Vienne is a town located in the south-east of France, at the confluence of the Rhône and the Gère, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in the department of ‘ Isère. Occupying a privileged place at the crossroads of several roads: the Rhône, the Alps and the Massif Central, the site of Vienne on the Rhône, chosen by the allobroge Gauls, is closed by five hills, which offer a defensive interest.
The irregular course of the Rhone threat of flood terraces until the II century BC. AD During the Early Empire (27 BC. – middle III century, Vienna knows a spectacular urbanization, with a monumental adornment which reflects its rank. With a diversified economy, the city is developing outside the city walls, on the left bank of the Rhône, to the south, and on the right bank. At the end of III century and the IV century, the city, folded in its center occupies more than twenty hectares at most. The bishops, then the archbishops, took over from failing civil institutions. Vienna, “holy city”, sees the clergy assert its influence, with in the first row the archbishops; the convents of the mendicant orders were added to the Benedictine abbeys. A new network of narrow tracks is put in place.and XIV centuries, the neighborhood Overseas Manages is protected by walls, as further south too.
With the industrial boom began in the XVIII century the prosperous Viennese economy. Home to many factories devoted in particular to textile and metallurgy activities, the city, served by the railroad, stretches east (Vallée de Gère), north (Estressin) and south (L’Isle). The habitat extends over the heights and becomes denser, particularly in Estressin and Isle. On the plateau to the east of the town, the district of Malissol was born around 1970. Marked from the 1950sThrough the crisis of its industries, Vienne is affirming its cultural and tourist vocation, with Jazz à Vienne since 1981 and the Heritage Plan, initiated in 2005.
The first men appeared on the site of Vienna as early as the Middle Neolithic (4700-3400 BC). The first habitat (hearths and lithic material) was in fact discovered in 1920, on a small crystalline hillock in the Estressin district, near the Rhône: the Sainte-Hélène hill (around 4000 BC). Other vestiges are attested in the plain of Estressin, on the terraces of Charavel, as well as in Saint-Romain-en-Gal (burial containing a trepanned skull, exhibited today at the Museum of Fine Arts and archeology of Vienna). Never again, the site of Vienna was abandoned by the man.
The following periods have provided particularly abundant archaeological evidence, mainly the Bronze Age (2000-800 BC), finds of axes, swords, knives, ceramics testify to the great importance of the site. de Vienne, probably a major commercial crossroads on the routes of the Rhone corridor and the axis between the Alps and the Massif Central, was found the famous processional chariot at La Côte-Saint-André, exhibited today at the Gallo-Roman museum de Fourvière, it is probable that Saint Mamert could have been inspired by it to organize the rogations.
The Celts arrive in the territory of which one of these tribes, the Allobroges (the people from elsewhere) around the V century BC. AD The territory controlled by this tribe whose capital is Vienna, will run from Geneva to Mont Pilat, through Cularo (future city of Grenoble).
Ancient authors, taken by medieval chroniclers believe that following a major famine (as Stephanus of Byzantium in his Ethnics the VI century), Cretans migrating in large numbers in the Cretan city of Viannos and founded the new city of Viánnos which will later become the Roman city of Vienna. An author even asserting that these Cretans would have come to Gaul on the return of Idomeneus from the Trojan War. But we know today that these fanciful interpretations often stem from popular etymology.
Its off-center location in this territory, which could appear to be a disadvantage, is offset by the importance of the communication routes: the meeting point of the roads leading to the passes of the Alps and the heart of the Massif Central, the capital of the Allobroges is also located on the Rhône axis. On the site occupied, in Roman times, by the sanctuary of Cybele, allows you to discover vestiges of the first Allobroges times.
This Gallic habitat firstly includes a double oppidum, made up of the hills of Pipet and Sainte-Blandine unearthed in the 1950s., confirms the importance of this urban site: everyday objects (kitchen utensils, tools, brooches, andirons) stand alongside prestigious objects imported from Italy (bronze dishes, objects linked to wine service). It is on these hills that the Viennese took refuge in case of danger. But the Gaulois establishment also extends below Pipet, on an inclined plane formed by the old dejection cone of the Gère and which goes to the Rhône. It is the permanent habitat revealed by the excavations of the sanctuary of Cybele.
Vienna is also a port and, as such, for several centuries, it trades with Marseille, the Greek world, and with Italy.
In the I century, Strabo, already called Vienna, the capital of the Allobroges. The power of Rome was manifested in Gaul. At the call of Marseille, the Romans crossed the Alps in 125 BC. AD and destroyed the capital of the Salyens people, Entremont, near Aix-en-Provence. The Salyan chiefs then take refuge among the Allobroges. They refuse to hand over their hosts to the Romans. It’s the war. The Roman army goes up the Rhône. Without waiting for the Arvernes, to which they were allies, the Allobroges engage in combat, near the confluence of the Rhône and Sorgue rivers. They were crushed, leaving 20,000 of their own and 3,000 prisoners on the battlefield. A few months later, this time with the Avernes, they were again defeated by the Roman troops at the confluence of the Rhône and Isère rivers. The allobroge territory was annexed and entered the new Provincia (province, from which the name of Provence will come) which extends over the South-East of Gaul.
As a result, the allobroge city loses all freedom and is subject to the tax that as a vanquished it owes Rome. This tax is very heavy, especially since it is leased to publican companies, supported by the governors who take advantage of it to make enormous fortunes on the backs of the provincials. Already tested by the invasions of the Cimbri and Teutons, in 107 BC. AD – 102 BC. AD, the Allobroges rebel. Sending two delegations to Rome did not achieve any results. So, in 62 BC. AD, Catugnatos, “leader of the whole nation”, involves the Allobroges in the revolt. For two years, he stood up to the Roman legions. But the power of Rome is too strong. In61 BC AD, the proconsul Pomptinus seizes Solonion, which ends the war. Vienna is mentioned in the Gallic War (58 – 52) from the pen of Julius Caesar.
The Allobroges also played a decisive role in the history of Rome, in fact during The Conjuring of Catiline which is a political plot aimed at seizing power in Rome in 63 BC. AD by Senator Lucius Sergius Catilina. The Allobroges, who had come to Rome to complain about the economic conditions of their province and the greed of their magistrates meet the conspirators, who firing on all cylinders, try to rally all the discontented, even the Gauls. The Allobroges hesitate on which side to take, then rally to the power in place. On the incitement ofCicero, they get valuable information from the conspirators. They even require a signed letter of intent of the conspirators, who become unsuspecting into the trap. Intercepted when they left Rome, the Allobroges gave this letter to the Senate. The Senate then only has to pick the supporters of the coup.
