Installation art

Installation art is an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that often are site-specific and designed to transform the perception of a space. Generally, the term is applied to interior spaces, whereas exterior interventions are often called public art, land art or intervention art; however, the boundaries between these terms overlap.

Installation art is one of expression methods and genres in contemporary art that is generalized after paintings, sculptures, images, photographs, etc. since the 1970s. Arts that put objects and equipment in certain indoor or outdoor areas, etc., create a space according to the artist’s intention, change and catabolize, and let the whole place and the space experience as a work. Sometimes it is possible to construct a space by screening a video image (video installation), or to construct a space using sound or the like (sound installation).

Because the whole space is a work, viewers are to “experience” the whole space surrounded by the whole work, rather than “appreciating” each piece of work. It is an artistic technique whose main point is how to change the way the viewer experiences (see, hear, feel, think) the space. Originally born from trial and error mainly concerning the display method of sculptural works, the production of land art • environmental art and the production of performance art, but gradually departed from the framework of sculpture etc and became independent so it became independent It came to be treated as an expressive technique.

The installation is most often expressed in a three-dimensional framework: the artist includes the environment, or other factors, that distinguish his work from simple hanging. The work is put into a situation and uses the out-of-field, to a dimension not immediately visible by the person who is watching: the mere fact of including it as a “spectator” summons the notions of participation, immersion and theatricality.

Installations usually consist of heterogeneous objects brought together in a new context. These objects are not inextricably linked; in that case it would be better to speak of an assembly.

The concept of installation has been used in the visual arts since the sixties when the classical division of art in various disciplines, such as architecture, sculpture and painting, is perceived as obstructive by some artists, such as Allan Kaprow.

The installation is basically temporary, it will be removed only after the exhibition period and it will remain only in the memory of the people. Only photographs and video recording are methods to follow-up afterwards, but it can not be said that people have not experienced the work simply by looking at the pictures. However, the photographs themselves may be works that demonstrate a different attraction from the installation work.

In addition, the installation is site-specific (site-specific). Western art works since the modern day become independent from architecture such as church by becoming style such as forehead paintings and sculptures on the pedestal, so that it can be thought that it will be established in the same way no matter where it is placed all over the world became. On the other hand, installation works are closely tied to these, inspired from the shape of the place of installation, the relationship with the surrounding walls, architecture, topography, history and memories concerning the place. Therefore, relocation and reproduction to other places is difficult because it will not be established as a work.

It is temporary and location-specific, so it will disappear after the exhibition unless it is a permanently installed work there. Also, trading is fundamentally difficult. In selling or buying, the art museum etc. ask the author to produce it, pay the production cost, adopt a permanent setting or temporary installation method, or the collector and the museum purchase all the parts together with the detailed design drawing, and the writer A method such as supervising and changing the display method according to the place is taken. There are times when artists and art dealers sell drawings, prototype models, and recorded photographs after installation creation, drawn as studies before installation creation.

Installations are often made by sculptors but can also be made by painters or other artists. Installations can be made on the wall, on the ground and on the ceiling. The constituent parts can be placed in showcases or spatially arranged so that the spectators can move between the parts of the installation. Characteristic of installations is the importance of the space in which they are located and the (temporary) reciprocal coherence. It offers artists the opportunity to combine different materials, techniques and physical phenomena, such as projection, audio, video, painting, sculpture and architecture.

The difference with the environments from the fifties and sixties, as Ed Kienholz made them, is that installations are less narrative, and in all their diversity come from a spiritual or conceptual impulse. Installations can often be seen at large in museum exhibitions such as the Venice Biennale and the documenta in Kassel.

An installation can be either:
mobile (or remountable);
permanent (or fixed);
ephemeral (or temporary).
The installation can be most often likened to a sculpture but it can not be reduced to it. We are talking about hybridization and mutations.
It also allows to break the notion of volume: the installation can be understood as an object of reduced size to a very large space (see for example Monumenta).
Specificity: Some facilities are designed for (and depending on) a particular exhibition location.
The interaction: in some cases, the public is brought to interact with the installation or even the artist himself. The distance between the public and the work is more or less abolished; in some cases, there is participation, the public enters the perimeter proper to the work, generating new types of relationship between the creation, the creator and the viewer.
The scenography: some works invite to a path, a path and propose different stages or sensory sequences.

Installation art can be either temporary or permanent. Installation artworks have been constructed in exhibition spaces such as museums and galleries, as well as public and private spaces. The genre incorporates a broad range of everyday and natural materials, which are often chosen for their “evocative” qualities, as well as new media such as video, sound, performance, immersive virtual reality and the internet. Many installations are site-specific in that they are designed to exist only in the space for which they were created, appealing to qualities evident in a three-dimensional immersive medium. Artistic collectives such as the Exhibition Lab at New York’s American Museum of Natural History created environments to showcase the natural world in as realistic a medium as possible. Likewise, Walt Disney Imagineering employed a similar philosophy when designing the multiple immersive spaces for Disneyland in 1955. Since its acceptance as a separate discipline, a number of institutions focusing on Installation art were created. These included the Mattress Factory, Pittsburgh, the Museum of Installation in London, and the Fairy Doors of Ann Arbor, MI, among others.

