Jeju Haenyeo Culture, National Intangible Heritage Center, South Korea

Jeju Haenyeo jumps into the rough waves with his naked body and collects seafood. Women who do this kind of work are only in Korea and Japan around the world, but Jeju Haen was evaluated to have higher diving ability and toughness than Japanese Haen.

Haenyeo is a woman who goes into the sea to collect seafood from Jeju Island, wearing a simple wet suit, diving flippers and mask without oxygen tank, and enters the sea to collect abalone, sea urchin and shellfish. Once the dive time and surface relaxation times of modern diver wearing a wet suit uses flippers 5m diving degree is approximately 32 seconds and 46 seconds, and 46 times at a time when 5m diving as 43 seconds, and 85 seconds at the time of 10m dive during And 10 dives 28 times an hour. She is currently wearing rubber wetsuits, but previously she only wore cotton wetsuits without any equipment. Although the number of haenyeo on Jeju Island is decreasing, efforts have been made to preserve the tradition, and songs such as haenyeo thigh dance are being oral.

Material work is sometimes a dangerous thing that requires a life. A fellow haen was an important being who mutually prevented dangers from underwater and conveyed material experience and knowledge. Jeju Haenyeo culture has been handed down from generation to generation centering on Haenyeo community.

Jeju Haenyeo culture, which uses only minimal tools to collect seafood in a natural manner, is a sustainable development model that human society should pursue, including consideration for the weak, dedication and participation in the public interest, and a way of life that coexists with nature. Shows well. In recognition of this meaning and value, it was registered as UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage on November 30, 2016.

This special exhibition will display various artifacts related to Jeju Haenyeo, paintings on the theme of Haenyeo, and photographs of photographers who have taken their lives with cameras over the years with various videos and recorded materials. It will be a valuable opportunity to take a comprehensive look at culture.

Jeju Haenyeo
Jeju Haenyeo is a woman who collects seafood such as abalone, seashell, sea urchin, and seaweed by diving naked without any mechanical device. In the Joseon Dynasty, it was called ‘sleeping woman’ or ‘submersible’. During the Japanese colonial period, Jeju Haenyeo was recorded not only in Korea but also in overseas markets. With this activity, it was also highlighted as “a significant industrial phenomenon of shipbuilding”.

The female divers wear water suits that are easy to work with when they are in the sea. The traditional haenyeo clothes are ‘water buffalo’ and have side flanks, making it easy to remove and adjust the width of the body. Since the 1906’s, Sojung has wore a ‘small ginseng’ in the form of a low ring. Later, in the 1970s, most haenyeo wore ‘rubber clothes’, which was more warm than traditional water clothes, increasing work efficiency.

The haenyeo made and used material tools according to the characteristics of the sea. Water glasses, snow, and ‘Tekwak’, which rely on breathing on the water, and ‘Mangari’, which are connected to Tewak and store their harvest, are the tools that symbolize the divers. The tools used for the material are classified according to the nature of the seafood. There are ‘Shoe Sole’ for abalone, ‘Crab Crab’ for seaweed, and ‘Kakuri’ for rock seafood.

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Learning material experiences and knowledge of colleagues in material work is important for improving material skills, and fellow divers also act as a protective barrier against mutual danger in the water. Jeju Haenyeo culture has been handed down from generation to generation within the community.

Haenyeo culture
Haenyeo culture exists in the Republic of Korea and Japan (probably), but Korea’s recognition of Haenyeo is negatively regarded as the only economic activity of women who had no opportunity for learning and economic activity in the past when men were the main economic and social activity class. In Japan you can see the treatment of female divers as a profession. Even in economic treatment, Japan earns a lot of income, while in Korea, it has continued the life of a woman with a small subsidy of 200,000 won.

Many artists draw on Jeju Haenyeo as a theme or subject, but each artist has a different viewpoint. The three artists Jang Ri-seok, Han Jung-ok, and Gang Dong-eon are representative artists who use Jeju Haenyeo as their main motif.

Intangible cultural heritage of mankind
UNESCO in Jeju the cultural divers Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity was assigned.

National Intangible Heritage Center, South Korea
National Intangible Heritage Center is in charge of affairs concerning the preservation of intangible cultural heritage, lore, research, investigation, records management, dissemination and promotion seconded Republic of Korea Culture is the institution’s. It was founded on September 17, 2013 and is located at 95 Seohak-ro, Wansan – gu, Jeonju – si, Jeollabuk – do. The director shall be sent to the general civil servants or academic research officers belonging to the senior civil service group B level.

Preserving Tradition, Supporting Artistry, The NIHC strives to consecrate our intangible cultural heritage. A treasure house of tradition and culture, the spirit and soul of Korea, intangible heritage is a record of our country’s cherished past, as well as a vital foundation for future cultural prosperity. Located in the historic city of Jeonju, the National Intangible Heritage Center of Korea strives to preserve intact and discover new ways to enjoy our precious intangible heritage, all as a means to expand its significance within daily lives for generations to come.

Discover, Preserve, Promote, Come and joy Our cultural feast. Striving to establish a body of knowledge through search and research effort. Systematizing the selection and management of intangible heritage, and providing public access to the collection. Establishing a foundation for all levels of education and an effective system for safeguarding Korea’s heritage. Pursuing the popularization and upgrading of performances and showcases for intangible heritage. Offering venues that meet the highest expectations and captivating firsthand experiences.