During the Gallic War, Vienna was loyal to Julius Caesar. Moreover, it was in Vienna that he set up a reinforcing cavalry corps. Thus, after the war, some Allobroges are rewarded. Around 45 BC AD, Tiberius Claudius Nero, father of the future emperor Tiberius, would have installed in Vienna former soldiers of auxiliary troops, but for a short time, since the day after the assassination of the dictator in 44 BC. AD, they are expelled and will settle in the north, at the confluence of the Rhône and the Saône where, the following year, Lucius Munatius Plancus founded the colony of Lugdunum for them.. There were few consequences for Vienna.
The origins of the Roman colony of Vienna are fragmentarily known and have been the subject of various hypotheses. It was long believed that Vienna was promoted as early as 40 BC. AD, Latin colony by Julius Caesar under the name of Colonia Julia Viennensis. According to this hypothesis, it was in 44 BC. BC, that a Gallic revolt drove the Romans from Vienna who founded another colony nearby, in Lugdunum. Octave would then have resettled a colony in Vienna. It is rather presumed today that the Romans were driven out of Vienna in -62 during the Catugnatos revolt. It was therefore only under Octave that the city would have received, asNîmes, the status of a Latin colony.
Vienna quickly becomes an important center of trade and trade with the Mediterranean, as the vast warehouses discovered in Saint-Romain-en-Gal bear witness to this. It then extends on both sides of the Rhône.
The poet Martial quotes Vienna in one of his Epigrams which he describes as Vienna the Beautiful: “… inter delicias pulchra Vienna suas…”.
In 48, in his speech to the Senate, reproduced by the Claudian Table (exhibited at the Gallo-Roman museum in Fourvière), the emperor Claude mentions: “ ornatissima ecce colonia valentissimaque Viennensium ” (the very powerful colony of the Viennese, richly decorated).
She gets the imperial privilege to be surrounded by a wall from the I century AD. BC The wall is 7.2 km long, the longest of Gaul; the enclosed area, 250 ha in also one of the largest cities of the Gallic provinces. Between 35 and 41 it was promoted to the status of a Roman colony, probably by Caligula. It was an important center during the Roman period, competing with its neighbor Lugdunum (Lyon). Its monumental adornment built on successive terraces overlooking the Rhône was impressive and many remains bear witness to it: Temple of Augustus and Livia, arcades of the forum, theater and odeon, hippodrome, walls, thermal baths are still partially or totally in elevation.
Numerous archaeological discoveries and excavations since the 16th century offer the image of a rich and powerful city: coins (Ace of Vienna, Dupondius…), many mosaics, frescoes, marble work (statues, columns…), crockery from terracotta, Vienna is distinguished by a production of fine ceramics of Italic tradition and vases of Celtic tradition with a production that reaches an almost industrial rhythm with many workshops, as well as the work of lead by product of the extraction of the silver, is attested by more than 70 signatures of plumbers which appear in particular on pipes, archaeologists suppose that the local lead mines intensely exploited in the 19th century were already so during antiquity, furniture … The archaeological site of Saint-Romain-en-Gal, one of the districts of the ancient city which stretched on both banks of the Rhône, testifies to this wealth.
Vienna is also the city where a Jewish colony appears for the first time in Gaul, and where Herod Archelaus, ethnarch of Judea was exiled in the year 6 of our era.
Decimus Valerius Asiaticus, known as Asiaticus the Viennese of gens Valerii, is a Roman senator, consul twice, in 35 and 46, and owns “the gardens of Lucullus “, land where the Medici villa stands today. in Rome. His son, in 70, Marcus Julius Vestinus Atticus in 65, the Bellici family saw four of his family access the consulate, in 68, 125, 143 and 148; finally, the Pompeii Vopisci with Lucius Pompéius Vopiscus in 69. Vienna was by far the city of Narbonnaisethe most represented since we could identify 18 Consulates exercised by senators or Viennese notables. Vienna and its province influenced the fate of the elections of the emperors; the first use they made of their power was against Nero, who had had Vestinus Atticus, one of their fellow citizens, put to death. This revolt brought Galba to the imperial throne, which increased their privileges and showered them with graces and benefits. The Roman historian Tacitus testifies to the wealth of Vienna by evoking: “the gold of the Viennese”.
In the Lower Empire, Vienna’s role asserted itself: capital of the Viennese diocese, it received the visit of several emperors. In 177, the deacon Sanctus of Vienne was martyred with the martyrs of Lyon, the first mention of Viennese Christianity. In 297 Diocletian placed in Vienna the capital, not only of a province, but also of a diocese embracing all the southern pole.
La Viennoise (Viennensis, in Latin), consular province. It covers the western part of Dauphiné and Provence plus Comtat Venaissin. Its main peoples are the Allobroges, the Cavares, the Helviens, the Segovellaunes, the Tricastins, and the Voconces; its capital is VIENNA (Vienna). It includes fourteen cities: that of the capital, but also Genava (Geneva), Cularo (Gratianopolis Grenoble), Valentia (Valence),Dea Augusta Vocontiorum (Die), Alba Helviorum (Alba-la-Romaine), Augusta Tricastinorum (Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux), Vasio voncontiorum (Vaison-la-Romaine), Arausio (Orange), Carpentoracte (Carpentras), Avenio (Avignon), Cabellio (Cavaillon), Arelate (Arles) and Massalia (Marseille).
The Viennese was sometimes called the first Viennese (Viennensis prima); Viennese second (Viennensis secunda); Viennese third (Viennensis terta); the Alpes-Maritimes, Viennese fourth (Viennensis quarta).
In v century, the Viennese is divided into two provinces:
the first Viennese (Viennensis prima), with Vienna as its capital and the following other cities: Genava, Gratianopolis, Valentia, Dea Augusta Vocontiorum, Viviers and Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne;
the second Viennese (Viennensis secunda), with Arelate for capital and the following other cities: Augusta Tricastinorum, Vasio voncontiorum, Arausio, Carpentoracte, Avenio, Cabellio, Arelate, Massalia, and Telo Martius (Toulon)
The Province, provincia viennensis included in addition to the territories of the former colony, its diocese dioecesis viennensis, extended from the Alps to the Ocean including the Maritime Alps, all the old Narbonnaise and all the old Aquitaine.
In the IV century Constantine I stayed temporarily in Vienna. Valentinian II met his death there in his palace. In the V century Vienna was an imperial linen fabrics manufactures and hemp, headed by a procurator linyfii an inscription tells us that Vienna had its manufacturers sayons working wool, SAGARIUS ROMANENSIS of epitaphs, fashioned Let’s say them in Roman fashion, as we would say in Paris’ fashion. Vienne was also the residence of the Prefect of the Rhône fleet, praefectus classis fluminis Rhodani.