Installation art came to prominence in the 1970s but its roots can be identified in earlier artists such as Marcel Duchamp and his use of the readymade and Kurt Schwitters’ Merz art objects, rather than more traditional craft based sculpture. The “intention” of the artist is paramount in much later installation art whose roots lie in the conceptual art of the 1960s. This again is a departure from traditional sculpture which places its focus on form. Early non-Western installation art includes events staged by the Gutai group in Japan starting in 1954, which influenced American installation pioneers like Allan Kaprow. Wolf Vostell shows his installation 6 TV Dé-coll/age in 1963 at the Smolin Gallery in New York.

Installation as nomenclature for a specific form of art came into use fairly recently; its first use as documented by the Oxford English Dictionary was in 1969. It was coined in this context, in reference to a form of art that had arguably existed since prehistory but was not regarded as a discrete category until the mid-twentieth century. Allan Kaprow used the term “Environment” in 1958 (Kaprow 6) to describe his transformed indoor spaces; this later joined such terms as “project art” and “temporary art.”
Installation means the meaning of “exhibition” “installing” meaning that the work exhibition on the walls of museums and the like was also called “installation”, but walls and floors In the days when paintings and sculptures were decorated on one side, the method of installation (exhibition) was not questioned much.

Some sculptors of Rodin worked on pioneering work to recognize how to show to the viewer through ingenuity of the exhibition method, but eventually it became recognized as a technique of art that the space itself was made into a work by the exhibition method , Independent of sculpture and paintings.

Essentially, installation/environmental art takes into account a broader sensory experience, rather than floating framed points of focus on a “neutral” wall or displaying isolated objects (literally) on a pedestal. This may leave space and time as its only dimensional constants, implying dissolution of the line between “art” and “life”; Kaprow noted that “if we bypass ‘art’ and take nature itself as a model or point of departure, we may be able to devise a different kind of art… out of the sensory stuff of ordinary life”.

In creating an installation, you will need to know what media to use, such as video, sculpture, painting, everyday readymade, waste, sound, slideshow, performance art, computers, galleries such as museums and galleries There are no particular restrictions such as space, space such as private space such as housing, public space such as square / building, what kind of place to use such as in nature without people.

The conscious act of artistically addressing all the senses with regard to a total experience made a resounding debut in 1849 when Richard Wagner conceived of a Gesamtkunstwerk, or an operatic work for the stage that drew inspiration from ancient Greek theater in its inclusion of all the major art forms: painting, writing, music, etc. (Britannica). In devising operatic works to commandeer the audience’s senses, Wagner left nothing unobserved: architecture, ambience, and even the audience itself were considered and manipulated in order to achieve a state of total artistic immersion. In the book “Themes in Contemporary Art”, it is suggested that “installations in the 1980s and 1990s were increasingly characterized by networks of operations involving the interaction among complex architectural settings, environmental sites and extensive use of everyday objects in ordinary contexts. With the advent of video in 1965, a concurrent strand of installation evolved through the use of new and ever-changing technologies, and what had been simple video installations expanded to include complex interactive, multimedia and virtual reality environments”.

Art and Objecthood:
In “Art and Objecthood,” Michael Fried derisively labels art that acknowledges the viewer as “theatrical” (Fried 45). There is a strong parallel between installation and theater: both play to a viewer who is expected to be at once immersed in the sensory/narrative experience that surrounds him and maintain a degree of self-identity as a viewer. The traditional theater-goer does not forget that he has come in from outside to sit and take in a created experience; a trademark of installation art has been the curious and eager viewer, still aware that he is in an exhibition setting and tentatively exploring the novel universe of the installation.

The central importance of the subjective point of view when experiencing installation art, points toward a disregard for traditional Platonic image theory. In effect, the entire installation adopts the character of the simulacrum or flawed statue: it neglects any ideal form in favor of optimizing its direct appearance to the observer. Installation art operates fully within the realm of sensory perception, in a sense “installing” the viewer into an artificial system with an appeal to his subjective perception as its ultimate goal.

Interactive installations:
Interactive installation is a sub-category of installation art. An interactive installation frequently involves the audience acting on the work of art or the piece responding to users’ activity. There are several kinds of interactive installations that artists produce, these include web-based installations (e.g., Telegarden), gallery-based installations, digital-based installations, electronic-based installations, mobile-based installations, etc. Interactive installations appeared mostly at end of the 1980s (Legible City by Jeffrey Shaw, La plume by Edmond Couchot, Michel Bret…) and became a genre during the 1990s, when artists became particularly interested in using the participation of the audiences to activate and reveal the meaning of the installation.

Immersive virtual reality:
With the improvement of technology over the years, artists are more able to explore outside of the boundaries that were never able to be explored by artists in the past. The media used are more experimental and bold; they are also usually cross media and may involve sensors, which plays on the reaction to the audiences’ movement when looking at the installations. By using virtual reality as a medium, immersive virtual reality art is probably the most deeply interactive form of art. By allowing the spectator to “visit” the representation, the artist creates “situations to live” vs “spectacle to watch”. At the turn of a new century, there is a trend of interactive installations using digital, video, film, sound and sculpture.