the numerical value at the time of registration It was decided to be.

The application of noise regulation in 2008 to imported vehicles and continuing production vehicles has been in effect since 2021. Moreover, the 2010 regulations to be applied to remodeled mufflers etc. are maintained as they are.

Social situation surrounding motorcycles

Vehicle theft
Members of a criminal group such as a runaway group raise the theft to prepare a vehicle without breaking his identity. In addition, depending on the type of car, it is an amount comparable to that of cars, etc. Since stable demand can be expected, it is aimed at smuggling and cash A vehicle criminal organization caused by a criminal organization was an average of 700 vehicles a day in Japan, and more than 253,000 motorcycles a year were injured in theft.

Three exercise
Prior to the 1990’s, motorcycles became popular among young people, death accidents due to reckless driving increased rapidly, and the number of groups taking anti-social action using motorcycles like burglars increased. Under these influences, the social background in which the motorcycle itself is regarded as a social problem strengthened, and in the early 1970s some high schools such as Aichi Prefecture and some other high schools said that “we will not buy motorcycles, do not take motorcycles, Three exercise “started. This gradually spread all over the country, the National High School PTA Federation officially resolved this movement at the Miyagi Games in August 1982.

However, it is pointless to point out that an example of running on delinquency against repulsion against unreasonable and unreasonable oppression, or unlicensed • stolen and riding around because it is impossible to acquire a license or buy a vehicle in a regular way, Around 1990 the problem of three movements came to be noticed. Due to the fact that other causes of accident increase in the 1980s have been resolved and the number of accidents has decreased and the way in which parents think about education has changed, now educational institutions that tolerate motorcycles on the premise of thorough safety education It is increasing.

Rider’s aging ages
In Japan, the bike boom has calmed down in the mid-1990s, and young people ‘s riders are on a downward trend since the declining birthrate has been taken up as a social phenomenon, while middle – aged and older riders tend to increase 11]. Amid such an increase in middle-aged and older riders, the example that I ceased to ride a motorcycle once at a young age and came to ride again was called “return rider”, and the example that I started riding for the first time since becoming a middle-aged and older age is called ” An example of what we call “media” and “users” is spreading, and the aging of riders is proceeding. The return rider had no choice but to abandon a large motorcycle because he was suffering from the frustration of the motorcycle licensing system necessary for driving a large motorbike revised from 1975 (Showa 50 years), around 1960 to 1980 There are many in the age where I was born.

Parking lot problem
In European countries, motorcycle penetration rate is smaller than Japan, but there are many cases where a motorcycle exclusive parking place is provided beside urban road. In Japan, on the other hand, the amendment of the parking lot law in 2006 was not obliged to maintain a motorcycle parking lot other than the bicycle with a motorbike, and there were few parking lots for motorcycles. Efforts to use a parking lot for a four-wheeled vehicle or a bicycle parking lot have often been denied by administrators, etc. for various reasons . Motorcycles were also subject to maintenance of parking lots due to the amendment of the parking lot law, but the application is for facilities planned or made after the enforcement, parking shortage still can not be resolved. For example, according to a survey by the Japan Motorcycle Promotion Safety Association conducted in 2005, 78.6% of private parking lots are “refused” for motorcycle parking and private parking lots with motorcycle parking space are among the 500 Of cases (5.6%). According to a survey of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Construction Conservation Corporation in 2006, the parking supply amount of the motorcycle in 22 Tokyo’s central area is only about 1,000, compared to 13,000 vehicles.

As a background to such circumstances, not only the deficiency of the parking lot law but also the motorcycle occupies a small footprint, it is difficult to become an obstacle, and unless it is a malignant case, it has often been practically excluded from enforcement of parking violations. As a result, the need for a motorcycle parking lot has been diminished. However, from the enforcement of the Traffic Barrier-Free Law in 2002, especially crackdown on motorcycles parked on sidewalks has gradually become prominent, from the revision of the Road Traffic Law on June 1, 2006 The parking violation of the parking lot of motorcycles became obvious again as a serious problem, as the parking violation of the parking lot also severely cracked like the four-wheeled vehicle. According to the number of motorcycle parking violations detected in the metropolitan area released by the Metropolitan Police Department and the National Police Agency, while it was moderate until 2005 just before the law revision, it doubled in 2006, It is more than doubled 26,6806 cases. This trend is similar across the country, whereas in 2005 the number of cases detected in 2005 before the revised Road Traffic Law was enacted was about 110,000 nationwide, whereas in 2006 it was half a year after the revised Road Traffic Act Approximately 234 thousand cases only from June to December), and in the following year it has increased rapidly to about 520 thousand in one year . Meanwhile, the total number of cases involving the automobile, including four-wheelers, increased by 3,043,83 cases nationwide in 2007 to 105,555 (53.8%) increase over the previous year, only the number of motorcycle cases detected It is clear that it is increasing rapidly.

A serious shortage of this motorcycle parking lot has been pointed out before the introduction of the parking observer system, although the maintenance of the motorcycle parking lot has progressed thereafter, according to the data of the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Even today in 2012, the number of parking lot improvement per motorcycle ownership is about one sixth of four-wheelers, serious situation has not been resolved.

Source from Wikipedia