Endowed with a bishop at least in 314, it becomes an important religious metropolis. The rogations were introduced by the bishop of Vienne, Saint Mamert in 474, at that time, the rogations took the place, in the calendar, of the Roman feast of robigalia. Until the beginning of XX century, the processions were organized in paths traversing the fields in all Catholic countries.
In 2017, during building construction work, a 7,000 m site was updated, divided between Vienne, Saint-Romain-en-Gal and Sainte-Colombe, including public spaces, luxury houses, boutiques and shops. ‘craftsmen and warehouses of goods, corresponding to an old market place of 4,500 m with a monumental fountain in its center. A first fire would have forced the inhabitants to leave the premises. Abandoned in III century, the site suffers a second fire and turned into a raised granary, eventually becoming a necropolis in the Middle Ages, with sixty burials, military equipment, chain mail, sword are discovered, as well as very many mosaics, and hypocaust, will qualify the site of small Pompeii by journalists.
Vienna, during the Middle Ages, became a city of great importance, near the centers of power, the great currents of trade and was implicated by the great conflicts that shake the great powers. In the High Middle Ages, the Radhanites animated international trade and made Vienna one of their important centers of commerce.
High Middle Ages
In the year 500, Vienna finds itself embroiled in a fratricidal power conflict, Gondebaud instigator of the death of his brothers Godomar and Chilpéric (father of Clotilde), wishes that Godégisile his brother, restores to him the fortified city he occupies in following a plot that the latter had fomented with the support of Clovis and which aimed to eliminate him. Gondebaud came to besiege Vienna and succeeded in seizing it thanks to a stratagem reported to us by Grégoire de Tours: “When food began to be lacking among the common people, Godegisel feared that the famine would extend to him, had the small people expelled from the city. What was done; one expelled, among other things, the craftsman who was responsible for the care of the aqueduct, irritated at having been driven out of the city, he went to Gondebaud, and told him how he could burst into the city by passing through a aqueduct. Guided by the craftsman, the troops enter and seize the city, and Godegisel is killed ”.
The political role of Vienna continued after the end of the Empire: the Bishop of Vienna Avit (490 – 525) who preached a homily at the Catholic baptism of Lenteildis (Lantechild) sister of Clovis, was able to contribute to the conversion of Clotilde (niece of Gondebaud who lived with him), he took part in the conversion of Clovis whom he congratulates on his baptism; he converts Sigismond, son of the king of Burgondie Gondebaud. He promotes the foundation of Saint-Maurice d’Agaune (in Switzerland), he summons in 517 theCouncil of Epaone.
The bishop Pantagathe (died 540) is questor more kings burgondes. The Senate Vienna is mentioned until the VII century. Vienna remains a center of classical education, which earned Bishop Didier (596 – 607) to be called to order by Pope Gregory the Great. Bede (Codex Amiatinus) relates that Benoît Biscop went to Rome five times to buy a considerable number of books in 674, and left his precious manuscripts in temporary storage in Vienna.
Around 730, the city was attacked by the Saracens, who pillaged the Rhône valley. It regains a leading role when the Carolingian Empire breaks up. In 844, Gerard II of Paris (brother of Emperor Lothair I) receives the Duchy of Lyon which includes the county of Vienna and Lyon to ensure the military command and repel the raids of Saracens still present in 842 in the region of Arles. In August 869, on the death of Lothaire II of Lotharingie and following the Treaty of Meerssen which organized his succession, Charles the Bald negotiated with his half-brother Louis II the German and obtained the county of Lyon and that of Vienne. Girart II, who had been appointed regent of the duchy and the county, refused this division and went into rebellion against Charles the Bald who had already taken the county of Paris from him.
From then on the king of West Francia marched rapidly with his army on Lyonwho does not resist, then on Vienna, whose defense is led by Berthe, Girart’s wife. The fortified city resisted for several months, but the troops devastated the countryside. Girart runs up and asks for an honorable capitulation. This request is accepted and Girart then cedes Vienna to Charles the Bald who takes possession of it on Christmas Eve in 870.
A song of gesture composed by Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube entitled ” Girart de Vienne ” relates this conflict in a romantic way in a fight between Roland and Olivier, story which will be taken up by Victor Hugoin his novel entitled La Légende des centuries: Olivier says: “Listen, I have my sister, the beautiful Aude with a white arm, marry the pardieu! I don’t mind, says Roland. And now let’s drink, because the business was hot ”. Charles le Chauve then incorporated the Lyonnais and the Viennese into his kingdom, and in January 871 he appointed Boson (his brother-in-law), governor of Lyonnais and Viennois, a position held until then by Girart.
Taking advantage of the weakening of the imperial power Boson, was elected king of Provence in 879 under the title of Boson V of Provence and established his capital in Vienna. However, he started a war with successive emperors and Vienna was besieged several times. The siege at the end of 880 by the troops of the alliance of the Carolingian kings Charles III the Fat, Louis III of France and Carloman II of France is successfully defended by Ermengarde, the wife of King Boson. After repeated and furious but unnecessary assaults, the three monarchs resolved to turn the siege into a blockade. This blockade lasted until 882, after which the city was forced to open its doors. The troops of Charles III the Fat, newly elected West Germanic Emperor, took the city which was plundered and burned down. Boson will finally be recognized king of Provence in 884.
The January 11, 887he died in Vienne, and was buried in the Saint-Maurice Cathedral. His wife Ermengarde, daughter of Louis II the Younger, was appointed regent of the kingdom of Provence with the help of Richard the Justice, brother of Boson. Louis III the Blind, son of Boson and Ermengarde, was elected and crowned King of Italy on October 5, 900, then Emperor of the Westfrom February 901 to July 905, blinded, he returned to Vienne his capital from where he reigned over the kingdom of Provence until 911. Vienne then remained the capital of Dauphiné, capital of the kingdom of Provence, since 882 capital of kingdom of western Francia, and from 933 until 1032 capital of the kingdom of Arles. The kingdom formed by his father, stretches from the Mediterranean Sea to Franche-Comté, ended up being attached to the Holy Roman Empire in 1032 on the heiress death of Rudolph III but the real leaders remained the archbishops of Vienna.
The importance of the Church, undermined by the Arab invasions and plundering stately, recovered during the IX and X centuries. Bishop Adon (859 – 875) is a great figure of this period: he writes a chronicle, the lives of saints, a martyrology… Domains are returned to the Church, others are given to it, the churches Saint-Pierre and Saint-André-le-Bas are entrusted to canons, then regain their monastic state in the 20th century. At the beginning of the following century, the female monastery of the Saint-André-le-Haut abbey was restored. The present parish church of Saint-Romain-en-Gal was rebuilt in the X century.
Late Middle Ages
There were early water mills for grinding, beating, using the motive force of the waters of rivers. In 1031, King Rudolf III gave three mills located towards the current Place de l’Affuterie to the Abbey of Saint André le Haut, in 1104 is reported the donation of the Turitet mills by Gui de Bourgogne to the priory of Saint Ruf in Saint Martin. Industrial activities are developing: leatherwork, leather trades, forging…
In 1023 by the Treaty of Orbe, the last king of Burgundy Rudolph III, gave Archbishop Burchard II the county of Vienne and the rights attached to it. This act reinforces the temporal power of the bishops of Vienna who remain lords of the city, and who sets it up as ecclesiastical principalities, directly dependent on the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, until 1450, when the city was attached. and the county of Vienne in the Kingdom of France. In October 1111 at the instigation of Pope Paschal II, Archbishop Gui of Burgundy meets in Vienna a council, having for object the excommunication of the emperor Henri V who on April 13, 1111 had forced the pope to grant him the lay investitures.
In 1118, at the death of Pascal II, who had preached the crusade, Gelasius II was elected pope on the sly by a small group of bishop, but this choice did not suit the German Emperor Henry V, who ran to Rome and elects Gregory VIII. Gelase II is driven out of Rome, he excommunicates his rival. In the first days of January 1119, Pope Gelase II held a council in Vienna, then he went to Cluny where he died of pleurisy on January 29, 1119. On February 2, 1119, Gui de Bourgogne, former archbishop of Vienne (1088 to 1119), was elected pope and takes the name of Callistus II (1119- 1124). In June 1120, he casts anathema on the emperor, manages to return to Rome and seizes Gregory VIII, whom he describes as antipopes, and he publicly humiliates him by taking him for a ride in Rome mounted on a camel., face turned towards the tail, covered with a coat of still raw and bloody goat (scapegoat).
Gregory VIII was locked up in a monastery where he died a few years later. Calixte II confirms to the church of Vienne its archiepiscopal rank and its jurisdiction over six suffragan bishoprics, that is to say dependent on Vienne: Geneva, Grenoble, Valence, Die, Viviers and Maurienne. He also gives him that of Primate of the Primates of Gaul, with the primacy over six archbishoprics: Bourges, Bordeaux, Auch, Narbonne, Aix andEmbrun. His rank of archchancellor of the sacred palace of Burgundy is confirmed to him by a gold bull of 1157 from Emperor Frédéric Barberousse. The main arches of the nave of the cathedral bear witness to the power of the archbishop in the first half of the XII century.
The XI and XII centuries are for other religious establishments of the city a prosperous period. The church of Saint-André-le-Bas is redeveloped and provided with vaults; the cloister of the same monastery is rebuilt. At Saint-Pierre, large arcades divide the nave into three aisles; the steeple-porch is high. The priory of Notre-Dame-de-l’Isle, of the congregation of canons of Saint-Ruf, is rebuilt. The wealth of the city is also visible in the decor of the sculpted gallery located on the third level of a house in the rue des Clercs. The Jewish community, gathered around Saint-André-le-Bas, is flourishing.
The XIII century was marked by the personality of Archbishop Jean de Bernin (1217 – 1266). He rebuilt the choir of the cathedral, removed the graves of the kings of Burgundy (King Boson, Ermengarde widow of King Rudolf, and that of Mathilde wife of King Conrad) to build the chapels of Our Lady, Saint-Jean, de Saint Maurice & des Maccabées (destroyed in 1804 and 1805). On Wednesday, April 19, 1251, Pope Innocent IV accompanied the Cardinals and the Roman Curia and the Archbishop elect of Lyon, Philippe I of Savoyformer dean of Vienna came to Vienna, the next day the Pope consecrated the cathedral under the title of Saint Maurice and enriched it with perpetual indulgences. Jean de Bernin had: the Château de la Bâtie, the Hôtel-Dieu du pont sur le Rhône, as well as a chapel surmounted by a cross (overweight caused the fall of a pile of the bridge) to be built. freedoms to the citizens of Vienna who now elect consuls. The chain book which records these freedoms is now kept in the Municipal Archives of Vienna. However, in 1253, John of Bernini legate of Pope Gregory IX, favored discriminatory measures against the inhabitants of the province of Jewish faith.
At this time, another political actor appeared: the chapter of the cathedral, composed of canons, became a separate entity from the archbishopric. He took part in conflicts which also included the Dolphins and the Counts of Savoy. New orders totaled: the Franciscans in Sainte-Colombe at the beginning of XIII century, and the Antonine the doors of Lyon at the end of the same century. In 1274 during the Council of Lyon, Pope Gregory X, went to Vienna and consecratedPierre II de Tarentaise as Archbishop of Lyon (elected pope two years later in 1276 under the name of Innocent V). In 1289 the provincial council of Vienna took place and Archbishop William of Livron imposed the infamous wearing of the rouelle sewn on the clothes of Viennese Jews.
The beginning of the XIV century is marked by the Council of Vienne of 1311 – 1312. The most influential personalities from all over Europe: cardinals and bishops, legates, gathered in Vienna, around Pope Clement V and the King of France Philippe le Bel accompanied by his sons. The assembly proclaims the dissolution of the Order of the Temple and the confiscation of the property of the Templars (decretals: the “Clementines”), these will be the beginnings of the history of the ” Cursed Kings “. The creation of the military order: the militia of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, precursor of the Order of the Temple, was formed in 1118 during the quarrel of the investitures under the benevolent eye of Gui de Bourgogne archbishop of Vienne who was elected pope a few months later, and it is again in Vienna that the order was abrogated by Clement V who had also wanted to be crowned in Vienna like his distant predecessor, Pope Calixte II. But Philippe le Bel had preferred Lyon and the new Pope had complied.
In front of the opulence of Vienne, King Philippe le Bel annexed Sainte-Colombe to his kingdom and had the Tour des Valois built in 1336, which controlled the outlet of the bridge. In 1312, the attachment of Lyon to the kingdom of France was recorded at the Council of Vienne by the acceptance of Archbishop Pierre de Savoie of the Treaty of Vienne.
The dynamism of Vienna marked by the installation of Dominicans and Carmelites (late XIV century) is devastated by the difficulties of the XIV and XV centuries, famine, plague, devastation of the hinterland by bands armies of the Hundred Years’ War, transport of the Dauphiné de Viennois to France on March 30, 1349, by the Treaty of Romans, where the Dauphin Humbert II sold his estates (except Vienna) to the king of France Philippe VI de Valois (The official ceremony takes place in Lyon Place des Jacobins on July 16, 1349). Humbert II then made a distinguished career in northern France. As the king had promised during his stay in Sainte-Colombe, in 1343 by letters patent dated August of the same year, henceforth he and his successors to whom the Dauphiné belonged will be called Dauphin de Viennois.
The city, which still falls under the Holy Roman Empire, is surrounded by the Kingdom of France. Finally, the archbishop recognizes royal authority in 1450 (by the Treaty of Moras), ending the de facto independence of the city. In 1432, Vienna will be personified in a poem of chivalrous gallantry, written by Pierre de La Cépède in the guise of the daughter of the Dauphin de Viennois, who will try to resist the passionate lust of Paris, It is about the “ History of the very valiant knight Paris and of beautiful Vienne ”.
This period is also a period of great economic prosperity for the city. Indeed, the denarius of Saint-Maurice, official currency minted in Vienna, is present from the diocese of Langres to that of Montpellier via those of Geneva and Arles. It is not only made of hard cash, but of a system of accounts based on the Viennese deniers against which the various real currencies are aligned. This power of the currency is explained by a great economic wealth due to a prosperity of the trade.
The city of Vienna has two fairs established in 1416 by Emperor Sigismond during his visit to Vienna, one begins the day after the ascent, the other the day after Saint Andrew’s Day (November 30). In 1486 Charles VIII concedes two other perpetual free fairs: the first which begins on March 15, the second which opens on October 15,. There is also that of the Dauphin which begins on November 11 (Saint-Martin Fair), and that of the Archbishop in June.
The Viennese trade balance appears to be in large surplus. The river in this dynamism also plays a preponderant role. The city receives through the Rhône, wood and stone, fish from the Saône, and loads of canvas, Burgundy millstones, and above all Camargue salt which it redistributes thanks to its attic in the Bas Dauphiné. It concentrates and resells, to the southerners of wheat (an indication of the importance of this traffic, the Vienna setier is equivalent to the fat summée of Avignon), sail trees (masts) and long antennas (yards) coming from of the forests of Pilat. The Viennese boatmen take care of the goods in their fir tree, and in the spades the pilgrims on their way to Saint-Gilles, Arles or Saint-Jacques; the latter have made a stopover in the Civitas Sancta to venerate the treasures of its relics and contemplate the places of its wonders.
On June 18, 1403, a paper mill was established on the Gère river, then two others in 1438 and in 1447, the very rapid growth of printing caused an explosion in production, because the proximity of Lyon, true capital of printing with Paris and Venice, consume an enormous quantity of paper, and that that produced in Vienna is of excellent quality. From 1478 Johannes Solidi (Basel) Typographical printer introduced printing in Vienna, he was followed in 1481 by Eberhardt Frommolt (Basel), and Pierre Schenck in 1483, they produced Incunabula.
The use of the waters of the Gère for artisanal activities has been documented since Antiquity. In the Middle Ages, many mills were operated for the manufacture of paper, swifts actuated by the motive action of water were used to beat iron and Vienna became a center for the manufacture of renowned swords. In the Chanson de Roland (v. 997), after having laced the good helmets of Saragossa over their heads, the pagans girdle “the hopes of the Vianeis steel”. – In Girart de Viane (cf. Hist. Litt. De la France, t. XXII, p. 457), we look for Olivier, whose weapon was broken by Durandal, another good blade; Joachim, the good Jew, will run to his stall and returning quickly brought him another: Hauteclaire.
According to historian Claude Charvet, a sword factory already existed in 1316 (a mill rented from Etienne de l’Oeuvre). This artisanal district takes off again with the installation by the Dauphin Louis, future King Louis XI, of an arms factory. According to his will, on January 13, 1452 Huguet de Montaigu (Angers) Sommelier of arms (officer of the King’s household who is in charge of the weapons proper to the King or the Princes), settled at the Motte mill, to forge sword blades and armor (faulx and harness). The Dauphin Charleshad by letters patent, given in Vienne on February 9, 1420, instituted the first two fairs of Lyon, and it is also in this city, that the blades of swords and daggers will be sold. The forges will be in activity along the banks of the Gère, and the excellent reputation of the tempering of its blades will lead to the swords being designated by the name of the city: ” VIENNE “.
On August 5, 1524 by letters patent King Francis I gives the Viennese François Moleyron the prestigious privilege status Master ordinary forger of swords,and imposes on him a specific trademark (a stick cut by three crossbars that unite two circles) “Let us wish and we plead,” declares the king, “that no one else can forge him to the said mark; and so that he may be more curious and sorrowful about the good and loyal doing and exercising the said art and skill of forging hopes, we have granted him and are granting him with our special grace… that he be quicte and exempt, his life lasting from all aydes, sizes, impositions, loans and other unspecified subsidies ” According to the legend, the sword of the knight Bayard, would have been dipped in the handle.
In 1534 François Rabelais in his novel entitled: Gargantuabook 1chapter 46 writes: “So said Grandgousier (to Toucquedillon), return to your king, and God be with you. Then gave him a beautiful sword of Vienna, with the golden scabbard made with beautiful silversmith’s vignettes…, honorable present ». In 1553, Antoine Chastel (Pierre Antoine Chataldo), forger of swords, exploited in Pont Evéque the martinet of the Work, which belonged to Guy de Maugiron. His son Laurent de Maugiron, was close to King François I, he made a career in the arms as captain of the royal army in the wars against theSpain, he was also lieutenant-general of the Dauphiné and governor of Vienna. The Archbishop of Vienna Charles de Marillac, for a time, was a favorite of most intimate of King François I, who was a member of the Privy Council. The brotherhood of swordmakers will have Saint Adrian as its patron.
Modern times, from the Renaissance to the eighteenth century
The end of the XV century and the first half of the XVI century were marked by a revival of the city, many mansions were built, the cathedral was completed, adjustments are made to the Church of St. Peter.
On November 30, 1512, the consuls brought in a saltpeter (manufacturer of explosive powder). By letter dated January 8, 1537, the king François I door commission to the city of Vienna, to provide black powder. On April 3, 1538, the king again claimed sixty quintals of saltpeter from the city. On August 22, 1544, the consuls delivered 10,659 pounds (4.8 t) of saltpeter on behalf of the king. King Henry II sent a letter to the consuls on October 5, 1557 for the manufacture of saltpeter in the city. On September 11, 1581, 11,800 pounds (5.3 t) of gunpowder were brought to Lyon.
Trade is booming, and many artifices are being built on the Gère: wheat mills, swifts to shape copper and beat iron, hemp beater, sheet fuller…
In September 1515, 5 paper mills were counted, with a total of 18 wheels, and in 1518, a new device with 2 wheels was built. These paper factories constitute the first industrialization as the transformation process is very elaborate and standardized and the quantities of production are important.
Renaissance Humanism is preponderant in Vienna, with the presence of the doctor and proofreader Michel Servet: discovery of the small circulation of (pulmonary) blood and questioning of the meaning of the sacred texts. Jules Michelet, one of the most eminent historians of the XIX century wrote: “What is the XVI century the dominant? The discovery of the tree of life, of the great human mystery. It opens by Servet, which finds the pulmonary circulation… Thus rises on its three foundations the colossal tower of the Renaissance, by Copernicus, Paracelsus and Servet. How can we be surprised at the immense joy of the one who is the first to experience the grandeur of movement? ”. The intertextuality is blood circulation, sense of movement, the flow of ideas by printing.
Following the first workers’ strike recorded in history: Le ” grand tric ” on April 25, 1539, prestigious Lyon printers, disseminators of knowledge, settled in Vienna. This was the case of Gaspard Trechsel (employer of Servet in Lyon), Balthazar Arnoullet (in 1551), Guillaume Guéroult, Macé (Mathias) Bonhomme (in 1541). All these printers as well as Michel Servet were linked to the whole intellectual and humanist milieu of the Renaissance. The works of Mathias Bonhomme (printer in 1555 of the first edition of the prophecies of Nostradamus) are also rich in teaching, because besides allowing us to know that Pierre Coustau lawyer and jurist lived for a time in Vienna and that he was at the origin of an innovation compared to the “ Alciatic ” prototype in joining law and poetry.
Eminent thinkers, circulating on the Rhone stop in Vienna like Thomas Platter the Old, as well as Nostradamus who in his Treaty of fardemens et jams, about the celebrities he was honored to have met there: “In Vienna, I saw no personages worthy of an extra collaudation; one of whom was Hieronymus, a man worthy of praise, and Franciscus Marins, a young man of good faith expectation. Before us, we have only Francisons Valeriola for his singular humanity, for his prompt knowledge and tenacious memory… I do not know if the sun, thirty leagues around, sees a man more full of knowledge than him ”. Jean Poyet, who also printed Les Prophéties de Nostradamus in Lyon, set up his studio in Vienna in 1612.
In 1555, a velvet manufacturer from Lyon set up four velvet and taffeta looms in Vienna. A bourgeois of Saint Chamond, Jean Lescot signed on December 8, 1557 an agreement with the consuls so that they could set up three silk mills, and in exchange he undertook to employ 600 poor people of the city, the mills ceased their activity in the end of the year 1565. The Wars of Religion struck the city twice in 1562 and in 1567 putting an end to this renewed dynamism.
Protestant troops of Baron des Adrets take Vienna. Significant damage is caused to religious buildings. Saint Maurice cathedral was one of the most abused, its roof covered with lead was dismantled and melted down, part of its library was looted (many precious books had been scattered at the Jesuit college in Tournon), its archives, its bells, the gilded bronze statue of Saint Maurice which was between the two bell towers was thrown down. The western facade of the cathedral still bears traces of it: the saints and prophets who adorned the niches are destroyed with the exception of one figure in the right portal, only the head of which has disappeared. Extraordinary taxes hit the city and push it to melt down part of the ecclesiastical treasures. The consuls took advantage of this period of questioning of the power of the Church to transfer their common house, from the Maison de la Chaîne, which they had acquired in 1470, to the Palais des Canaux, property of the chapter of Saint-Maurice.
The power of the consuls strengthens gradually: they promote the creation of the college entrusted to the Jesuits at the beginning of the XVII century. They gradually obtain the supervision of the city’s hospitals. When the bridge over the Rhône collapsed in 1651, they chose not to rebuild it, depriving both banks of a permanent axis for more than 150 years. At the end of the XVIII century, they are also interested in urban planning and fountains.
The Catholic reform launched by the Council of Trent (1545-1563) marks the city. The devastated cathedral was refurbished by the five successive archbishops of the Villars family (1576-1693). It was around 1740 that Michelangelo Slodtz sculpted a new high altar and a tomb for two archbishops of Vienna. The ladies of the convent of Saint-André-le-Haut inaugurated a new cloister in 1623 and took the vow of closure. The college church, dedicated to St. Louis, has retained much of its decoration of the XVIII century, consistent with the spirit of Trent. The Benedictine ladies of Sainte-Colombe are reformed by their attachment to the congregation ofsaint Maur. The convent of the Cordeliers and that of the Order of the Visitation of the same village are rebuilt and witness of religious architecture of the XVII and XVIII centuries. However, this revival did not affect the once most powerful abbeys: Saint-André-le-Bas was suppressed in 1765. The monks of Saint-Pierre relax their rule and become canons in 1622, before merging with the abbey of Saint-Chef in 1781.
The manufacture of swords became flourishing in the sixteenth century, it lasted the XVII century as shown by the general view of Vienna around 1680 engraved by Merian young (Basel) or it is inscribed: “The e- swifts or is forged the blades of swords ”, then gradually disappeared: in 1705 there were only three gunsmiths, four fenders and a spur driver.
In 1726, François de Blumenstein created a silver and lead foundry to exploit the surrounding deposits. Likewise in 1721, the first woolen cloth factory was established in the same valley. The XVIII century and saw the beginning of industrialization of the city.
By a royal edict of September 1772, Louis XV, establishes the office of Lieutenant of the Provost General of the constabulary (company of Gendarmerie), of the department of Dauphiné at the residence of Vienne.
The Revolution in Vienna accelerates the changes that were emerging in the XVIII century. Municipal authority is confirmed. Grenoble, already seat of the parliament of the Dauphiné since the XIV century, became prefecture of the Isère department at the expense of Vienna who wanted to be either created the department of Vienna manages or be convened at the department of Lyon, as the place where she has the greatest facilities to correspond and the strongest reasons to bind with regard to her business.
The departmental division separates the two banks of the Rhône. The general council of the town in an address to the National Convention of 18 Messidor Year III, vehemently protested against the concentration in Grenoble of all public life and all administrative machinery: “Citizen representatives, why our superb establishments would be they destroyed? Is it to raise others within Grenoble?… Will our library, our monuments be overthrown or removed to enrich our neighbors with our remains? Vienne located at the confluence of a large river, crossed by a river whose waters are also suitable for dyeing and tempering steels,
Vienna, finally which supplied ten thousand pieces of fabric of thirty ells to the armies of the Republic, leathers, coppers, weapons during the law of the Maximum, which makes generous efforts to extract metals from lead mines and which are in operation. It is in vain that we exaggerate the advantages of our commerce, the fertility of our territory; these benefits must be encouraged, not destroyed. Without instruction, without court of justice, without administrative body, what resources can trade and an active population have? It would be to return man to the state of nature and, far from improving our lot through the effect of a great and sublime revolution, we would have shared the fatigue without tasting the advantages… ”. From 4 Brumaire, the general council of the municipality of Vienne again sent a letter to the new National Assembly, taking up previous grievances, and recalling that according to the[linear average league = 2,566 toises])) (5 km).
The weight of the Church on the city continues to shrink. The monasteries are suppressed. The archbishopric is also, despite the role of Archbishop Lefranc de Pompignan in the Constituent Assembly. He first presided over the assembly of the three orders of the Dauphiné, before training in the Estates General of 1789. In Vienna, town planning reflects this change; the archiepiscopal palace as well as the cloisters of the cathedral were destroyed to open a square and new streets The convents were sold as national property: churches and buildings were divided into apartments (the Antonines, the Carmelites, the Dames de Sainte-Colombe, Saint -André-le-Bas, Saint-André-le-Haut…) or reused by the municipality (Notre-Dame-de-la-Vie,. Wealth of Viennese heritage is relocated to Grenoble (antiques, books, archives, etc.).
The revolutionary spirit is good, the Temple of Reason has succeeded the others, the trees of liberty flourish in all the districts, and the citizens are proud of the name of Patriotic Commune, which the convention gave it. Again, a manufacture of saber blades and bayonets is set up along the river manages, and a letter from the Committee of Public Safety of September 18, 1793, warned the municipal officers of the arrival of a commissioner, having for mission to engage the workers who make saber blades for the cavalry. The municipal body responds, saying he formerly existed in Vienna, a factory sword blades renowned for the excellence of his caliber, and that there was also a factory of marine anchors, which ceased following the collapse of the path which led to the Rhône or have embarked them for the ports of the Mediterranean, and even of the Ocean by the Languedoc canal.
The representatives of the people on mission: Jean-Marie Collot d’Herbois, Albitte and Fouché went to Vienna and obtained from Blumenstein, the lead mine concessionaire, which he delivered to the war department 1200 quintals of lead per year. Sheets manufactures designing parts of the national colors blue, sky blue, scarlet dragon green and white, to dress the brothers of revolutionary weapons.
Citizen Lara, saltpeter who owns two workshops in Vienna, is commissioned by the Executive Council for the extraction of gunpowder. He offers to put the greatest zeal and accuracy to the duties entrusted to him. On 21 Floréal 1794 its workshops will be inspected by the District Agent, and on this date 140 quintals (14 t) of saltpeter will have already been delivered.
The XIX century to today
The mayor Teyssière Miremont (from 1816 to 1830), the former emigre supports the restoration, opens the XIX century Vienna. He built a new grain hall in 1823 on land belonging to the archbishopric before the Revolution. The Chevalier de Miremont is putting a portion of the Roman aqueduct back into service for the city’s water supply. A new bridge was inaugurated in 1829. He is also building new slaughterhouses. A few years later, several Viennese buildings were included on the first list of historical monuments established by Prosper Mérimée in 1840.
In 1840 with his wife Jeanne, and their grandson Michel Josserand, Laurent Mourguet puppeteer ” Guignol ” settled in rue des serruriers (rue Joseph Brenier), he founded several theaters and created the character of Baron de Blumenstein, inspired by of the Viennese industrialist who operates the silver lead mines.
Industrial production grows in the XIX century. Vienna’s specialization in the treatment of wool was confirmed during the same period. Many companies are created in the Gère valleywhich constitutes an urban ensemble revealing this activity: factories and workers’ housing are spread out along the river, punctuated by the vertical rhythm of the brick chimneys. In 1846, 50,000 pieces of twenty meters of cloth were produced by more than 200 manufacturers and fabricators and in 1881 more than 500,000 meters of fabric. This enormous prosperity was the consequence of the opening of the railway line from Paris to the Mediterranean, of the Universal Exhibition of 1855, where Vienna obtained numerous medals. Textiles are not the only Viennese industry: 8,000 to 9,000 skins are tanned in a dozen workshops in 1730 (the many vats will give the district the name: Cuvière), and two in 1839, although this activity is decreasing the reputation of “Gris frères, which developed a process for welding cast iron, supplied the entire installation of the Cie des Aciéries de Saint-Étienne.
Finally, the zinc mines of La Poype which seem to justify the broadest ambitions. Among the other industries, alongside a few metal construction workshops which supplied machines for stationery, cloths and silks, there are forges, numerous flour mills, a saltpêtrière, several taillanderies, two chapelleries, one of which is mechanical, the Pellet Ainé & fils shoe factoryfounded in 1860, several paper mills, a cardboard factory, a silk factory, a soap and candle factory (more than 2,000 tons per year), a factory for industrial fats and oils, a pasta factory, a black bottle glass factory. activity from 1792 until 1879 (“Porte d’Avignon” located on part of the old Saint Pierre Abbey). Around 1827 the Windeck brewery was founded, which in 1855 produced 5,000 hectoliters, and in 1875 it produced 20,000 hectoliters of beer. The Brasserie Marque installed in 1842 on the banks of the Rhône. Almost all of these activities are concentrated in the Gère valley. Out of 2 km, it crosses 7 roadblocks and drives 88 wheels. 2 liqueur distillers are also present: Jh.Ponthon and, in 1821 Galland Neveu (Gold medal in Paris in 1889 at the Universal Exhibition).
A few industrial castles also remain in Vienna and its surroundings. The industry touches other districts: in Estressin, a lime kiln established in 1861. In 1830 is produced in Pont-Évêque630 tons of refined copper, 56 tons of lead, there were two blast furnaces, a gold and silver foundry, six secondary smelters, the total production rose to 23,000 tons for a workforce of 1000 workers and a force 680 horsepower motor. There was a tile factory on the banks of the Rhone north of Vienne, the “Establishments reunited Pascal-Valluit” constitute the highest concentration of workers in Vienne, employing up to two thousand workers. It is the best example of paternalism in the city. The southern districts are also marked by the cloth industry, in a less dense way. The right bank of the Rhône is set back: Saint-Romain-en-Gal remains a still rural village, while Sainte-Colombe sees the establishment of a few textile and mechanical industries.
The large working population plays an active role in the political life of the city (7000 workers for a population of less than 20,000 inhabitants). It is at the heart of the social struggles of the XIX century and the XX century, particularly in 1848 and under the Third Republic. In 1844, there was a consultation between the militants of a communist movement in search of a truly representative monarchy, the Icarians of Lyon and Vienna. Realizing that they could not fully realize their ambitions, they set out to conquer the western United States nicknamed Icaria and which was located in Texas, the last departure of the Viennese utopian adventurers ended in 1855.
Social works are being developed to improve the living conditions of workers and their families: Maternal Maturity (1894), infant hygiene service, holiday camps (1925), Family allowance fund, Viennese public housing office in cheap (1919), allotment gardens… This strong working population brought to power radical and socialist mayors, such as Camille Jouffray (from 1889 to 1899) or Joseph Brenier (from 1909 to 1919).
In 1837, in his memoirs of a tourist, the Grenoblois Henry Beyle (Stendhal), left his impressions of his visit to Vienna: “Towards the middle of the city, the manages, a small river that descends from a high valley, and turns, the wheels of a number of factories and factories of sheets, comes to throw itself in the Rhône ”. In 1866, the industrial development of Vienna was so remarkable that one of Joanne’s Travel Guides, did not hesitate to write in his note on Vienna: “Vienna is a little French Manchester”.
In 1887, the elements with religious connotation are removed from the arms of the city which become: of gold with a tree torn vertically with a silver sign fluttering and debruising on the trunk of the tree and bearing these three words “Vienna urbs senatoria ”(“ Vienna, senatorial city ”). The chalice and the host which figured in the branches of the tree as well as the motto “Vienna civitas sancta” (“Vienna, holy city”) disappear.
Another emblem of the economic success of the city is the Town Hall: its facade was built during the Second Empire. It complements the core consisting of a mansion of the XVII century bought by the consuls in 1771. The Chamber of Commerce built on the banks of the Rhône was inaugurated in 1938.
The First World War breathed new life into the Viennese industry, which supplied the army with troop cloth. In 1917 the Henri Vibert-Truchon & Cie factory, produced stores with 5 cartridges for firearm ammunition (Berthier rifles), subsequently, the factory was transformed into a factory for innovative sewing machines (with retractable head).): hacheveteco. However, from the 1920s, the first difficulties were felt. Closures occur after World War II and until 1995(closing of the last spinning mill). During this period, however, the city continued to attract a large workforce: Armenians fleeing persecution at the end of the Ottoman Empire, Italians, Spaniards, Portuguese, then North Africans and Turks, they give the city a cosmopolitan character.
Vienne is best known for its annual jazz festival in July (Jazz à Vienne), created since 1981 (in 1980, there was only one night of the blues), it takes place in the majestic setting of the ancient theater whose the bleachers dominate the city and offer a sublime view of its river, the Rhône.
Vienne is an important stopover for gourmets with its famous Michelin-starred restaurant “the Pyramid “. In addition, the slopes facing Vienna, ideally sunny, perpetuate the wine reputation of the city. The coasts-roasts and condrieux of today, and more recently the vineyards of the Coteaux de Seyssuel, take over from the wines of Antiquity: “Taburnum, Sotanum, Ellincum”, including the Viennese poissés of the Vitis allobrogica grape (is at the origin of the Serine family: Syrah, Viognier), wines reputed to be therapeutic, for their medicinal virtues which help digestion and cleanse, praised byPliny the Elder, by Martial, Celsus, Columella, Plutarch, although they are probably different from a taste point of view.
Rich in exceptional historical remains, Vienne has been included in the national network of Cities and Countries of Art and History. Around 1603, William Shakespeare made camp the actions of his comedies entitled: Measure for measure in Vienne and All’s well that ends well in Roussillon.
The museums of the city of Vienne: Museum of Fine Arts and Archeology, Saint-Pierre archaeological museum, Saint-André-le-Bas cloister museum and Museum of the textile industry
The Temple of Augustus and Livia, listed as a Historic Monument in 1840.
The Jardin de Cybèle is an archaeological garden comprising arcades of the forum, municipal assembly hall, houses and terraces.
The ancient theater of Vienna, dating from the I century AD, it is now widely open to the city, its bleachers could accommodate up to 13,000 people. Every summer, it is the site of the famous Jazz à Vienne festival.
The ancient Odeon.
The Pyramid (monumental obelisk of the Roman circus).
The archaeological site of Vienne – Saint-Romain-en-Gal.
The Saint-Maurice cathedral is a primate whose construction started at the beginning of the XII century and ended in the early XVI century. Classified as a historical monument in 1840.
The Abbey of Saint-Pierre Vienna V - VI century, current archaeological museum St. Peter, founded in the VI century by Léonien Autun and the Duke Ansemund.
The castle Built on Mount Solomon (XIII century)
The abbey of Saint-Andre-le-Bas of Vienna, the church and cloister of Saint-André-le-Bas, they were part of this ancient abbey founded in the VI century; The church was classified as a historical monument in 1840 and the cloister in 1954.
The abbey of Saint-Andre-le-Haut in Vienna, intramural monastery of nuns, who, according to tradition, was founded in the VI century by Léonien Autun and the Duke Ansemund for Remila, the daughter of the latest. Sold as national property during the Revolution, it currently remains the main courtyard (known as the Ambulance course, because the convent served as a hospital during the revolution, the cloister and the church disused and transformed into dwellings. Historical monuments since 1998.
The old town with its mansions, its Romanesque house, medieval facades, many old doors and several courses at the gallery XVI century.
The Saint-Théodore chapel in Vienne, listed as a historical monument in 1927.
The Palace of Vienna archbishops: the episcopal palace was destroyed in the early XIX century; there are vestiges of it in the Round Table school.
XVI to the XIX century
The church of Saint-André-le-Haut, former Saint-Louis chapel of the Jesuit college (today the Ponsard college) – note that this church did not take the name Saint-André-le-Haut until the 19th century after the disappearance of the eponymous monastery.
The women and the old abbey church Saint-André-le-Haut (VI - XVIII century).
The butchers Halle (XVI century): former macel (macellum, μάκελλον, Maisel, mazel) vaulted market of the Jewish community, located in the ancient village of the Hebrews, now a contemporary art center.
Mont Pipet and the chapel of Notre-Dame de Pipet: very beautiful viewpoint over the city (see photos in the gallery).
The Municipal Theater of Vienna with its room of the XVIII century.
The valley Manages, site of the textile industry in the city during the XIX and much of the XX century.
XX to XXI century
Hospital Lucien Hussel, “Heritage XX century” Isère.
The Villa Vaganay is registered as historical monuments; it is also labeled “Heritage XX century” Isère.
Museum of Fine Arts and Archeology
Saint-André-le-Bas cloister museum
Saint-Pierre Archaeological Museum
Contemporary art center La Halle des bouchers
The Tourist Office of Vienne and the Viennese Country obtained the “Qualité Tourisme” mark in 2013
Events and festivities
June-July: Jazz à Vienne: annual festival at the beginning of summer for two weeks in the Roman theater. Festival which brings together international jazz stars. It remains the biggest jazz festival in France in the summer just like Montreux or the North Sea Jazz Festival. Every evening, concerts take place at the ancient theater, the largest Roman theater in Europe. During the day, other (free) concerts take place in various places in the Viennese country, including the Garden of Cybele in Vienna.
July: Les Authentiks Festival, since 2002, with an evening of concerts of contemporary music.
September: European Heritage Days.
October: Vienna Fair.
November: Blood Ink Festival.
December: Christmas market.